Taylor and Francis Group is part of the Academic Publishing Division of Informa PLC

This site is operated by a business or businesses owned by Informa PLC and all copyright resides with them. Informa PLC's registered office is 5 Howick Place, London SW1P 1WG. Registered in England and Wales. Number 3099067.

Informa

Key Chapter Themes

Click on the tabs below to view the content for each chapter.

Chapter 1

The causes of crime and deviancy

This chapter discusses the key theories that offer explanations of criminal behaviour. Specifically it examines:

  • Classicist criminology
  • Positivist criminology
  • Biological explanations of crime
  • Psychological explanations of crime
  • Crime and its social setting
  • The state and criminality
  • Conservative and new right criminology
  • Feminist criminologies
  • Criminology in the postmodern age
  • Conclusion
  • Further reading
  • Key events

Chapter 2

Crime and society

This chapter considers the measurement of crime, white-collar and corporate crime and crime prevention and community safety. Specifically it examines:

  • The strengths and weaknesses of official crime statistics
  • Victimization and self-report studies
  • The nature of white-collar and corporate crime
  • The regulation of white-collar and corporate crime
  • Explanations of white-collar and corporate crime
  • Situational and social methods of crime prevention
  • The principles and practice of community safety
  • Conclusion
  • Further reading
  • Key events

Chapter 3

The criminal justice system – an overview

This chapter provides an overview of the operations of the criminal justice system and  considers some key aspects of post-1997 criminal justice policy. Specifically it examines:

  • The role of the criminal justice system
  • The operations of the police service
  • The operations of the Crown Prosecution Service
  • The operations of the National Probation Service
  • The operations of the criminal courts
  • The operations of the Prison Service
  • The operations of the National Offender Management Service
  • The operations of the Parole Board for England and Wales
  • The youth justice system
  • Joined-up government and the criminal justice system
  • Re-balancing the criminal justice system in favour of victims of crime
  • Tackling the fear of crime: anti-social behaviour
  • Conclusion
  • Further reading
  • Key events

Chapter 4

The police service

This chapter examines the extent to which contemporary factors have eroded the historic underpinnings of the principle of policing by consent. Specifically it examines:

  • The construction of policing by consent in the nineteenth century
  • Organized crime and policing
  • Changes affecting the structure, control and accountability of policing after 1945
  • Police methods: the policing of local communities
  • Police powers
  • Police weaponry
  • Technology and policing
  • Plural policing
  • Conclusion
  • Further reading
  • Key events

Chapter 5

The prosecution process

This chapter is concerned with the various stages that are involved in bringing offenders to justice. Specifically it examines:

  • Arrest
  • Summary justice
  • The prosecution of offenders
  • Legal aid
  • Trial by jury
  • Miscarriages of justice
  • Discretion in the prosecution process
  • Conclusion
  • Further reading
  • Key events

Chapter 6

The judiciary

This chapter is concerned with the work of the courts in England and Wales. Specifically it examines:

  • The structure and organization of the courts in England and Wales
  • The Scottish and Northern Irish judicial systems
  • The composition of the legal profession
  • The judiciary and the state
  • The social composition of the judiciary and reforms to the judicial appointments procedure in England and Wales
  • The judiciary and law-making
  • Human rights and the judiciary
  • The control and accountability of the judiciary
  • Conclusion
  • Further reading
  • Key events

Chapter 7

Sentencing and punishment

This chapter is concerned with the diverse aims of punishment and contemporary trends affecting the sentencing of offenders in England and Wales. Specifically it examines:

  • The aims and rationale of punishment
  • Reductivism
  • Retributivism
  • Restorative justice
  • Sociological perspectives regarding punishment
  • Contemporary sentencing trends in England and Wales
  • The 2010 Coalition government and sentencing reforms
  • Conclusion
  • Further reading
  • Key events

Chapter 8

Prison and its alternatives

This chapter discusses the rationale of custodial sentences and the operation of community-based penalties. Specifically it examines:

  • The historical development of prisons in England and Wales
  • The rise and fall of the rehabilitative ideal
  • The psychological impact of imprisonment on offenders
  • The prison environment and the rehabilitation of offenders
  • The maintenance of order within prisons
  • Women in custody
  • The development and contemporary operations of community penalties
  • The role and development of the National Probation Service
  • The relationship of the prison and probation services
  • The National Offender Management Service
  • Tackling recidivism
  • The policies of the 2010 Coalition government regarding prisons and community penalties
  • Conclusion
  • Further reading
  • Key events

Chapter 9

The juvenile justice system

This chapter considers the way in which the juvenile justice system has developed and its contemporary operations. Specifically it examines:

  • The historical development of the juvenile justice system in England and Wales
  • Reforms to the juvenile justice system 1969–97
  • Problems affecting the youth justice system in the late 1990s
  • The 1998 Crime and Disorder Act
  • The 1999 Youth Justice and Criminal Evidence Act
  • Assessment of reforms to the juvenile justice system 1997–2010
  • Tackling the roots of juvenile criminality
  • Reforms of the 2010 Coalition government effecting juvenile crime
  • Conclusion
  • Further reading
  • Key events

Chapter 10

Diversity and the criminal justice system

This chapter examines the manner in which the criminal justice system has adapted to the diversity agenda. Specifically it examines:

  • The 1981 Scarman Report and its implementation
  • Police–public relations 1981–99
  • The response of other criminal justice agencies to racism before 1999
  • The Stephen Lawrence murder (1993) and the Macpherson Report (1999)
  • Responses of the police service and other criminal justice agencies to the Macpherson Report after 1999
  • The contemporary agenda to tackle racism within the criminal justice system
  • Gender discrimination in the criminal justice system
  • Reforms to tackle gender discrimination within the criminal justice system
  • Class discrimination in the criminal justice system
  • Conclusion
  • Further reading
  • Key events

Chapter 11

The global dimension of criminal justice policy

This chapter discusses the impact that contemporary manifestations of crime have made to the coordination and harmonization of criminal justice policy within the European Union. Specifically it examines

  • The growth of cross-border crime within the EU, especially serious organized crime and terrorism
  • Initiatives developed within the EU to counter organized crime and terrorism
  • The Schengen initiatives
  • The creation and future development of Europol
  • Judicial cooperation within the EU
  • Eurojust
  • The European Arrest Warrant
  • The Schengen initiatives
  • Impediments to the enhanced harmonization of EU criminal justice policies
  • Conclusion
  • Further reading
  • Key events

Chapter 12

The shape of things to come?

This chapter considers the future landscape of criminal justice policy in England and Wales in an era of financial austerity imposed by the 2010 Coalition government. Specifically it examines:

  • The financial context within which the criminal justice system will operate after 2010
  • Financial savings on the criminal justice workforce
  • Enhanced efficiency and value for money by criminal justice agencies
  • Changes to the delivery of criminal justice services
  • Reforms to the financing of the criminal justice system
  • The ‘Big Society’ and the future provision of criminal justice policy
  • Conclusion
  • Further reading
  • Key events