An Introduction to Language and Intercultural Communication

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Chapter 1

By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. define intercultural communication, interpersonal communication, and cross-cultural communication
  2. identify and describe seven imperatives for studying language and intercultural communication today
  3. explain how studying language and intercultural communication can lead to increased self-awareness and understanding of people who have a different linguistic and cultural background
  4. describe the characteristics of an ethical intercultural communicator.
  • Brannigan, M. (2004) Ethics and CultureM, New York: McGraw-Hill.

    This text explores the rich ethical traditions of the West and the East.

  • Hall, B.J. (2005) Among Cultures: The Challenge of Communication, 2nd edn, Belmont, CA: Thomson Wadsworth.

    This undergraduate text includes a chapter devoted to ethics. The author also discusses the importance and benefits of studying intercultural communication.

  • Martin, J.N., Nakayama, T.K. and Flores, L.A. (eds) (2002) Readings in Intercultural Communication: Experiences and Contexts, 2nd edn, Boston: McGraw-Hill.

    This undergraduate reader includes four chapters on ethics and intercultural communication.

  • Smith, H. (2009) The World´s Religions, New York: HarperOne.

    This book explores the essential elements and teachings of the world´s predominant faiths, including Hinduism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Judaism, Christianity, Islam and the native traditions of Australia, Africa, Oceania and the Americas.

  • Sorrells, K. (2013) Intercultural Communication: Globalization and Social Justice, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    Following a social justice approach, this text examines intercultural communication within the geopolitical, economic and cultural context of globalization, and offers a dynamic and complex understanding of culture to help address challenges in modern life (e.g. discrimination, racial profiling, ethnic conflict, wealth disparities).

  • A World of Differences: Understanding Cross-Cultural Communication (1997)Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Media Corp. (30 minutes)

    This video explores fourteen different ways (verbal and nonverbal) that two individuals from different cultural backgrounds can fail to understand each other. Some of the misunderstandings are due to language and translation problems; others involve subtle differences in etiquette, use of personal space, gestures, values, norms, rituals, expectations, and other cultural variations. The film provides a good introduction to core elements in intercultural communication.

  • Better Together than A-p-a-r-t: Intercultural Communication: An Overview (1996) Newtonville, MA, USA: Intercultural Resource Corp. (61 minutes).

    In a presentation that is both scholarly and entertaining, Milton Bennett, an American interculturalist, outlines core concepts in intercultural communication. Topics include: acculturation, stages of ethnocentrism, cultural values, cultural variation, verbal and nonverbal communication, styles of thinking, intercultural competence, and stereotyping.

  • Globalization: what does it really mean? (5:21 minutes)(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LtmvksvSvtc)

    Globalization impacts everyone. It affects the food we eat, the vehicles we drive and the electronic devices we use. In this documentary, which is produced by Auburn University, USA, people of different age groups, races, and financial backgrounds are interviewed about globalization.

  • Intercultural Communication Adventure with Little Pilot (1:56 minutes) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PSt_op3fQck)

    In this video, Dr. Deborah Swallow discusses the elements in effective intercultural communication and explains why diversity issues are important.

  • ‘Internationalization at home’ (IaH) (3:15 minutes) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GZSwGU_7PZ0)

    The implementation of the European Higher Education Area reform brings great challenges and opportunities for European universities. While most institutions focus on increasing the number of education abroad programs (e.g., ERASMUS), others promote on-site ‘Internationalization at Home’ (IaH) initiatives (e.g., intercultural communication courses for students on the home campus).

 

Chapter 2

By the end of this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. identify and describe the early roots of the study of language and intercultural communication
  2. explain how this field of study is both multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary
  3. identify the primary disciplines and subdisciplines involved in language and inter- cultural communication research and practice
  4. describe historical approaches in the study of language and intercultural communi- cation in different parts of the world
  5. describe how different conceptualizations of culture have influenced research and practice in this field of inquiry
  6. explain the principles of linguistic relativity and linguistic determinism
  7. identify and describe three of the most common approaches in intercultural com- munication research
  8. explain the strengths and weaknesses of the various approaches to the study of language and intercultural communication
  9. identify key professional organizations and journals devoted to the study of lan- guage and intercultural communication.
  • Leeds-Hurwitz, W. (2011) ‘Writing the intellectual history of intercultural communication’, in T.K. Nakayama and R.T. Halualani (eds) Handbook of Critical Intercultural Communication, Malden, MA: Blackwell, pp. 262–81.

    In this historical review, the author interrogates core assumptions that have guided intercultural research.

  • Martin, J. N., Nakayama, T. K. and Carbaugh, D. (2012) ‘The history and development of the study of intercultural communication and applied linguistics’, in J. Jackson (ed.) The Routledge Handbook of Language and Intercultural Communication, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 17–34.

    Drawing on their training in different research paradigms (functionalist/post-positivist, interpretive, critical), the authors survey the major strands of research that have influ- enced contemporary language and intercultural communication studies.

  • Monaghan, L. (2012) ‘Perspectives on intercultural discourse and communication’, in C.B. Paulston, S.F. Kiesling and E.S. Rangel (eds) The Handbook of Intercultural Discourse and Communication, Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell, pp. 19–36.

    This historical review examines the impact of anthropology, linguistics, intercultural communication, and discourse analysis on research and practice in intercultural discourse and communication.

  • Piller, I. (2007) ‘Linguistics and intercultural communication’, Language and Linguistic Compass, 1(3): 208–26.

    This article highlights several key contributions of linguistics to the study of intercultural communication.

  • Zhu Hua (2011) ‘Introduction: Themes and issues in the study of language and intercultural communication’, in Zhu Hua (ed.) The Language and Intercultural Communication Reader, Abingdon: Routlege, pp. 1–14.

    This reading provides an overview of areas of concern in the study of language and intercultural communication.

  • Linguistic relativity and linguistic determinism (3:17) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Df25r8pcuI8)

    This video explores the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis and addresses these questions: is language about grammatical universals like nouns and verbs? What is the relationship between language and culture?

  • Peace Corps (6:20) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0EQJmXiLxfU)

    In this video, a Peace Corps volunteer and former recruiter introduces the Peace Corps, i.e., what it is, its mission, the benefits of service, and how to join. The video explains how people can really make a difference through helping others.

  • Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis (10:08) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GRMNrEo7CRw)

    In this video presentation, Associate Professor Heidi Arnold, of the Communication Department at Sinclair Community College, USA, explains the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis.

  • Uncertainty Reduction Theory (5:06) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x-CBqcb0Kcc)

    This video introduces the Uncertainty Reduction Theory.

 

Chapter 3

  1. identify functions and characteristics of culture
  2. explain the language and cultural socialization process
  3. define and give examples of subcultures/co-cultures
  4. describe at least seven facets of culture
  5. define and provide an example of cultural beliefs, values and worldviews
  6. define what is meant by a ‘cultural script’ and provide an example
  7. explain why culture is a difficult construct to pin down.
  • Baldwin, J.R., Faulkner, S.L., Hecht, M.L. and Lindsley, S.L. (eds) (2006) RedefiningCulture: Perspectives across the Disciplines, Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

    This volume provides a listing of over 300 definitions of culture from a wide array of disciplines. The authors examine how the definition of culture has changed historically.

  • Gezon, L. and Kottak, C. (2011) Culture, Boston: McGraw-Hill.

    This magazine style text introduces students to notions of culture, largely drawing on understandings from cultural anthropology.

  • Hall, E.T. (1976) Beyond Culture, New York: Anchor Books.

    This book is written by the scholar who is regarded by many as the founding father of the field of intercultural communication. In this volume, he describes the many influences of culture on the way people live and interact, with a special emphasis on nonverbal codes.

  • Kroeber, A.L. and Kluckholn, C. (1952) Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions, Cambridge, MA: The Museum.

    This classic reviews more than 162 definitions of culture by scholars from diverse disciplines.

  • Babies (2010) Universal City, CA: Focus Features (79 minutes).

    This film presents one year in the life of four babies from different parts of the world: Ponijao from Namibia, Bayarjargal from Mongolia, Mari from Tokyo and Hattie from San Francisco. Celebrating the universal innocence of babies, the film offers insight into the language and cultural socialization process in different cultural contexts. Variations in cultural beliefs, values and norms are illustrated. For example, we see different child-rearing practices in action.

  • Children of Heaven (1997) New York: Miramax Films. (89 minutes)

    This simple yet elegant story, which is set in Iran, centres on two children: Zahra and Ali. Zahra´s shoes have disappeared because her brother Ali has lost them. With no money to replace them, they decide to share one pair of shoes. This Oscar-winning film illustrates urban daily life in Iran in the 1990s, and depicts class differences in Iranian society. The movie offers insight into Iranian beliefs, values and norms.

  • I´m Normal, You´re Weird: Understanding Other Cultures (1997) Chicago: Learning Seed Company (23 minutes)

    In this instructional video, a group of aliens prepare to take human form by rehearsing their new roles and learning the complexities of diverse human cultures.

  • Monsoon Wedding (2001) New Delhi: iDream Productions (114 minutes)

    This film centres on a modern, upper-middle class family in Delhi, India, where telecommunications and a western lifestyle mix with old traditions (e.g., arranged marriages). The main storyline centers on a father who is trying to organize a large, chaotic and expensive wedding for his daughter to a man she has known for only a few weeks. In this Punjabi wedding, extended family members from different generations come together from all corners of the globe including India, Australia, Oman and the United States. At first, the bride rebels against the arranged marriage and some of the story centres on her turmoil. The film covers the concept of social class/caste, arranged marriage, collectivism, attitudes toward children and family life; the importance of dance to the culture; intergenerational conflict; and the influence of Hinduism in the daily life of the characters.

  • Ads about culture (6:34) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ALWwK7Vz4gY)

    This HSBC commercial contrasts different norms in various cultural contexts. For example, it illustrates how people in different cultures view cars and make use of personal space.

  • Gender roles – interviews with children (2:36) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-VqsbvG40Ww)

    This video presents an experiment in which American children are asked different questions about gender roles, e.g., who should clean the house or who should have long hair. The video reveals that the children have internalized the conventions of gender roles in the U.S.

  • Group identity – ingroup and outgroup formation (4:30) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ga4Zr7P25o0)

    This short clip in documentary format was shot at a public school in England. At first, it shows interviews with students who belong to a clique or ingroup. Then, it examines the loners, who feel that the different groups at school are outgroups to them.

  • Honourifics and respect for seniority in Korea (7:12) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cJZ7ChPU28Y)

    Two foreigners living in Korea talk about how honourifics are used in the host culture. This video illustrates how elements of culture are learned and shared by a cultural group.

  • Primary school life in Japan and Britain (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5A09HhxXht4) (Japan) (5:34) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yMUJKH1fFF0) (Britain) (5:54)

    These videos show a typical day in primary schools. The first one is set in Japan, while the second one is set in Britain. By viewing these videos together, it is evident that there are different cultural schema at work. For example, there are variations in the classroom setting, clothing, the ways the lessons are taught, how and where lunch is distributed/eaten, etc. The clips illustrate the impact of cultural socialization.

  • Suiti: Cultural Space (http://www.unesco.org/archives/multimedia/index.php?s=films_details&pg=33&id=287)

    This documentary focuses on the cultural practices and heritage of the Suiti, a small Catholic community in the Protestant (Lutheran) western part of Latvia. Suiti cultural space is characterized by a number of distinct features, including vocal drone singing performed by Suiti women, wedding traditions, colourful traditional costumes, the Suiti language, local cuisine, religious traditions, celebrations of the annual cycle and a remarkable number of folk songs, dances and melodies recorded in this community. Older forms of extended family structures are still common here, and such families, where the transfer of skills from generation to generation takes place, are important bastions of Suiti cultural heritage.

 

Chapter 4

  1. define communication
  2. describe the process of human communication
  3. identify nine properties of communication
  4. describe the nature of language and communication
  5. explain the relationship between language, communication, culture, power and context
  6. identify and describe multiple verbal communication styles
  7. identify the traits associated with high-context and low-context cultures
  8. explain the communication accommodation theory (CAT) and the difference between ‘convergence’ and ‘divergence’
  9. identify the elements in the audience design framework and explain its relationship to the CAT
  10. explain the merits and limitations of communication style typologies
  11. identify the traits and behaviours of an effective intercultural communicator.
  • Bonvillain, N. (2011) Language, Culture and Communication, 6th edn, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.

    Using data from cultures and languages throughout the world, this book explores the connections between language, culture and communicative meaning.

  • Brown, S. and Eisterhold, J. (2004) Topics in Language and Culture for Teachers, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.

    This introductory language and culture text is designed for future teachers, anthro- pologists and applied linguists. From a variety of perspectives, the book explores the interrelationships between language and culture that have the most significant impli- cations for the classroom and wider, global community.

  • Kramsch, C. (1998) Language and Culture, Oxford: Blackwell.

    This compact book offers an accessible survey of key language concepts such as social context and cultural authenticity, using insights from such fields as linguistics, sociology, and anthropology.

  • Saphiere, D.H., Mikk, B.K. and Devries, B.I. (2005) Communication Highwire: Leveraging the Power of Diverse Communication Styles, Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.

    The authors introduce the notion of communication styles and explain how commu- nication style preferences reflect our personal and cultural upbringing, and also vary depending on the context and cultural setting.

  • Gender and Communication: Male-Female Differences in Language and Nonverbal Behavior (2001) Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Media (42 minutes). This video explores the impact that gender has on verbal messages (e.g., speech, language, vocabulary) and nonverbal channels of communication (e.g., touch, movement, gesture).
  • Language and Communication (1983) New York: Insight Media (30 minutes). This instructional video examines how the aspirations of a culture are expressed through its language. Looking at certain African American dialects and the Nuer people, the video highlights how language and thought reflect and influence culture.
  • Multilingual Hong Kong (2005)Princeton, NJ: Films for the Humanities & Sciences (30 minutes). Produced byKatherine Chen, Assistant Professor, the University of Hong Kong. This video illustrates Hong Kong’s struggle to strike a balance between the influence of international forces and the preservation of local culture. The first episode centres on a common phenomenon in the city: Cantonese-English code-mixing. In 2004, researcher Katherine Chen surveyed Hong Kong pedestrians for Cantonese-only translations to a commonly code-mixed sentence: ‘Today I must present a project.’ While searching for the answer, the film has parallel explorations into who code-mixes in Hong Kong, why they do it, what attitudes people have toward it and what social meaning it holds.
  • Cultural Dimension: me or we (2:56) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CW7aWKXB5J4)

    This clip contrasts individualism and collectivism: some cultures focus on the individual as a unique, independent person with primary responsibility for his or her well-being (individualism). In other contexts, the group’s well-being comes first, and the individual is expected to conform to the group’s needs.

  • Deborah Tannen: That’s not what I meant! Signals, devices, and rituals (7:58) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c5TII8Y3l28)

    Deborah Tannen, a sociolinguist who has written several books on gender and communication, explains how men and women use language, and discusses some of the sources of miscommunication between the sexes.

  • Intercultural competence: good vs. bad (7:38) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yqU5ORCmACU)

    This video presents a student project prepared for a Human Societies and Globalization class. Using an American girl’s visit to her Lebanese friend’s home as an example, acts of both convergence and divergence are illustrated. Some behaviours promote successful intercultural communication, whereas others are less effective.

  • Low and high context cultures (3:58) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8tIUilYX56E)

    This educational video presents a discussion of low- and high-context communication and culture based on E.T. Hall’s work.

  • The use of silence in Japan (intercultural communication) (7:11) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QyjenhfSnFU)

    This educational video about intercultural communication centres on the use of silence in Japan. It shows that in a high-context culture and a collectivist society like Japan, people often use indirect communication strategies such as silence.

  • Various channels of communicating (0:51) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ANJnhvNLb4)

    This excerpt presents a scene from the film He’s Just Not That Into You. The lead actress has to check seven different communication platforms (including email, texts, answering machine and phone call, etc.) to decide if she is being rejected by a guy, so she feels exhausted.

  • ‘The White Ribbon’ (2:00) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R188mgHcRTs)

    This clip presents a scene from a German black-and-white film, The White Ribbon. The communicative event illustrates the father’s higher power status.

 

Chapter 5

  1. define nonverbal communication
  2. describe the relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication
  3. identify the characteristics and functions of nonverbal communication
  4. identify different types of nonverbal codes
  5. provide examples of cultural universals in nonverbal behaviours
  6. explain the influence of culture on nonverbal communication
  7. discuss the relationship between nonverbal communication and power
  8. explain the importance of nonverbal elements in intercultural communication
  9. describe the relationship between nonverbal communication and gender
  10. explain how nonverbal communication can be a barrier in intercultural interactions.
  • Andersen, P.A. (2008) Nonverbal Communication: Forms and Functions, 2nd edn, Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

    Drawing on theory and research, the author discusses the major forms, functions and uses of nonverbal communication.

  • Burgoon, J.K., Gurrero, L.K. and Floyd, K. (2009) Nonverbal Communication, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.

    Referring to both classic and contemporary research on nonverbal communication, this volume uses current examples to illustrate nonverbal communication.

  • Guerrero, L.K. and Hecht, M. (2008) The Nonverbal Communication Reader, 3rd edn, Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press.

    This volume introduces multiple dimensions of nonverbal communication, drawing on classic and contemporary research.

  • Hall. E.T. (1984) The Dance of Life: The Other Dimension of Time, New York: Anchor Books.

    This book explores the cultural nature of time.

  • Hall, E.T. (1990) The Hidden Dimension, New York: Anchor Books.

    This classic explores variations in the use of space across cultures and discusses how that use reflects cultural values and norms of behaviour.

  • Knapp, M.L. and Hall, J.A. (2009) Nonverbal Communication in Human Interaction, 7th edn, Belmont, CA: Wadsworth Publishing Co.

    This introductory text is designed for courses on nonverbal communication.

  • Matsumoto, D. and Hwang, H.S. (2012) ‘Nonverbal communication: The messages of emotion, action, space, and silence’, in J. Jackson (ed.) The Routledge Handbook of Language and Intercultural Communication, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 130´47.

    In this chapter, the authors review the key findings of research that has examined the influence of culture on various nonverbal behaviours (e.g. facial expressions, gestures, gaze, voice, interpersonal space, touch, posture, gait).

  • Moore, N-J, Hickson, M. and Stacks, D.W. (2010) Nonverbal Communication: Studies and Applications, 5th edn, Oxford: Oxford University Press.

    Balancing theory and practice, this volume is designed to help students understand how nonverbal communication impacts ‘real world’ interactions.

  • Body Language: Introduction to Nonverbal Communication (1993) Lake Zurich, Ill.: Learning Seed (30 minutes).

    This instructional video illustrates how gestures and postures mirror emotions and communicate messages. The video also examines smiling and unwritten rules of eye contact, as well as use of personal and public space.

  • Communication: The Nonverbal Agenda (1988) Carlsbad, CA: CRM Films (20 minutes).

    This video provides a general, basic introduction to nonverbal communication. The relationship between verbal and nonverbal communication is explored. The impact of nonverbal communication in business environments is also discussed.

  • Gender and Communication: Male-Female Differences in Language and Nonverbal Behavior (2001) Berkeley, CA: Berkeley Media (42 minutes).

    This video explores the impact that gender has on verbal messages (e.g., speech, language, vocabulary) and nonverbal channels of communication (e.g., touch, movement, gesture).

  • The Gods Must Be Crazy (1980) Culver City, CA: Columbia TriStar Home Entertainment (109 minutes).

    This comedy provides many examples of intercultural miscommunication, especially in the ways nonverbal actions are misinterpreted by an African bushman and South Africans.

  • The Human Face: Emotions, Identities and Masks (1996) Berkeley, CA: University of California Extension Center for Media and Independent Learning (30 minutes).

    The face is perhaps the most powerful channel of nonverbal communication. We ‘encode’ messages in our own facial expressions and also routinely ‘decode’ the faces of the people around us. Our face conveys elements of our identities. This video examines twelve different facial properties and stresses the importance of the ability to ‘read’ diverse messages that are conveyed in faces.

  • Japanese Nonverbal Communication (1978) Bloomington, Ind.: The Center (20 minutes).

    This video illustrates common Japanese facial expressions and gestures in formal and informal social and business settings. It examines differences between Japanese men and women and explores seating arrangements, greetings and food service.

  • Non-Verbal Communication in the Global Marketplace (2004) Sunrise, FL: D.E. Visuals (24 minutes).

    This instructional video introduces the mechanics of nonverbally communicating through gestures, proxemics and other NV channels, and exposes viewers to differing interpretations of nonverbal behaviours in the global marketplace.

  • Reading People: The Unwritten Language ofthe Body (1997) Lake Zurich, Ill.: Learning Seed (23 minutes).

    This instructional video explains how paralanguage, eye contact, touch, time and space influence communication. It stresses that reading facial expressions is more difficult than many people realize. The video also explains how the use of touch varies from culture to culture, and discusses what volume, speed and inflection can reveal about a speaker.

  • Without Words: An Introduction to Nonverbal Communication (1977) Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall (23 minutes).

    In this video, examples of various forms of nonverbal communication are presented, including clothing and personal appearance. There is also a discussion of contrasts in nonverbal communication between Arab and U.S.-American cultures.

  • A World of Gestures: Culture and Nonverbal Communication (1991) Berkeley, CA: University of California Extension Media Center (27 minutes).

    This video explores the origin and functions of gestures and provides examples of cultural variations in this type of nonverbal communication. Gestures that are used to convey anger, friendliness, openness, obscenities and other emotions are illustrated, as well as particular gestures used by gangs and secret organizations. The video also discusses children’s learning of gestures through enculturation.

  • American hand gestures in different cultures: seven ways to get yourself in trouble abroad (2:04) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OWFPHW7BCCI)

    Many American hand gestures are innocent in the U.S., but mean something negative in other contexts. This video shows seven innocent American hand signs that can lead to trouble in other parts of the world.

  • Cultural Dimension: display of emotion (2:17) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RwDDb_h2i0A)

    This video illustrates how we display sincerity, emotion and intensity when conflict arises. Some cultures prefer a low-key, ‘rational’ style, while others prefer a more passionate, vivid and animated display.

  • Cultural etiquette and touch (3:39) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5PGCkSoy5nk)

    This clip offers insight into some cultural variations in the use of touch.

  • Culture differences: personal space (6:43) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mUCODUvKbzE)

    This HSBC advert illustrates cultural variations in personal space.

  • Facial expressions (2:58) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5G6ZR5lJgTI)

    Are facial expressions learned or innate? Dr. David Matsumoto of San Francisco State University researched this issue by studying photos of blind and sighted athletes at the 2004 Olympic and Paralympic games.

  • Hand gestures around the world (2:14) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2h0V1YkccEE)

    Travellers are often concerned about language problems when they go abroad but often overlook differences in body language. This clip demonstrates how some hand gestures are commonly used around the world.

  • Italian hand gestures: a short history (New York Times) (2:08) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DW91Ec4DYkU)

    This video clip illustrates five Italian emblematic gestures: ‘Be careful’, ‘Where are you going?’, ‘Perfect’, ‘How chic!’ and ‘Very good’.

Tracy Goodwin’s Online Lectures: Non-Verbal Communication Tools

 

Chapter 6

  1. define identity
  2. identify and discuss multiple characteristics of identity
  3. explain how identities are shaped and formed
  4. identify, define and provide examples of different types of identity
  5. describe ways in which people communicate their identities to others
  6. explain how individuals negotiate their identity in intercultural interactions
  7. explain what is meant by ‘encapsulated marginality’ and ‘constructive marginality’
  8. explain how and why identities may be contested or challenged
  9. describe the relationship between language, culture and identity
  10. explain the role of identity in intercultural communication.
  • Block, D. (2009) Second Language Identities, London: Continuum.

    Drawing on social science theory, the author discusses identity formation and change in foreign language learners, adult migrants and study abroad students.

  • Edwards, J. (2009) Language and Identity: An Introduction, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

    The language we use forms an important part of our identity. This book discusses the relationship between our identity as members of groups (e.g. ethnic, national, religious, gender) and the language varieties associated with each group.

  • Kim, M.S. (2002) Non-Western Perspectives on Human Communication: Implications for Theory and Practice, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

    The author proposes a non-Western way of conceptualizing identity, or the self, and challenges readers to re-examine their approach to intercultural study.

  • Kim, Y.Y. (2009) 'The identity factor in intercultural competence', in D. Deardorff (ed.) The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp.53´65.

    In this chapter, the author discusses the role that identities can play in intercultural relations.

  • Noels, K.A., Yashima, T. and Zhang, R. (2012) 'Language, identity and intercultural communication', in J. Jackson (ed.) Routledge Handbook of Language and Intercultural Communication, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 52´66.

    In this chapter, the authors critically examine how scholars in social psychology, communication and applied linguistics define identity; their review highlights the complex relation between language and identity in intercultural communication.

  • Pollock, D.C. and Van Reken, R.E. (2009) Third Culture Kids: Growing Up Among Worlds, Boston: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.

    Drawing on interviews and personal writings, this book explores the challenges and benefits of being Third Culture Kids (TCKs), young people who have spent a significant part of their developmental years abroad.

  • Riley, P. (2008) Language, Culture, and Identity, London: Continuum.

    This book examines the complex and dynamic relation between language, culture and identity. It discusses how language shapes and is shaped by identity in particular social, linguistic, cultural and ethnic contexts.

  • Shi, X. and Langman, J. (2012) 'Gender, language, identity, and intercultural communication', in J. Jackson (ed.) Routledge Handbook of Language and Intercultural Communication, Abingdon: Routledge, pp. 167´80.

    In this chapter, the authors discuss the major topics and theoretical approaches that have shaped language, gender and identity studies.

  • Calcutta Calling (2004) San Francisco, CA: Center for Asian American Media (26 minutes). In 2003, Sasha Khokha filmed three teenage girls as they visited Calcutta, India with their adoptive parents. At birth, the girls had been adopted from a Bengali orphanage by white American families in rural Swedish-Lutheran Minnesota. This poignant film captures their reactions (e.g., identity awakenings) on their first visit to their country of birth since their adoption.
  • Daughter from Danang (2004) PBS Home Video (83 minutes). This moving documentary follows the life of a Vietnamese-American woman who returned to Vietnam to search for her birth mother. Adopted by a single white U.S.-American in Tennessee, Heidi’s departure from Vietnam was facilitated by ‘Operation Babylift’, a Ford administration scheme that brought nearly 3,000 mostly mixed-race South Vietnamese children to the U.S. for adoption. The film follows the young woman’s journey as she returns to Vietnam as an adult to meet her birth mother, where she is introduced to extended family members during a week-long visit. Her journey raises questions about her self-identities and positioning. In painful, difficult scenes, it becomes clear that the cultural distance between Heidi and her mother/relatives is significant. The film illustrates the long-lasting, harmful impact of wars.
  • The Human Stain (2003) Miramax Films (106 minutes). Coleman Silk is the first Jewish professor of classical literature at a prestigious college in Massachusetts in the U.S. After he is accused of making a racist remark about African American students, he loses his job and his wife dies due to the stress. Angry and desperate, he writes a book about his experience and discloses that he is not actually a Jew but African American with very light skin. The film illustrates the struggle of identity negotiation.
  • Living in the Hyphen: Cultural Identity in a Multiethnic Society (2006) New York, NY: Films Media Group (45 minutes). This programme centres on the experiences of poet Fred Wah and six other Canadians with one parent from a European background and one from a visible minority. This film offers a glimpse of a future in which hyphenated identities (e.g., Korean-Canadian, Chinese-American) give way to a celebration of mixed heritages.
  • Miss India Georgia (1997) Yellow Springs, OH: Urban Life Productions (56 minutes). In this documentary video, issues of assimilation and ethnic identity are explored through the experiences of four contestants in the Miss India Georgia Pageant. In particular, it recounts the story of the contestants’ experiences as first generation Indian Americans. These young women reveal the complexity of their feelings about growing up in the U.S. as children of immigrant parents.
  • Precious Cargo (2001) New York: Filmmakers Library (56 minutes). In 1975, what became known as ‘Operation Babylift’, the U.S. evacuated 2,800 mostly mixed-race South Vietnamese children who had been living in orphanages to America, where they were adopted. This program follows a group of adult adoptees on their visit to their native country on the 25th anniversary of Operation Babylift. For some, the visit brings peace; for others, it is profoundly disquieting and brings up issues related to their identities, U.S. policy and their parents’ decisions to give them up.
  • Whalerider (2002) Pandora Film, Germany/Newmarket Films, U.S. (101 minutes). In this drama, the Whangara people believe that their presence in New Zealand dates back a thousand years or more to a single ancestor, who escaped death on the back of a whale. Since then, first-born male Whangara Chiefs have been chosen as direct descendants. An 11-year-old girl, however, believes she is destined to be the new chief. Her grandfather is bound by tradition to pick a male leader so she must fight him and a thousand years of tradition. This film illustrates the struggle between avowed and ascribed identities and the impact of cultural traditions. It also illustrates how enculturation impacts one’s identity development.
  • Yentl (1983)Beverly Hills, CA: MGM (131 minutes).This romantic musical drama film was directed, co-written and co-produced by Barbra Streisand, who also played the lead role. Based on Isaac Bashevis Singer’s short story ‘Yentl the Yeshiva Boy’, this dramatic production follows the odyssey of an Ashkenazi Jewish girl in Poland who decides to dress and live like a man so that she can receive an education in Talmudic Law after her father dies. Her defiance of social expectations and her reversal of traditional gender roles crosses deeply rooted religious boundaries, particularly once she marries Hadass. Yentl’s identity as a woman, not only socially and religiously, but also personally and sexually, is called into question.
  • Yidl in the Middle: Growing Up Jewish in Iowa (Video 1999/DVD 2013) Ames, IW: Iowa State University (58 minutes). This autobiographical film looks at growing up ‘different’ in America, as filmmaker Marlene Booth explores her Iowa-Jewish roots. Through home movies, photos, her high school reunion and current interviews, she examines the complicated process of negotiating multiple identities (e.g., her positioning as an American, a Jew and a woman).
  • Gender Roles (2:36) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-VqsbvG40Ww)
    This video shows an experiment in which children are asked different questions concerning gender roles, for example, who should clean the house or who should have long hair. It can be seen from the video that children have internalized certain conventions about gender identities in America.
  • Gender Roles in Disney Films (Part 1: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZL4rh4KRgVc)(7:45)(Part 2: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u23sxA29rbI) (9:59)
    This student presentation examines gender roles in Disney films, e.g., Pochahontas, The Little Mermaid and Tangled.
  • Global Identity (10:42) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=U_3S4buoGfY)
    This video presents interviews with numerous people who share a very global background (e.g., third culture kids). Some of their parents have different ethnic or cultural origins, and their families have lived and worked in various countries. The interviewees offer insight into their experiences, identities and the conflicts they face.
  • I am Korean American (14:57) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ePDwLiU8udE)
    In this episode, second-generation Korean-Americans share their experiences; some discuss how they have struggled to have their preferred self-identities recognized by others; some are labelled as ‘outsiders’ in both the U.S. and Korea.
  • Is Singlish accepted as part of Singapore’s national identity? (12:29) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b07EaQhxzJg)
    This video, which centres on Singlish as part of Singaporean identity, presents interviews with local and international students. The role of the government in discouraging the use of Singlish through ‘Speak Good English’ campaigns is also explored.
  • Race and Culture: Cultural Identity [Part 1] (1:27) Race and Culture: Thoughts on Cultural Identity [Part II] (2:25) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NKwd4vdQ9Gw) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q970di8bnRg)
    These video clips explores notions of multiculturalism in Australia and addresses these questions: what does multiculturalism in Australia mean to the individual? How do young people living there who have a different cultural upbringing identify themselves?’
  • Singapore’s national identity (8:42) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1LqSabHs1IE)
    This video documentary, which is made by a Singaporean student, explores various understandings of Singapore’s national identity.
  • What is your cultural identity? (10:19) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xCvUw7TVXwU)
    In this video, people in the UK who have a different cultural background (Italian, Persian, Polish, Nigerian and Zimbabwean) are interviewed about their perceptions of their cultural identity.
  • What kind of Asian are you? (2:20) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DWynJkN5HbQ)
    This humorous and sarcastic video centers on racial and ethnic identity and raises awareness of cultural stereotyping.

 

Chapter 7

  1. explain the process of social categorization
  2. describe the relationship between perception and social categorization
  3. discuss the implications of social categorization and Othering for intercultural relations
  4. define and discuss the nature of ethnocentricism
  5. distinguish between a generalization and a stereotype
  6. describe the process of stereotyping and provide examples of stereotypes (e.g. racial and ethnic, language, gender, religious)
  7. identify at least four reasons why people stereotype
  8. provide examples of sexist and ageist language
  9. explain how stereotypes can serve as barriers to intercultural communication
  10. define and provide examples of bias and prejudice
  11. describe the causes of prejudice
  12. define and provide examples of discrimination and discriminatory language
  13. define and discuss the nature of racism
  14. identify three types of racism and provide an example of each
  15. describe the potential impact of racism and xenophobia on intercultural relations
  16. identify ways to combat ethnocentric tendencies and biases.
  • Bakanic, V. (2008) Prejudice: Attitudes about Race, Class, and Gender, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    The author examines the role of structural inequality and the cognitive dimension of prejudice.
  • Brown, R. (2010) Prejudice: Its Social Justice, 2nd edn, West Sussex: Wiley´Blackwell.
    From a social psychological perspective, the author analyzes the prejudices and stereo´types of individuals as part of a pattern of intergroup processes. Numerous examples of prejudice in everyday life are provided.
  • Hill, J.H. (2008) The Everyday Language of White Racism, West Sussex: Wiley´Blackwell.
    The author examines everyday language in the U.S. to reveal the underlying racist stereotypes that persist in American culture.
  • Lippi´Green, R. (2012) English with an Accent: Language, Ideology, and Discrimination in the United States, London: Routledge.
    The author discusses the ways in which discrimination based on accent functions to both support and perpetuate social structures and unequal power relations.
  • Lustig, M.W. and Koester, J. (2006) Among Us: Essays on Identity, Belonging, and Intercultural Competence, Boston: Pearson, Allyn and Bacon.
    This collection of essays addresses four main themes: identity, negotiating intercultural competence, racism and prejudice and belonging to multiple cultures.
  • Valentine, T. (2003) Language and Prejudice, New York: Longman.
    This book focuses on the way language influences and prejudices perceptions of race, gender, age, disabilities and sexual preferences.
  • Babel (2007) Hollywood, CA: Paramount Home Entertainment (143 minutes). This film centres on four different groups of people in four different places around the world who are impacted by a single event. Stereotypes and ignorance complicate the situation and result in tragedy. If the individuals involved had been more (inter)culturally aware, problems and challenges might have been resolved more easily. The message of the movie is that the world would be a more peaceful place if people were less focused on national identities and contained more globally-minded citizens who demonstrate concern for all humans.
  • The Color of Friendship (2000) Disney Channel (US) (TV) (87 minutes). This television programme centres on a relationship that developed between a white Southern African and African-Americans. Mahree Bok, a white South African teenager who experienced the apartheid system, was raised to view dark-skinned people as second-class citizens. Piper Dellums, the daughter of an African-American U.S. Congressman, lives in a nice house in Washington, DC. When Mahree joins an international exchange program, she discovers that her host family is black. Her hosts are also surprised when they realize that Mahree is a white South African. In spite of initial difficulties, Mahree and Piper gradually become friends and, in the process, begin to recognize each other´s prejudices. Both learn important lessons about racism and acceptance.
  • Crash (2005) Santa Monica, CA: Lions Gate Entertainment (113 minutes). All of the characters in this film live in Los Angeles but they come from very different worlds. They are different culturally, ethnically and socially and have a different socioeconomic status. Some also have a different linguistic background. In their daily lives they come into contact with each other and, in their interactions, reveal the harmful consequences of ethnocentricism and racism. In this provocative film, many scenes illustrate how pre-judging and stereotyping can influence people´s behaviour and lead to inequality and mistreatment.
  • Dirty Pretty Things (2002) Burbank, CA: Buena Vista International (97 minutes). The film centres on the experiences of a Turkish woman and a Nigerian man, who are both working illegally in a hotel in London. As a consequence of their illegal status, they are exploited. In the film we learn about their dreams, disappointments and determination to overcome the many obstacles they face (e.g., prejudice, racism).
  • Finding Forrester (2002) Culver City, CA: Columbia Pictures, (136 minutes). This film centres on the relationship between Jamal, an African-American high school student, and William Forrester, a secluded Pulitzer-prize winning author who is white. A central theme is racial inequality in the U.S.-American school system and the challenge of race relations. Although Jamal is a talented writer, his literature teacher never acknowledged his talent because he is black. This film also illustrates the negative influence of peer pressure as Jamal does not wish to excel and stand out from his ingroup.
  • Gran Torino (2009) Warner Home Video (116 minutes). This movie centres on Walt Kowalski, a disgruntled Korean War veteran whose wife has just passed away. Unhappy with his life, he is angry that his formerly all-white neighbourhood is becoming crowded with ethnic minorities, including a Hmong family. Their son Thao is being pressured to join a gang and as an initiation ritual he has been asked to steal Walt´s prized Gran Torino. Thao fails to steal the car as Walt catches him. They gradually get to know each other and Walt becomes a neighbourhood hero when he saves Thao and his sister from the gang.
  • Guess Who´s Coming to Dinner (1967) Columbia Pictures, USA (108 minutes). Made in the 1960s, this film centres on a dinner party hosted by a bride´s parents to meet her fiancé (a doctor) and his parents. The bride´s white parents are shocked to find that the groom is black and the groom´s parents are also unhappy when they learn that the bride is white. This comedy drama explores interracial marriage.
  • Guess Who (2005) Columbia Pictures (US): 20th Century Fox (international) (105 minutes). This romantic comedy about race relations is a loose remake of the 1967 film Guess Who´s Coming to Dinner. While the 1967 film covered interracial romance (of a black man with a white woman) in a serious, dramatic fashion, the 2005 film deals with the topic (a white man dating a black woman) in a light, farcical manner.
  • Matters of Race (2003) Alexandria, VA: PBS DVD video (240 minutes). This series (The Divide, Race Is/Race Ain´t, We´re Still Here, Tomorrow´s America) follows race relations in the U.S. It defines the meaning of race and examines race relations among ethnic groups in the country.
  • Ruby Bridges (1998) ABC Channel (91 minutes). This TV movie centres on institutional racism in educational settings. It presents the true story of Ruby Bridges, one of the first African-American elementary children to study in an all-white school in New Orleans in 1960. In spite of protests, she pursued her education and developed bonds with her white teachers and classmates.
  • How to Improve Intercultural Sensitivity: Overcome Ethnocentrism Through Acknowledging Distinctions (1:29) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hxb-2Vs513s)
    In this educational video, Tracy Goodwin, a communications instructor, states that everyone thinks their culture is the best and that other cultures aren´t as good. She suggests ways to learn how to improve one´s level of intercultural sensitivity.
    Barriers to Intercultural Communication (8:23) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VIGy5E0-3Q0)
    In this video lecture, Dr. David M. Lucas and Jason Lucas of Ohio University Southern (U.S.) provide an explanation of ethnocentrism and ethnorelativism.
  • How Racist Are You? (Part I) Jane Elliott´s Brown Eye-Blue Eye Experiment (11:13) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XAv8JA_9uKI)
    How Racist Are You? (Part II) Jane Elliott's Brown Eye-Blue Eye Experiment (14:01) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DgxKfjijWGc)
    How Racist Are You? (Part III) Jane Elliott's Brown Eye-Blue Eye Experiment (7:48) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KfeaiBvnaVQ)
    These segments are from a Peabody award-winning documentary linked to Jane Elliott´s Brown Eye-Blue Eye Experiment. The excerpts provide some historical background on racism in the U.S. and explain the development of a system of advantage based on race. By engaging in a simulation of a racist apartheid-style regime, participants become more sensitized to the negative consequences of racism.
  • Racial Stereotyping (3:04) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8ABRlWybBqM)
    This clip from ABC News (U.S.) looks at how people tend to suspect blacks of crimes instead of whites.
  • Racism and Stereotypes in Advertising (6:24) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FyCnJLNhQeE)
    In this student presentation, racism and stereotyping in advertising is examined.
  • Racism in Children´s Cartoons (5:53) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dSYAY1nv6tg
    This video was made for an assignment on the portrayal of race in the media for a class on race and sociology. In this student presentation, racism within cartoons is examined.
  • Stereotypes of Americans on Study Abroad (4:17) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GOrQAu4o3Js)
    This video is produced by the University of California, Santa Barbara in the U.S. In interviews, students who studied abroad discuss how people in their host countries view Americans, offering insight into common stereotypes. They also provide advice for future outgoing exchange students.

 

Chapter 8

  1. identify and describe types and dimensions of boundary crossers
  2. define and describe the process of acculturation and second language socialization
  3. describe four patterns of acculturation in immigrants
  4. identify factors that facilitate or hinder acculturation and second language social- ization
  5. define transition shock and identify five types
  6. describe the causes and symptoms of language and culture shock
  7. describe the positive and negative effects of language and culture shock
  8. identify and describe the stages in the U-curve and W-curve adjustment models
  9. describe the causes and symptoms of reverse (reentry) culture shock
  10. identify weaknesses in the curve models of adjustment
  11. describe the core elements in the integrative communication theory of cross- cultural adaptation
  12. discuss the role of language in cross-cultural adjustment and adaptation
  13. identify and discuss strategies to enhance intercultural transitions (e.g. cope with language and culture shock).
  • Dowell, M-M. and Mirsky, K.P. (2003) Study Abroad: How to Get the Most Out of Your Experience, Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
    This text is designed to foster reflection on study abroad sojourns so that participants will enhance their intercultural awareness and make the most of their stay in a new culture.
  • Gebhard, J.G. (2010) What Do International Students Think and Feel?: Adapting to U.S. College Life and Culture, Ann Arbor, MI: University of Michigan Press.
    This book presents personal narratives of international students who recount their adjustment to life in the U.S. and their return to their homeland.
  • Hansel, B. (2007) The Exchange Student Survival Kit, 2nd edn, Boston: Intercultural Press, Inc., Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
    This practical guide aims to help student sojourners adjust to life abroad and make the most of international exchange programmes.
  • Kauffmann, N.L., Martin, J.N. and Weaver, H.D. with Weaver, J. (1992) Students Abroad: Strangers at Home, Education for a Global Society, Yarmouth, ME: Intercultural Press.
    This book examines study abroad sojourns from the perspective of students, focusing on their intellectual development, growth in international/intercultural understanding and personal change.
  • Kohls, L.R. (2001) Survival Kit for Overseas Living: For Americans Planning to Live and Work Abroad, 4th edn, Boston: Intercultural Press, Inc., Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
    The author offers practical strategies to facilitate respectful intercultural explorations, while adjusting to a new environment.
  • Lantis, J.S. and DuPlaga, J. (2010) The Global Classroom: An Essential Guide to Study Abroad, Boulder, CO: Paradigm Press.
    The authors offer practical suggestions for student sojourners to help optimize their stays abroad. This book encompasses three phases: pre-sojourn preparation, sojourn and reentry.
  • Paige, R.M., Cohen, A.D., Kappler, B., Chi, J.C. and Lassegard, J.P. (2006) Maximizing Study Abroad: A Student’s Guide to Strategies for Language and Culture Learning and Use, Minneapolis, MN: Center for Advanced Research on Language Acquisition, University of Minnesota.
    This guide provides students with tools, creative activities and advice to prepare for and enhance their culture and language learning while studying abroad. It can also help returnees adjust to life when they return home.
  • Slimbach, R. (2010) Becoming World Wise: A Guide to Global Learning, Sterling VA: Stylus.
    This book is designed to help sojourners optimize their stays abroad by cultivating mindfulness and a global perspective.
  • Storti, C. (2001) The Art of Crossing Cultures, 2nd edn, Boston: Intercultural Press, Inc., Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
    This guidebook offers suggestions to facilitate adjustment to a new culture, whether for work or study. A model of culture shock is explained and examples of cross-cultural misunderstandings are provided with the aim of raising awareness of ways to enhance intercultural relations.
  • Storti, C. (2003) The Art of Coming Home, Boston: Intercultural Press, Inc., Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
    This guide explores the challenges people often face when returning home after a sojourn (e.g. study abroad, work): reentry culture shock and readjustment.

VIDEO AND ONLINE RESOURCES

  • Culture Shock: International Students in the United States (2006) CustomFlix.
    This DVD addresses cross-cultural adaptation and culture shock issues. Focusing on the arrival and initial adjustment period, international students share their views about their experiences adjusting to life in the United States.
  • The Global Scholar. (http://globalscholar.us/)
    The ‘Global Scholar Online Courses’ website provides online curriculum to orient, train, and support students before, during and after they study abroad.
  • What’s up with culture? (http://www2.pacific.edu/sis/culture/)
    In a project funded by FIPSE, the U.S. Department of Education, this online material is designed to enhance the ability of students to make successful cultural adjustments both before going overseas and upon returning home from studying abroad.
  • A Good Return (2000) Lynbrook, NY: TeleTime Productions (28 minutes). This video highlights the challenges of repatriation and explains why returnees often find it difficult to readjust to their life back home. The video is accompanied by a Facilitators Guide written by Craig Storti, the author of The Art of Coming Home (Intercultural Press).
  • a.k.a. Don Bonus (1995) San Francisco: NAATA/CrossCurrent Media (55 minutes). This video diary documents the acculturation experiences of 18-year-old Sokly Ny (Don Bonus) and his family, who immigrated to the United States to escape the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia. His self-portrait illustrates his struggle to adjust to a new life in the U.S. and graduate from high school.
  • Almanya – Willkommen in Deutschland (2011) Grüt;nwald: Concorde Home Entertainment (97 minutes). A Turkish family immigrates to Germany and experiences many intercultural misunderstandings and challenges.
  • Becoming American: The Chinese Experience: Between Two Worlds (2003) Public Affairs Television and Thomas Lennon Films, USA (89 minutes). This programme depicts the history of Chinese immigration to the United States through the stories of Chinese Americans and their families who were kept apart by both tradition and U.S. law (the 1882 Exclusion Act). Some immigrants were caught between countries, neither at home in the U.S. nor in China. The law that separated these families was challenged in the U.S. justice system.
  • Bend It Like Beckham (2002) Helkon SK, United Kingdom (112 minutes). This film illustrates the intergenerational conflict that can arise in families who immigrate from one cultural environment to another. A teenager, the British-born daughter of Sikh parents, dreams of playing soccer; however, her parents do not approve and want her to learn to cook traditional dishes and prepare for an arranged marriage. She becomes involved in an interracial romance when she joins a female soccer team. Acculturation is also a theme in this film as it illustrates different ways in which immigrants may respond to their new environment (e.g., assimilation, integration).
  • The Best Exotic Marigold Hotel (2012) Beverly Hills, CA: 20th Century Fox Home Entertainment (124 minutes). Due to changes in their circumstances, some British retirees decide to spend their retirement in India at the Marigold Hotel in Jaipur. Though the new environment is not as luxurious as advertised, they get to know the new culture and share many experiences. One of the retirees experiences severe cultural shock and leaves India; others adapt and thrive in their new environment.
  • A Better Life (2011) Universal City, CA: Summit Entertainment (98 minutes).A group of Mexican and El Salvadorian immigrants try to integrate into American society, both culturally and legally, in East Los Angeles, California. Carlos Galindo imagined a better life for his wife and baby when he crossed the border into the U.S. After his wife leaves him, Carlos is determined to work hard to give his son the opportunities he never had. They discover that family is the most important part of the American dream.
  • Big Night (1996) New York: The Samuel Goldwyn Company (107 minutes). This drama focuses on two brothers who emigrated to the U.S. from Italy and opened an Italian restaurant. Primo, a gifted chef, refuses to make the type of food his American customers expect and the business is in danger of failing. The movie explores themes of immigration, including dealing with conflicting values and the process of adaptation.
  • Brick Lane (2009) Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment (102 minutes). A Bengali girl who grew up in a small, rural town in Bangladesh enters into an arranged marriage with an older man and moves to London with her new husband. Much of the film focuses on her adjustment to England and the intergenerational gap that arises between her husband and their daughters. The film is based on the controversial bestselling novel by Monica Ali, which was published in 2003.
  • Culture Shock: International Students in the United States (2005) Bolux Films (DVD) (26 minutes). This documentary explores cross-cultural adaptation and culture shock through the eyes of international students who are studying in the U.S. The focus is on the arrival and immediate post-arrival period and the challenges the students experience.
  • Far and Away (1992) Hollywood, CA: Universal Pictures (176 minutes). The main topic of this film is Irish immigration to the U.S. in the 1890s. The story centres on the struggles of Joseph and Shannon, a young Irish couple, both in Ireland and in their new homeland. The movie raises awareness of discrimination and other obstacles that immigrants may experience.
  • Global Citizens: The Movie (2010) Arise Entertainment (75 minutes). This film follows a group of students who travel to southern Mexico for a six-week adventure. As they experience challenges and triumphs in an unfamiliar linguistic and cultural environment, they develop unforgettable friendships and grow academically, culturally, personally and spiritually. They develop a better understanding of what it means to be interculturally competent and globally-minded.
  • Lost Boys of the Sudan (2004) New York: New Video Group (87 minutes). This Emmy-nominated documentary follows two teenage South Sudanese refugees on their journey from hunger and physical danger in Africa to the challenges of surviving in the United States. They must learn to quickly adapt to contemporary American society.
  • Lost in Translation (2003) New York: Focus Features (101 minutes). This film illustrates the difficulty experienced by U.S. American sojourners in Japan. An American actor, Bob Harris, is in Japan to shoot a TV commercial about whiskey. In an unfamiliar cultural environment, he encounters various frustrating situations, as he cannot understand Japanese and is confused by unfamiliar nonverbal behaviors.
  • The Namesake (2006) Hollywood, CA: Fox Searchlight Pictures, India/USA (122 minutes). This movie highlights the challenges of immigration by focusing on the experiences of an Indian family from West Bengal that moves to New York. Intergenerational conflict develops between the first-generation immigrants and their American-born children.
  • Outsourced (2008) Los Angeles, CA: Ocean Park Home Entertainment (103 minutes). Todd Anderson works in a customer call centre in the U.S. until his entire office is outsourced to India and he is asked to go to Bombay to train his own replacement. In the beginning, frequent cultural misunderstandings and culture shock lead to Todd wanting to escape the chaos of Bombay for the comforts of Seattle. Gradually, he develops relationships with the Indian call centre workers and begins to appreciate different ways of doing things both in the business setting and in everyday life.
  • Refugee (2002) NAATA (63 minutes). Spencer Nakasako follows the life of three Cambodians who were raised in San Francisco. They head back to Cambodia, which turns out to be a life-altering experience.
  • Understanding Culture Shock (2009) Westline Media (30 minutes). This video examines the initial challenges and difficulties international students may experience when adjusting to life in the United States. Filmed at the University of New Hampshire´s main campus in Durham, this instructional video begins by defining culture shock and goes on to discuss its causes, stages and symptoms. The video also provides useful tips on how students can overcome culture shock.
  • The Visitor (2008) Burbank, CA: Anchor Bay Entertainment (104 minutes). Walter Vale, a widower who teaches economics at a Connecticut university, lives alone and has little interest in his work. In New York to give a paper at a conference, he goes to the apartment that he kept in the city and discovers a young couple living there. Despite their cultural differences, Walter befriends Tarek, a Syrian, and gradually forms a friendship with his girlfriend from Senegal. Tarek gets into trouble and is transferred to an immigrant detention centre. Walter decides to stay in New York to help him. Tarek´s mother arrives and she and Walter support each other while they try to free Tarek. 
  • Canadian immigration: culture clash (3:11)(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZlNgDg4P10M&list=PLC985B97E70D5631B&index=5)
    New immigrants in Canada talk about acculturation (e.g., balancing the ‘new culture’ and the ‘old culture’).
  • Communal showers and culture shock (2:120 (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=loDbX3XrnNk#at=46)
    In Germany, Abdullah was shocked to discover that people take communal showers after doing sport. He offers advice for dealing with culture shock.
  • Cross Cultural Etiquette – Mr. Baseball.mp4 (2:11) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bdeFdFEbuqk)
    Jack is living in Japan for the first time, and has dinner with his Japanese girlfriend’s family. He knows very little about Japanese culture and makes many mistakes while eating with them.
  • Culture Curve: The Ups and Downs of Studying Abroad (3:54) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YKyu-4k8zRc)
    Outgoing exchange students from the University of Santa Barbara, California discuss their experiences with culture shock and homesickness when they went abroad and reveal how they coped with the difficult times.
  • Immigrant voices (3:27)(http://www.oregonlive.com/living/index.ssf/2013/06/immigrant_voices_liberian_immi.html)
    The ‘Immigrant Voices’ series examines the experiences of immigrants in Oregon in the United States. While Moima Doe from Liberia, Lilya Yevseyeva from Russia and Mani Bharati from Bhutan all emigrated for different reasons, all of them believed they would find a better life in America.
  • Immigrants’ voices: would-be crossers share their stories (slide show) (http://www.azcentral.com/news/politics/articles/20130405border-stories-immigration-voices.html)
    Accompanying an article about immigration is a slide show which tells brief stories about people who have tried to immigrate to the U.S.
  • Reverse Culture Shock(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LZAJHF4bn6g) Part I (1:25) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7l9Kx8CV5Q) Part II (1:06)
    This online material is produced by the University of Montana Study Abroad Program.
    • Part I: Similar to culture shock, a person can experience reverse culture shock upon returning home. This segment introduces the notion of reverse culture shock.
    • Part II: This section discusses ways to ease reverse culture shock.
  • Shopping and culture shock (2:12) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C7mVQPzphIE)
    Lucy, an Australian, recounts an interesting intercultural incident she experienced in a grocery store early in her sojourn in Germany.
  • Surprising Europe: Culture Shock (24:48)(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HshRtCDsF7g)
    In this presentation, the lives of African migrants in Europe are examined. Discussion centres around African identities, cross-cultural adjustment, racism and intercultural relationships. Some interracial couples share their cultural differences such as variations in the roles of men in families.
  • You know you are in Tunisia when ... someone is worth a few camels (1:28) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQHvN99kg4s)
    A European family on holiday in Tunisia encounters many cultural differences and experiences culture shock.

 

Chapter 9

  1. define what is meant by an intercultural interpersonal relationship
  2. identify and describe ten categories of intercultural interpersonal relationships
  3. discuss how society influences intercultural interpersonal relationships
  4. identify the benefits of intercultural interpersonal relationships
  5. define the terms ‘social networks’ and ‘friendship networks’
  6. identify and describe three types of social networks
  7. describe cultural differences in the notion of friendship
  8. discuss the role that language and humour can play in intercultural relations
  9. describe the contact hypothesis and its implications for intercultural interpersonal relationships
  10. describe the role and challenges of computer-mediated communication in intercul- tural friendships and romance
  11. identify internal and external factors that facilitate or hinder intercultural inter- personal relationships (friendship, romance, marriage)
  12. identify constructive ways to nurture intercultural interpersonal relationships.
  • Bystydzienski, J.M. (2011) Intercultural Couples: Crossing Boundaries, Negotiating Diffference, New York: New York University Press.
    The author examines the multidimensional experiences of intercultural couples who negotiate their identities, gender expectations, language use, family relations, child- rearing, financial matters and lifestyle.
  • Hruschka, D.J. (2010) Friendship: Development, Ecology, and Evolution of a Relationship (Origins of Human Behavior and Culture), Berkeley, CA: University of California Press.
    In this multidisciplinary book, the author synthesizes cross-cultural, experimental and ethnographic data to better understand the broad meaning of friendship, how it develops, how it interfaces with kinship and romantic relationships and how it differs from place to place.
  • Karis, T.A. and Killian, K.D. (ed.) (2009) Intercultural Couples: Exploring Diversity in Intimate Relationships, New York: Taylor and Francis.
    This edited collection covers a broad range of topics and issues related to intercultural couples, including bilingualism, interfaith relationships and Internet-mediated relation- ships.
  • Rabotin, M. (2011) Culture Savvy: Working and Collaborating Across the Globe, Alexandria, VA: ASTD Press.
    The author draws attention to how fear, stereotypes and misunderstandings negatively impact intercultural relations. Suggestions are offered to develop respectful, rewarding friendships with individuals who have been socialized in a different cultural and linguistic background.
  • Romano, D. (2008) Intercultural Marriage: Promises and Pitfalls, 2nd edn, Boston: Intercultural Press, Inc., Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
    Written by an intercultural counsellor, this book explores the benefits and challenges of intercultural marriage (e.g. linguistic, religious, cultural difference).
  • Shelling, G. (2008) In Love but Worlds Apart: Insights, Questions, and Tips for the Intercultural Couple, Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.
    The author discusses ways to develop and nurture intercultural intimate relationships (e.g. romances, marriages).
  • Vela-McConnell, J.A. (2011) Unlikely Friends: Bridging Ties and Diverse Friendships, Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.
    This accessible book focuses on successful friendships that cross one or more social and cultural boundaries (e.g. age, race, gender, class, sexual orientation, religious affil- iation). The author raises awareness of interpersonal techniques that can enhance intercultural interpersonal friendship.
  • Ae Fond Kiss (Just A Kiss) (2004) Diaphana Films, UK (103 minutes). This film involves Pakistani (UK), British and Irish cultures. In Glasgow, Scotland, the Pakistani parents of Casim Khan have decided that he should marry his cousin Yasemine. Unfortunately, Casim has already fallen in love with the white, Catholic and Irish Roisin. They start a secret relationship but Casim is torn between following his heart and being a good son. When the secret comes out, the Khan family is distraught and embarrassed. Their daughter´s impending marriage is cancelled and they fear they will lose face in the local Pakistani community. Because of her relationship with Casim, Roisin may lose her teaching job at a Catholic school. Finally, Casim decides to live with Roisin and break with his family.
  • American Fusion(2005) Wildcat Releasing (94 minutes). Yvonne is a middle-aged divorcee who feels as if life is passing her by. She is unhappy in her job and her life is dominated by her overbearing mother and son. When Yvonne meets Jose, a handsome dentist, the two begin dating; however, her mother is horrified at the prospect of her daughter marrying a Mexican-American. Gradually, Yvonne´s family begins to accept Jose into the family.
  • Arranged (2007) Cicala Filmworks (90 minutes). The movie centres on the friendship between an Orthodox Jewish woman and a Muslim woman who meet as first-year teachers at a public school in Brooklyn, New York. Despite religious differences, they form a strong friendship in their first year of teaching and find clear similarities between their lifestyles and religions. Both are expected to enter into arranged marriages and both, in their own way, are participating in the tradition of finding a husband through the help of their respective families. Despite their internal struggles and conflicts with their parents, both women make peace with their faiths when they both finally meet suitors whom they seem to connect with, and have contentedly settled down into marriage and motherhood by the end of the movie.
  • Catfish in Black Bean Sauce (2000)Black Hawk Entertainment (119 minutes). A comedy-drama about a Vietnamese brother and sister raised by an African American couple.
  • Guess Who (2005) Columbia Pictures (US); Twentieth Century Fox (international) (105 minutes). This romantic comedy about race relations is a loose remake of the 1967 film Guess Who´s Coming to Dinner. While the 1967 film covered interracial romance (of a black man with a white woman) in a serious, dramatic fashion, the 2005 film deals with the topic (a white man dating a black woman) in a light, farcical manner.
  • L´auberge Espagnole (2002) Fox Searchlight Pictures (122 minutes). Xavier, a French economics major, joins an exchange programme in Spain to gain exposure to Spanish culture and language while learning about Spanish economics. In Barcelona, he shares an apartment with international students from England, Italy, Denmark, Germany, and Belgium. This film depicts the challenging but rewarding process of developing intercultural friendships.
  • Monsoon Wedding (2001). New Delhi: iDream Productions. (114 minutes). This film centres on a modern, upper-middle class family in Delhi, India, where telecommunications and a western lifestyle mix with old traditions (e.g., arranged marriages). The main storyline centres on a father who is trying to organize a large, chaotic and expensive wedding for his daughter to a man she has known for only a few weeks. In this Punjabi wedding, extended family members from different generations come together from all corners of the globe including India, Australia, Oman and the United States. At first, the bride rebels against the arranged marriage and some of the story centres on her turmoil. The film covers the concept of social class/caste, arranged marriage, collectivism, attitudes toward children and family life; the importance of dance to the culture; intergenerational conflict; and the influence of Hinduism on the daily life of the characters.
  • My Big Fat Greek Wedding (2002) IFC Films (95 minutes). Toula is a single, 30-year old Greek-American woman who helps out in the Greek restaurant that her family runs. Her father would like her to marry a Greek man and have a Greek baby; however, Toula falls in love with a white American man, Ian, after she starts to work at a travel agency. This comedy film follows their intercultural romantic relationship and their evolving relationship with her family. Although a clash in cultural values and beliefs caused some intercultural conflicts, they were able to resolve difficulties.
  • Outsourced (2008) Los Angeles, CA: Ocean Park Home Entertainment (103 minutes). Todd Anderson works in a customer call centre in the U.S. until his entire office is outsourced to India and he is asked to go to Bombay to train his own replacement. In the beginning, frequent cultural misunderstandings and culture shock lead to Todd wanting to escape the chaos of Bombay for the comforts of Seattle. Gradually, he develops relationships with the Indian call centre workers, including a romantic relationship with a female employee. Todd begins to appreciate different ways of doing things both in the business setting and in everyday life.
  • Save the Last Dance (2001) Paramount Pictures (112 minutes). A white high school girl, Sara, loses her mother in an accident and moves to a predominantly black urban neighbourhood to live with her father. At first, the new environment seems unwelcoming until she becomes friends with a black student, Derek. Sara and Derek share their passion for dancing, and become romantically involved. They struggle with their interracial relationship due to other people´s attitudes towards black-white relationships.
  • Something New (2006) Focus Features (99 minutes). This American romantic drama film focuses on interracial relationships and traditional African American family values and social customs. A successful, single African American woman develops a friendship and then a romantic relationship with a white man. In the process, she questions her perceptions of social norms and race relations.
  • A Conversation with Chinese and American Students (17:47) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rX_7NuOWYMk)
    This video is presented by the Office for International Students and Scholars at Michigan State University to stimulate discussion about Chinese-American student interactions on campus. Undergraduate students share candid thoughts about their experiences, including students from China and American students who have spent time in China and have meaningful Chinese friendships. The video suggests ways to enhance intercultural interactions/friendships.
  • The hidden influence of social networks (18:44) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2U-tOghblfE)
    In a video lecture, Nicholas Christakis explains that all people are part of vast social networks of friends, family, co-workers and other individuals. He examines how one´s location in the network can impact one´s life.
  • Intercultural Marriage (Part 1) (4:23) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LzAwlCSCo7s) Intercultural Marriage (Part 2 ) (4:36)(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0czUJWTbQqI)
    This TV programme centres on interviews with intercultural married couples.
    Part 1: A Pew research study shows that nearly 15 per cent of all new marriages in the U.S. in 2008 were between spouses of different races or ethnicities.
    Part 2: The face of marriage in the U.S. is evolving as couples increasingly come from different racial and ethnic backgrounds. This episode explores the unique challenges of interracial and interethnic couples.
  • Interracial Relationships, Dating and Marriage (5:15) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PAlk52_tJr8)
    This presentation by University of North Carolina Chapel Hill students focuses on an ethnography of interracial relationships.
  • Interracial Relationships Documentary (3:46) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OgYOAuO3rRI)
    In this video documentary, couples express their views and opinions about interracial relationships and interracial dating.
  • A Story about Interracial Marriage (7:17) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xhDt2vORZrY)
    A recent survey indicates that the rate of interracial marriage in the U.S. has reached an all-time high. This video explores answers to the following questions: what makes interracial marriages work? What challenges do interracial couples face? Yuan Wang and Ruha Benjamin, an assistant professor from the Department of Sociology at Boston University, offer insight on this topic.

 

Chapter 10

  1. identify and describe the nature and characteristics of conflict
  2. define intercultural conflict and describe its characteristics
  3. describe the role of language in intercultural conflicts
  4. identify five types of conflict
  5. explain the potential impact of culture in conflict situations
  6. explain why it is important to consider the impact of social, political and historical elements in intercultural conflicts
  7. explain the role of face and face saving in conflict situations
  8. identify preventative strategies that you can use to avoid threatening the other person´s face in a conflict situation
  9. offer suggestions and strategies for dealing effectively and appropriately with intercultural conflicts.
  • Abigail, R.A. and Cahn, D.D. (2011) Managing Conflict through Communication, 4th edn, Boston: Allyn and Bacon.
    This text introduces the study of conflict and covers such topics as anger management and facework in relation to interpersonal conflict, group conflict, organizational conflict and social conflict.
  • Cupach, W.R., Canary, D.J. and Spitzberg, B.H. (2009) Competence in Interpersonal Conflict, 2nd edn, Long Grove, IL: Waveland Press, Inc.
    This text presents a conceptual framework to explain why communication competence is central to conflict management. The authors offer constructive guidelines that provide a basis for dealing with conflicts in five settings: intercultural, organizational, familial, mediation and violence in intimate relationships.
  • Domenici, K. and Littlejohn, S.W. (2006) Facework: Bridging Theory and Practice, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    In this book, identities facework is presented as central to intercultural communication, including the management of conflict situations.
  • Folger, J.P., Poole, M.S. and Stutman, R.K. (2013) Working through Conflict: Strategies for Relationships, Groups and Organizations, 7th edn, Boston: Pearson.
    This accessible text provides an introduction to conflict and conflict management that is grounded in theory, research and practice. It includes a chapter on face-saving.
  • LeBaron, M. (2003) Bridging Cultural Conflicts: A New Approach for a Changing World, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
    Mindful awareness, cultural fluency and conflict fluency are introduced as tools for grappling with intercultural conflict in a wide range of interpersonal, community, orga- nizational and political contexts. LeBaron draws on Western and Eastern approaches to conflict resolution.
  • LeBaron, M. and Pillay, V. (2006) Conflict Across Cultures: A Unique Experience of Bridging Differences, Boston: Nicholas Brealey Publishing.
    Drawing on examples from a variety of cultures, this text illustrates techniques to resolve conflicts that stem from cultural difference. The authors describe and identify the processes, tools and skills that facilitate successful conflict resolution.
  • Oetzel, J.G. and Ting-Toomey, S. (eds) (2006) The SAGE Handbook of Conflict Communication: Integrating Theory, Research, and Practice, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    This comprehensive handbook synthesizes key theories, research and practice in conflict communication in a variety of contexts (e.g. conflicts in relationships and families, conflict at work, conflict in communities, conflict in international and intercultural situ- ations).
  • Bend It Like Beckham (2002) Helkon SK, United Kingdom (112 minutes). This film illustrates the intergenerational conflict that can arise in families who immigrate from one cultural environment to another. A teenager, the British-born daughter of Sikh parents, dreams of playing soccer; however, her parents do not approve and want her to learn to cook traditional dishes and prepare for an arranged marriage. She becomes involved in an interracial romance when she joins a female soccer team. Acculturation is also a theme in this film as it illustrates different ways in which immigrants may respond to their new environment (e.g., assimilation, integration).
  • Cultures in Conflict (2004) Edmonton, AB: Distribution Access (133 minutes). This five-part series travels across North America and Europe to investigate how intercultural conflict can become either a source of violence or the basis of creativity. Historical footage and current events are carefully selected to illustrate key concepts and techniques concerning intercultural communication and intercultural conflict resolution.
  • Darfur Now (2007) Warner Independent Pictures (98 minutes). The film explores the Darfur conflict through the experiences of six individuals who are struggling to draw attention to this humanitarian tragedy. This production draws attention to the human cost of war and the need for a concerted, united effort to prevent conflicts from spiralling out of control.
  • The Day After Peace (2009) London: Peace One Day (81 minutes). This programme follows the ten-year journey of award-winning filmmaker Jeremy Gilley to establish an annual Peace Day on 21 September. The member states of the United Nations unanimously adopt Peace Day but the struggle to end regional and international conflicts continues. The movie illustrates the perseverance of the human spirit and the power of an individual to make a difference.
  • Eat Drink Man Woman (1994) The Samuel Goldwyn Company, Taiwan (124 minutes). This film explores intergenerational conflict in a Chinese family (a father and his three adult daughters). The eldest daughter works in an office and is the most Westernized, the second one is a school teacher and the youngest works in a fast-food restaurant. Their increasing desire for independence does not sit well with their more traditional, conservative father.
  • Guess Who´s Coming to Dinner (1967) Columbia Pictures, USA (108 minutes). Set in the 1960s, this film centres on a dinner party hosted by a bride´s parents to meet her fiancé (a doctor) and his parents. The bride´s white parents are shocked to find that the groom is black and the groom´s parents are also unhappy when they learn that the bride is white. This comedy drama explores interracial conflict/marriage.
  • Hotel Rwanda (2004) Lions Gate Entertainment (121 minutes) In the East African country of Rwanda, hundreds of thousands of Tutsi were exterminated by the Hutu. This film depicts the true story of Paul Rusesabagina, a hotel manager who gave sanctuary to over a thousand Tutsi refugees during their struggle against the Hutu militia in Rwanda in 1994.
  • The Joy Luck Club (1993) Buena Vista Pictures (139 minutes). This drama/comedy, which centres on intergenerational conflict, explores two generations of Chinese American mother-daughter relationships in San Francisco. The film is an adaptation of Amy Tan´s bestselling novel about the complicated lives of four Chinese American women and their daughters who, unlike them, were born in the U.S.
  • Monsoon Wedding (2001). New Delhi: iDream Productions. (114 minutes). This film centres on a modern, upper-middle class family in Delhi, India, where telecommunications and a western lifestyle mix with old traditions (e.g., arranged marriages). The main storyline centers on a father who is trying to organize a large, chaotic and expensive wedding for his daughter to a man she has known for only a few weeks. In this Punjabi wedding, extended family members from different generations come together from all corners of the globe including India, Australia, Oman and the United States. At first, the bride rebels against the arranged marriage and some of the story centres on her turmoil. The film covers the concept of social class/caste, arranged marriage, collectivism, attitudes toward children and family life; the importance of dance to the culture; intergenerational conflict; and the influence of Hinduism on the daily life of the characters.
  • The Namesake (2006) Hollywood, CA: Fox Searchlight Pictures, India/USA (122 minutes). This movie highlights the challenges of immigration by focusing on the experiences of an Indian family from West Bengal that moves to New York. Intergenerational conflict develops between the first-generation immigrants and their American-born children.
  • Spanglish (2005) Culver City, CA: Sony Pictures Home Entertainment (131 minutes). Flor, an illegal immigrant from Mexico, has been living in Los Angeles with her daughter for six years with little interaction with Anglophones. To earn more money, she is forced to move in with an Anglophone family and work as their housekeeper. The movie centres on their intercultural relationships, cross-cultural adjustment and struggle to establish their own identities.
  • A Thousand Years of Good Prayers (2007) The Match Factory (83 minutes). A Chinese man from Beijing travels to America to visit his divorced daughter and encourage her to remarry. He discovers that a significant generational and geographical divide has arisen between them. After many heated exchanges, Mr. Shi and his daughter Yilan finally forgave each other for past transgressions.
  • Tortilla Soup (2001) The Samuel Goldwyn Company (103 minutes). This comedy/drama centres on the life of a master chef, who is a widowed father of three daughters. Hungry for their independence, the girls find themselves in conflict with their traditionalist father.
  • How to manage cross-cultural conflict (3:48) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x1UCLuuSX1U)
    Dr. Linda Wagener from the Headington Institute in the U.S. gives helpful advice for resolving intercultural conflict situations.
  • International Conflicts (6:45) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PxwUx_lzhwE
    From a Global Issues Series produced by the Voluntary Agency Network of Korea (VANK), this educational video discusses international conflicts, citing examples such as the terrorist attack in New York in 2001. It urges individuals to take steps to help the world become more peaceful.
  • International Criminal Court (ICC-CPI) (29:07) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zfo7lMnR4O8)
    This video was produced in 2011 by the Public Information and Documentation Section of the International Criminal Court (ICC) for non-profit and educational purposes. It explains the mission and work of the International Criminal Court, the world´s first permanent international criminal court in the Hague, the Netherlands, which is governed by the Rome Statute.
  • Surprising Ways to Offend People in Other Countries (2:36) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UTE0G9amZNk)
    This clip presents ten ways Americans can unintentionally offend people in other countries.
  • Why do cultures clash? (2:14) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qxhGZVeRlSo)
    This video provides examples of intercultural misunderstandings and explains why people who have a different cultural background may be shocked when they experience different ways of doing or saying things.

 

Chapter 11

  1. discuss the impact of globalization on today´s workforce
  2. describe the role of English in the global workforce
  3. define diversity and identify the benefits of diversity for the global workplace
  4. discuss the role of language, culture and power in the global workplace
  5. identify challenges to diversity in the global workplace
  6. explain the key elements in five cultural difference frameworks employed by social scientists to explain intercultural communication in the workplace
  7. discuss the impact of the cultural difference frameworks on intercultural business education and diversity training
  8. identify the limitations and dangers of the cultural difference frameworks
  9. explain interpretive, experiential and critical approaches to understanding language and intercultural interactions in the global workplace
  10. identify constructive ways to enhance language and intercultural communication in the global workplace.
  • Goodall, H.L. Jr., Goodall, S. and Schiefelbein, J. (2009). Business and Professional Communication in the Global Workplace, Boston: Wadsworth.
    This accessible book provides an introduction to business and professional commu- nication.
  • Guilherme, M. et al. (eds) (2010) The Intercultural Dynamics of Multicultural Working, Bristol: Multilingual Matters.
    From theoretical and interdisciplinary perspectives, the chapters in this volume examine intercultural communication in various types of work environments and contexts (e.g. multicultural work teams).
  • Lauring, J. and Jonasson, C. (2010) Group Processes in Ethnically Diverse Organizations: Language and Intercultural Learning, Hauppauge, NY: Nova Science Pub Inc.
    This book explores the complex relationship between language, identity and intercultural communication in diverse organizations.
  • Schmidt, W.V., Conaway, R.N., Easton, S.S. and Wardrope, W.J. (2007) Communicating Globally: Intercultural Communication and International Business, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Integrating intercultural communication theory with the practices of multinational organizations, the authors raise awareness of the potential impact of diverse worldviews in intercultural interactions and suggest ways to enhance intercultural communication in the workplace.
  • Scollon, R., Wong Scollon, S. and Jones, R.H. (2012) Intercultural Communication: A Discourse Approach, 3rd edn, London: Blackwell.
    Grounded in interactional sociolinguistics and discourse analysis, this book explores key concepts in intercultural communication with multiple examples of corporate and professional discourse.
  • Coding Culture (2006) Watertown, MA: Documentary Educational Resources (DER) (88 minutes). This series of ethnographic films, which centre on call centers in Bangalore, India, explores the cultures of outsourced work and the shaping of a new workforce to cater to this global high-tech services industry. The film highlights the contradictory ways in which culture is dealt with in the global corporate workplace: although cultural sensitivity training programmes acknowledge cultural difference, Indian software engineers are pressed to conform to the dominant model of global corporate culture by mastering certain communication and behaviourial styles. Topics include differing systems of time/quality control and people management in new global workplaces.
  • Cultural Essence in International Business (2002) Washington, D.C.: Washington State University (18 minutes). This programme provides an overview on how cultural elements influence international business: in the workplace, the marketplace and in intercultural interactions.
  • Managing Diversity in Business (2005) New York, N.Y.: Films Media Group (60 minutes). This diversity training video addresses key issues that can arise in the multicultural workplace and suggests ways to effectively and appropriately manage multicultural and sexual diversity. Segments include: Why Value Diversity?, Understanding Our Biases and Assumptions; Sexual Harassment; Recruiting and Interviewing a Diverse Workforce; Making New Employees Feel Valued; and Managing Diversity: Meeting the Challenge.
  • The Multicultural Meeting: Working with Diverse Cultures (2002) Big World (15 minutes). This programme raises awareness of the potential challenges of intercultural interactions in the global workplace by examining a problem-plagued meeting in Tokyo between five managers from Asia, Europe, the Middle East, North America and South America. The video illustrates ways to become more effective in communicating with business professionals who have a different linguistic and cultural background.
  • Nonverbal Communication in the Global Marketplace (2004) Sunrise, FL: D.E. Visuals (24 minutes). This instructional video introduces the mechanics of nonverbally communicating through gestures, proxemics and other NV channels, and exposes viewers to differing interpretations of nonverbal behaviours in the global marketplace.
  • Outsourced (2008) Los Angeles, CA: Ocean Park Home Entertainment (103 minutes). Todd Anderson works in a customer call centre in the U.S. until his entire office is outsourced to India and he is asked to go to Bombay to train his own replacement. In the beginning, frequent cultural misunderstandings and culture shock lead to Todd wanting to escape the chaos of Bombay for the comforts of Seattle. Gradually, he develops relationships with the Indian call centre workers and begins to appreciate different ways of doing things both in the business setting and in everyday life.
  • Accents – ethnic diversity in the workplace (1:53) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XsB7p7M-3-Y)
    This video highlights the impact of different languages and accents in the multicultural workplace, e.g., misunderstandings may arise from increasing cultural and ethnic diversity in the workplace and community.
  • Building the Multicultural Team (5:57) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kLTvAOijPKs)
    This video centres on team-building activities in the global workplace. The clip centres on a problematic meeting between five managers from Asia, Europe, the Middle East, North America and South America. Techniques for working effectively with people from diverse cultural backgrounds are discussed.
  • Chinese Business Etiquette (3:26) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7XHioryoMes&list=PLE38BB40F3E211F3F)
    This instructional video explains how relationships (guanxi) and face are valued in China. Examples of indirect communication in business meetings are provided and suggestions are offered for ways to conduct negotiations with mainland Chinese business professionals.
  • Cultural Differences in Gift Giving (7:36) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wc9HUFRA7QA)
    On the CBC Information Radio show with Terry MacLeod and Marcy Markusa, Dr. Fang Wan discusses her study of cultural differences in gift giving.
  • Dealing effectively and respectfully with international colleagues (2:07) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EAHrsko4Yj8&feature=c4-overview&list=UUZNQq7eeNhBd5z7P7LcUKpQ
    This video explores ways to deal effectively and respectfully with international colleagues.
  • Intercultural miscommunication in the workplace (Scenario I) (1:54) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FXjQjfaFajY)
    This video centres on the experiences of a Swiss German manager who has recently attended meetings in Athens at her sister company´s head-quarters. She found the meetings very animated and, in her opinion, some speakers were overly aggressive. She is unsure how to deal with her Greek colleague´s displays of emotion.
  • Intercultural miscommunication in the workplace (Scenario II) (1:56) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aWtPc3y1wyw)
    This segment centres on a Japanese salesman who is on a sales visit to Germany. He goes to the German partner´s office in Berlin to introduce a new product that his company wants to launch in the German market. After his presentation, the Germans spend half an hour criticizing the product and the marketing plan. The Japanese salesman felt embarrassed and humiliated. Much to his surprise, his manager later informs him that the Berlin office has just called him to say that they are looking forward to launching the product.
  • Intercultural miscommunication in the workplace (Scenario III) (1:44) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4AHHoDwOo5c)
    This episode centres on a British manager who is on an international assignment in Saudi Arabia which involves managing a local engineering project. Aware of the importance of relationship building, the British manager has tried to get closer to his Arab colleagues. However, he was surprised when one of them asked if he could get his cousin a job in the company. The British manager was unsure how to respond. He now feels that people are simply trying to use him so he avoids them at work and socially.
  • Intercultural miscommunication in the workplace (Scenario IV) (2:32) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ASBegVfsxBs)
    This episode centers on a French HR manager in Norway who is organizing a training program for 15 staff members in one department. Unable to find a time that suits everybody, she chooses a date that is okay for 13 of them and emails the other 2 asking them to reschedule their other meetings and make themselves available on that day. She soon received complaints.
  • Japanese meeting style: cultural contrast with the West (1:46) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L2h4OOQ1it0)
    This episode, from a documentary training film, centres on cultural competence in international joint project meetings. The clip shows Western, Japanese and Indonesian managers in a joint project meeting in Indonesia. The Japanese managers describe how such a meeting would be held differently in Japan. The video raises awareness of the cultural competence needed to achieve positive outcomes in meetings involving multicultural teams. For additional information on the film, visit http://www.cicd.uk.com.
  • Race discrimination in the workplace (1:50) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aw36fIfVte8)
    This clip explains several kinds of racial discrimination that can occur in the workplace: direct discrimination, indirect discrimination, harassment and victimization.

 

Chapter 12

  1. define global citizenship
  2. identify the traits and characteristics of global citizens
  3. define what is meant by ‘global competency’
  4. identify and explain the core elements in the global competence model
  5. discuss the ethical obligations of global citizens
  6. explain what is meant by ‘intercultural competency’
  7. define intercultural (communication/communicative) competence and identify fundamental components
  8. define what is meant by ‘the intercultural speaker’ or ‘intercultural mediator’
  9. discuss intercultural citizenship and its relation to intercultural competence
  10. explain the difference between ‘culture-specific’ and ‘culture-general’ approaches to intercultural education
  11. describe four models of intercultural competence/sensitivity
  12. identify and describe the relationship between second language proficiency and intercultural competence
  13. identify requisite competencies for today’s global society
  14. describe ways to enhance one’s intercultural competence and intercultural/global citizenry.
  • Byram, M. (1997) Teaching and Assessing Intercultural Communicative Competence, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    This text explores the competencies that are required, how they can be incorporated into foreign language teaching and how the ability to communicate across cultural differences can be assessed. It is based on the premise that foreign and second lan- guage teaching should prepare learners to use a language with fluency and accuracy, and also to speak with people who have different cultural identities, social values and behaviours.
  • Byram, M. (2008) From Foreign Language Education to Education for Intercultural Citizenship: Essays and Reflections, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
    In this monograph, Byram reflects on and further develops his earlier work on the inter- cultural speaker/intercultural competence and stresses the importance of political dimensions of foreign language education.
  • Deardorff, D. (ed.) The SAGE Handbook of Intercultural Competence, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.
    Linking theory with research and practice, this handbook raises awareness of the com- plexity of intercultural communication and draws attention to evolving understandings of what it means to be interculturally competent.
  • Gerzon, M. (2010) Global Citizens, London: Rider.
    The author draws attention to the major problems facing the world today and stresses the need for individuals to become responsible global citizens to effect change.
  • Harden, A. and Witte, T. (ed.) (2011) Intercultural Competence: Concepts, Challenges, Evaluations, Berlin: Peter Lang.
    The essays in this volume explore a broad range of perspectives on intercultural com- petence, including theories and applications in the teaching and learning of foreign languages.
  • Lustig, M. and Koester, J. (eds) (2005) Among Us: Essays on Identity, Belonging, and Intercultural Competence, White Plains, NY: Pearson.
    This collection presents readings from individuals whose intercultural experiences give insights on how to achieve an effective and fair multicultural society where cultural identities are celebrated and maintained. The essays centre on four themes: Identity, Negotiating Intercultural Competence, Racism and Prejudice and Belonging to Multiple Cultures.
  • Australia as a Global Citizen (2010) Davis Film and Video Productions (22 minutes). After World War Two, Australia began operating on an international level as a global citizen. Committed to promoting world peace and pursuing humanitarian goals, Australia became a founding member of the United Nations (UN) in 1945. This programme reviews the nation´s role within the UN, including UNESCO, the UN conventions and East Timor and also explores future challenges that Australia is apt to face as a global citizen on the world stage.
  • Babel (2007) Hollywood, CA: Paramount Home Entertainment (143 minutes). This film centres on four different groups of people in four different places around the world who are impacted by a single event. Stereotypes and ignorance complicate the situation and result in tragedy. If the individuals involved had been more (inter)culturally aware, problems and challenges might have been resolved more easily. The message of the movie is that the world would be a more peaceful place if people were less focused on national identities and were more globally-minded citizens who demonstrate concern for all humans.
  • The Day After Peace (2009) London: Peace One Day (81 minutes). This programme follows the ten-year efforts of award-winning filmmaker Jeremy Gilley to establish an annual Peace Day on 21 September. The member states of the United Nations unanimously adopted Peace Day but the struggle to end regional and international conflicts continues. The movie illustrates the perseverance of the human spirit and the power of an individual to make a difference.
  • Global Citizens: The Movie (2010) Arise Entertainment (75 minutes). This film follows a group of students who travel to southern Mexico for a six-week adventure. As they experience challenges and triumphs in an unfamiliar linguistic and cultural environment, they develop unforgettable friendships and grow academically, culturally, personally and spiritually. They develop a better understanding of what it means to be interculturally competent and globally-minded.
  • Pay It Forward (2001) Warner Bros (123 minutes). This film highlights the power of an individual to effect change. Trevor McKinney is disturbed by his mother´s alcoholism and is afraid of his abusive father. His social studies teacher gives his class an assignment that changes his life. He and his classmates are asked to come up with an idea to change the world and then put it into action. Trevor conjures up the notion of paying a favour not back, but forward. His good deeds inspire others to help other people.
  • Barriers to cross-cultural communication (5:25) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=idZR_OXim38)
    This educational video informally explains the difficulties and obstacles we may face when communicating in intercultural situation.
  • Cross Cultural Communication on the Culture of Time (4:27)(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o1bICOV3Lug)
    This video explains that people from diverse cultural backgrounds may view time differently. To be interculturally competent, one needs cultural knowledge and awareness.
  • Cultural Competence: Managing Your Prejudices (6.20) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E1MI_h0HIcw)
    This video suggests ways to reduce prejudice and become more interculturally sensitive.
  • Global Citizen (1:45) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_yio6kQrlYQ)
    In this video, people from around the world share their views about the attributes and duties of a global citizen.
  • Global Citizen: Introduction (2:38) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=j7NOVP6b8MU)
    ‘Our definition of belonging isn’t working. We need Global Citizens: people who apply the idea of citizenship to a global level.’ This video explains how people develop a sense of national identity and belonging and often forget that they are also global citizens with the responsibility to care about what happens to people in other parts of the world. The message is that all humans should make an effort to eliminate poverty/suffering and protect the environment.
  • Media Information: Literacy and Intercultural Dialogue (8:14) (http://www.unesco.org/archives/multimedia/index.php?s=films_details&id_page=33&id_film=2148)
    Media and information literacy (MIL) empowers citizens with the skills and knowledge necessary to actively contribute to the knowledge society and understand good governance processes. This first International University Network on Media and Information Literacy and Intercultural Dialogue was launched to promote media and information literate societies and mutual understanding among cultures on a global scale. The Network stimulates research that informs policies on MIL and intercultural dialogue.
  • Pragmatic Failures in Intercultural Communication (6:48) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4b-ACqKkAMQ )
    The video provides examples of intercultural miscommunication that are due to a lack of pragmatic competence. Some solutions are offered to enhance sociopragmatic competence and intercultural interactions. The video is produced by the Northern Melbourne Institute of Technical and Further Education (TAFE), Canberra, Australia.
  • Promoting Global Citizenship (3:40) (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jeUbHTYQq4I)
    This promotional video by UNICEF explains why it is important for young people to be responsible global citizens. Discussion centres around the notion of global competency and the traits/actions of global citizens.
  • The staircase model of intercultural communicative competence (2:30) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a5x0hWUe0EM)
    This model discusses four different degrees of intercultural competence: unconscious incompetence, conscious incompetence, conscious competence and unconscious competence.
  • What is a global citizen? (2:29) (http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hqhKn22VQX0)
    In this video, people are interviewed about what they think it means to be a global citizen.