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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - Persuasion in Your Life

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. Define persuasion and coercion.
  2. Identify examples of popular culture in your study of persuasion.
  3. Apply ethics to your study of persuasion.
  4. Understand communication activism as related to your study of persuasion.
  5. Define media convergence.

Chapter Outline

  1. Persuasion Defined
    1. Persuasion in Your Life
    2. The Importance of Connecting and Engaging in Your Life
  2. Overview: Your Study of Persuasion
    1. Ethics
    2. Theories of Persuasion
    3. Argumentation
    4. Visual Persuasion
    5. Persuasion and New Media
    6. Persuasive Public Campaigns
    7. Persuasion in Interpersonal Relationships
    8. Nonverbal Communication
    9. Health Communication
    10. Business and Professional Communication
    11. Persuasive Presentations
    12. Persuasive Humor
    13. Appraisal of Persuasive Messages


Persuasion: the process of attempting to change or reinforce attitudes, values, beliefs, or behavior.

Coercion: the use of force to get another person to think or behave as desired.

Popular culture: created by products of culture that are owned and made by businesses for the purpose of generating a profit.

Connection: the power of communication to link and relate us to people, groups, communities, social institutions, and cultures.

Engagement: the act of sharing in the activities of the group. Engagement is about participation that requires an orientation towards others that views them always as potential partners in the creation and negotiation of social reality.

Communication activism: direct energetic action in support of needed social change for individuals, groups, organizations, and communities.

Ethics: general term for the discussion, determination, and deliberation processes that attempt to decide what is right or wrong, what others should or should not do, what is considered appropriate in our individual, communal, and professional lives.

Ethical considerations: the variety of factors important to consider across communication contexts.

Ethical dilemmas: situations that do not seem to present clear choices between right and wrong, or good or evil.

Autonomy: freedom to make individual choices.

Responsibility: being accountable for choices that impact others and our communities.

Poesis: the terms used by the ancient Greeks that refers to creative aspects of communication.

Praxis: how communication can be used to accomplish things.

Argumentation: the presentation of reasoned evidence as a form of persuasion.

Visual communication: the ways in which images, such as signs, symbols, pictures, photographs, and art, that humans interact with, either intentionally or unintentionally, create meaning in their lives.

Media: the variety of message delivery formats such as print news, radio, television, and the Internet that have evolved over time.

Media convergence: the blending or collapse of print, radio, electronic, and digital formats as one dominant medium.

Hypermedia: allows the sender and receiver to interact in real time with new media technologies.

Public relations (PR): the ongoing use of two-way communication to develop, maintain, and sustain positive relationships with the public.

Interpersonal relationships: your relations and interactions with another person.

Nonverbal communication: all the ways we communicate without using words.

Health communication: the construction and sharing of meanings about the provision of health care delivery and the promotion of public health through mediated channels.

Ubiquitous: term describing that persuasion is everywhere in your life.

Direct persuasion: what you do during a live interview with a hiring committee, manager, or business owner, whether it’s accomplished through face-to-face interaction, telephone communication, or perhaps even an online interview via Skype.

Indirect persuasion: refers to those job interviewing decisions or actions that tend not to occur face-to-face. Put simply, indirect persuasion comes before or after the actual interview, but it’s just as important as direct persuasion.

Chapter 2

Chapter 2 - Ethical Dimensions of Persuasion

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. Define the term ethics.
  2. Identify the importance of ethics in your study of persuasion.
  3. Discuss ethical responsibility across communication contexts.
  4. Apply ethics to political persuasion and adapting your message to the audience.
  5. Explain the different perspectives of ethics in persuasion and how each of them can be applied to real-life situations.

Chapter Outline

  1. Defining Ethics
  2. The Importance of Ethics
  3. Ethical Considerations
    1. The Ethics of Electronic Communication
  4. Ethical Responsibility
    1. Ethical Responsibility in Politics
    2. Adapting to the Audience
  5. Some Ethical Perspectives
    1. Religious Perspective
    2. Human Nature Perspective
    3. Dialogical Perspective
    4. Situational Perspective


Code of ethics:different sets of principles that people hold themselves to, or are held to in multiple organizations or groups.

Dedication:the ability to commit to do what is right no matter the situation.

Distinguish:to decide what is right and what is wrong.

Ethics:a system of accepted principles that make up an individual’s or group’s values and judgments as to what is right, and what is wrong.

Values:beliefs and attitudes we have that can conflict with our ethical decisions.

Email dialogues:exchanges of messages about a particular topic using email, professional blog space, and other electronic tools to encourage participation that will hopefully lead to new ideas, strategic planning, and sound decision making.

Electronic aggression:a form of aggressive communication in which people interact on professional topics filled with emotionality and aggression.

Ethical persuader:ethical persuaders value truthful information. They wish to help others make the best choice based upon the truth.

Human nature perspective:states that we have an ability to judge, to reason, and to comprehend that far exceeds any other species.

Lying:simply undermining the truth; refusing to tell the truth as a whole.

Motives:the true reason for our action; what we hope to lose or gain as a result of our action(s).

Reliability:the degree to which others can rely on us.

Responsibility:the ability to be held accountable for one’s actions; the ability to be trusted.

Truth:the accurate and honest word of another person.

Unethical persuader:unethical persuaders will cover up the truth in order to receive a benefit off of others who will accept false or modified information.

Dialogical perspective:examines communication as dialogue between two people by studying the attitudes and motives of each party.

Monologue:a performance or speech of a single person.

Dialogue:a conversation that occurs between two people.

Religious perspective:examines the relationship between us as humans and any higher power that is believed in.

Situational perspective:examines every situation that we encounter where persuasion is involved.

Chapter 3

Chapter 3 - Theories of Persuasion

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. Explain what theory is and its connection to your study of persuasion.
  2. Have a basic understanding of popular theories of persuasion.
  3. Identify the aspects of Aristotelian theory that are the foundations for current persuasive theory.
  4. Examine how theories are used in your study of persuasion.
  5. Apply theories of persuasion in your life.

Chapter Outline

  1. What Is Theory?
  2. Early Theories
    1. Aristotelian Theory
    2. Rank’s Model of Persuasion
    3. Narrative Paradigm
  3. Social Theories
    1. Attribution Theory
    2. Causal Attributions
    3. Social Judgment Theory
    4. Elaboration Likelihood Model
    5. Social Learning Theory
  4. Tension Reduction Theories
    1. Cognitive Dissonance
    2. Balance Theory
    3. Uses and Gratifications
  5. Summary


Communication Theory:understanding and explaining human interaction.

Artistic proofs:features of a persuasive message that can be manipulated by the persuader.

Inartistic proofs:things that help to persuade but can’t be controlled by the persuader.

Ethos:charisma and credibility of a speaker.

Pathos:passions, invokes emotional responses.

Logos:appeals of logic.

Intensification:presenting information in a way that the audience will pay more attention to it.

Repetition:presenting the same idea about something over and over.

Association:connecting previously held opinions to new situations.

Composition:manipulation of the physical structure of the message to evoke a desired opinion.

Auditory messages:messages that are only heard.

Downplaying:minimizing the importance of certain characteristics.

Omission:purposely leaving out information.

Diversion:shifting attention away from a particular event, issue, or characteristic.

Confusion:leaving the audience with uncertainty.

Coherence:being free of contradictions.

Fidelity:reliability or truthfulness of a story.

Attribution:inference made about why something happened, why someone did or said something, or why you acted or responded in a particular way.

Personal causes:resulting from personality traits and characteristics.

External causes:resulting from factors outside the person.

Perceptual styles:individual patterns of perception.

Fundamental attribution error:people make assumptions based on personality characteristics.

Anchor:belief or attitude that previously exists.

Latitude of Acceptance (LOA):range in which someone is likely to accept a new idea.

Latitude of Rejection (LOR):range which someone is likely to not accept a new idea.

Latitude of Noncommitment (LON):range in which further consideration would be needed before making a judgment.

Ego-involvement:how important an issue is in a person’s life.

Message elaboration:how much a person has to think about a particular argument in a persuasive message.

Central route:used when concepts and ideas relevant to the issue at hand are thought through more carefully.

Peripheral route:used when cues are not relevant to the issue and very little thought is used to process the message.

Cognition:a belief, thought, idea, or piece of knowledge that an individual has.

Consonant cognitions:two ideas that are consistent with one another.

Chapter 4

Chapter 4 - Argumentation

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. Understand the role argumentation plays in persuasion.
  2. Know the difference between argumentation and arguing or fighting.
  3. Explain the basic elements of any argument.
  4. Explain the importance of warrants for argumentation.

Chapter Outline

  1. Argumentation, Not Arguing
    1. A Culture of Argument?
    2. Ethical Arguing
  2. Locating Examples of Argumentation
    1. Argumentation in the Private Sphere
    2. Argumentation in the Technical Sphere
    3. Argumentation in the Public Sphere
  3. Defining Argumentation
    1. Logicians, Formal Argument, and the Syllogism
    2. Argumentation, Aristotle, and Logos
    3. The Toulmin Model
  4. Warrants: The Heart of Argument
    1. Importance of Warrants
    2. Types of Warrants and Types of Thinking
    3. What Do the Warrants Say About the Argument?
  5. Summary


Argumentation:the presentation of reasoned evidence as a form of persuasion.

*Argumentation: “The practices of justifying decisions under conditions of uncertainty.”

Authoritative warrants:based in the credibility, or ethos, of the data.

Backing: further support for the warrant.

Claim: the part of the argument to be defended.

Deductive reasoning: reasoning begins with general claims in order to draw specific, narrower inferences.

Enthymeme: an argument with an unstated assumption that is supplied by the audience.

Ethos: the credibility or believability of the arguer, not the argument.

Inductive reasoning: the observation of specifics to draw general conclusions.

Logos: the use or reasoning to construct an argument.

Motivational warrants: based upon values or needs of the arguer or the audience.

Pathos: designates an appeal to the passions or the emotions.

Private sphere: the sphere of our personal relationship in day-to-day life.

Public sphere: arena of arguments with broad public concern.

Qualifier: qualifies the extent or degree of the claim.

Rebuttal: counter to arguments made against the claim.

Substantive warrants: draw upon the substance of an argument, rather than on the arguer or the audience.

Technical sphere: where arguments based on a technical form of knowledge take place.

Warrant: part of the argument that links the data and the claim.

Message elaboration:how much a person has to think about a particular argument in a persuasive message.

Central route:used when concepts and ideas relevant to the issue at hand are thought through more carefully.

Peripheral route:used when cues are not relevant to the issue and very little thought is used to process the message.

Cognition:a belief, thought, idea, or piece of knowledge that an individual has.

Consonant cognitions:two ideas that are consistent with one another.

Chapter 5

Chapter 5 - Visual Persuasion

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. Understand the role the visual plays in persuasion.
  2. Know the properties of a visual argument.
  3. Explain the nature of visual culture.
  4. Explain the concept of witnessing.
  5. Describe how campaigns use visual communication to help draw an audience and support.

Chapter Outline

  1. Visual Communication Defined
  2. Visual Culture
    1. Witnessing
  3. Does the Visual Argue?
    1. UNICEF Belgium and the Smurfs: An Example of Visual Argument
  4. The Visual Narrative
    1. The Twin Towers of 9/11: An Example of Visual Narrative
  5. Visual Persuasion in Advertising
    1. Sexual Appeals in Advertising: Does Sex Sell?
  6. Visual Campaigning


Visual communication:the ways in which the images, such as signs, symbols, pictures, photographs, and art, that humans interact with, either intentionally or unintentionally, create meaning in their lives.

Visual narratives:not necessarily all “told” through the use of language, but also through the sharing of signs, symbols, and images.

Visualization:step of Monroe’s Sequence that emphasizes the power of the visual for the audience.

Cultural salience:what is visual, or images, help to frame or construct culture.

Witnessing:the first is a passive act; the second is active. By witnessing what has taken place the witness passively observes the world around him/her. He/she becomes a possessor of knowledge.

God terms:terms typically revered in a culture (e.g., freedom, rights, democracy) to see or imagine.

Devil terms:terms that the culture generally regards as evil or wrong (e.g., tyranny, terrorism, fascism, socialism).

Visual narratives:not necessarily all “told” through the use of language, but also through the sharing of signs, symbols, and images.

Extended Parallel Process Model (EPPM):provides a theoretical underpinning for understanding some of the campaigns communicative strategies—a theory of fear appeals.

Chapter 6

Chapter 6 - Persuasion and New Media

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. Understand how persuasion has changed among the various stages of technological development.
  2. Differentiate between the six elements of mass persuasion.
  3. Understand and explain how power and privacy function in social networking.
  4. Identify the new media strategies that businesses use to persuade us to action.
  5. Apply your experiences with social networking to the various elements of persuasion.

Chapter Outline

  1. Traditions of Technological Development
    1. Oral Tradition
    2. Written/Print Tradition
    3. Electronic Tradition
    4. Digital/New Media Tradition
    5. Traditional Media Versus New Media
  2. Social Networking
    1. Mass Interpersonal Persuasion
    2. Persuasive Experience
    3. Automated Structure
    4. Social Distribution
    5. Rapid Cycle
    6. Huge Social Graph
    7. Measured Impact
  3. The Inherent Persuasiveness of Social Networking
    1. Power and Control
    2. Public Versus Private
  4. Voyeurism and Surveillance
  5. Business and Influence
    1. Reciprocation
    2. Commitment and Consistency
    3. Social Proof
    4. Liking
    5. Authority
    6. Scarcity
  6. Summary


New media:the convergence of traditional media (such as film, music, language, images, and text) with the interactive ability of computer technology.

Oral Tradition:cultural messages or traditions verbally transmitted across generations.

Primary orality:a culture that has no knowledge of technology beyond the spoken word.

Secondary orality:verbal communication is sustained through other technologies.

Written Tradition:refers to early forms of written communication, such as scribe and hieroglyphics.

Print Tradition:embodies the creation and dissemination of printed text.

Printing press:a mechanical device that applies pressure from an inked surface to a print medium.

Electronic Tradition:media that require users to make use of electronics to access content.

Mashed up:converged into new media technologies.

Fidelity:matches our own beliefs and experiences.

Coherence:appears to hold together and make sense.

Agency:the ability to generate change in a culture’s thoughts, beliefs, and actions.

Social networking:website networks specifically created to allow users to create and exchange content of mutual interest and communicate directly with one another.

Mass interpersonal persuasion:the ability for individuals to change attitudes and behaviors on a mass scale.

Persuasive experience:an experience that is created specifically with the goal of persuasion—changing attitudes, beliefs, behaviors, or values.

Identity management:the representation of the self as socially desirable.

Automated structure:digital technology serves as the structure for the persuasive experience.

Social distribution:the persuasive experience is shared between friends.

Rapid cycle:the persuasive experience is distributed quickly among persons.

Huge social graph:the ability of a persuasive experience to reach millions of people through a network.

Measured impact:being able to observe and measure effects.

Cultural Studies Theory:the media are powerful tools of the elite and serve to keep powerful people in control.

Hegemony:ideology is created in such a way that one social group dominates another.

False consciousness:individuals are unknowingly exploited by a social system that they support.

Out-of-control bodies:the representation of lower-class individuals as out of control and dangerous.

Peep culture:“entertainment derived from peeping into the real lives of others.”

Reciprocation:returning a kindness that another has provided to us.

Commitment and consistency:feeling obligated to act in ways that are reliable and constant.

Social proof:determining whether a behavior is acceptable occurs by observing others to find out how they feel about the behavior.

Liking:explains that we prefer to say yes to people that we enjoy or feel are similar to us.

Authority:a person is persuaded by a famous or well-respected person’s endorsement.

Scarcity:limiting the availability of a product, offer, or membership.

Chapter 7

Chapter 7 - Persuasive Public Campaigns

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. Articulate the difference between advertising and public relations campaigns.
  2. Differentiate between the three types of advertising campaigns.
  3. Identify the elements of persuasion within the Yale five-stage developmental model.
  4. Recognize the ways that persuasion is embedded in the PIE model of public relations.
  5. Identify the way that new media have changed the use of persuasion in public campaigns.

Chapter Outline

  1. Foundation of Persuasive Public Campaigns
  2. Advertising as Persuasion
    1. Definition
    2. Elements of Advertising
      1. Emotion
      2. Logic
      3. Credibility
  3. The Advertising Process
    1. Identification
    2. Legitimacy
    3. Participation
    4. Penetration
    5. Distribution
  4. Types of Advertising
    1. Product-Oriented Advertising
    2. Person-Oriented Advertising
    3. Idea-Oriented Advertising
  5. Public Relations as Persuasion
    1. Definition
    2. History
  6. The Public Relations Process
    1. Planning
    2. Implementation
    3. Evaluation
  7. Types of Persuasive Public Relations Campaigns
    1. Community Relations
    2. Consumer Relations
    3. Employee Relations
    4. Public Issues
  8. Crisis Management
    1. Types of Crises
    2. Crisis Response Strategies
    3. Image Restoration Strategies
    4. Apologia
  9. New Media and Persuasive Public Campaigns
    1. Two-Way Communication
    2. Relationship-Building
    3. Far-Reaching Strategies
    4. Cost-Effective Persuasion
  10. Summary


Public relations:ongoing use of two-way communication to develop, maintain, and sustain positive relationships with the public.




Democracy:a well-informed public.

Dialogic:take the form of a dialogue.

Advertising campaign:a paid form of impersonal communication, concerned with selling specific products, services, brands, images, and lifestyles to the public.

Identification:becoming known in the mind of the public.

Legitimacy:becoming known as trustworthy and believable.

Participation:the involvement of individuals who were not committed at the beginning of the campaign.

Penetration:when a campaign becomes noticed and unavoidable.

Distribution:the success of the campaign in rewarding supporters.

Product-oriented:to promote a specific product and service to a target audience.

Person-oriented:the promotion of a person or candidate.

Idea-oriented:focused on gathering support for a particular message or cause.

Reactive:occurring after a company or individual’s image has been damaged by a negative event or crisis.

Proactive:paying attention to an organization’s image before it is compromised.

Two-way communication:the communication between the organization and its public.

Semantikos (semantics):the use of the symbols to create meaning.

Planning:primary and secondary research about a client, identifying the target audiences for the campaign, proposing channels of communication and strategies to be used in the campaign, and constructing goals, objectives, messages, and themes.

Implementation:making decisions about which strategies and tactics will be used to respond to the goals of the organization, and executing those strategies and tactics.

Evaluation:practitioners can measure the success of the campaign in persuading the public to change their attitudes and can identify the level of effectiveness of each of the strategies.

Community relations:strategies associated with developing positive relationships between an organization and its public.

Consumer relations:an organization’s ability to satisfy and create a positive experience for its consumers.

Employee relations:attempts to develop positive relationships between employers and employees.

Pubic issues:people from two or more opposing sides of an argument have emotional convictions about a decision that has the power to impact their lives.

General public:those who are neutral, or do not feel strongly in favor or opposition of the issue.

Crisis management:includes proactively planning a response strategy, implementing that strategy in the event of a crisis, evaluating the crisis response, and revising the initial response strategy in an effort to improve for future crises.

Natural disasters:an organization being damaged as a result of “acts of God,” include crises such as Hurricane Katrina or the earthquake in Haiti.

Malevolence:outside agents using extreme tactics to harm an organization.

Technical breakdowns:when an organization’s technology fails.

Human breakdowns:human error causes harm.

Challenges:an organization facing disputes by angry stakeholders.

Megadamage:an accident that causes serious environmental damage.

Organizational misdeeds:where an organization places profit above values or employee safety.

Workplace violence:when an employee or former employee behaves violently toward their co-workers, managers, or employees.

Rumors:false information about an organization.

Nonexistence:denial, clarification, intimidation, and attacking the accuser.

Distancing:excuse, justification, misrepresentation, or minimizing injury to allow an organization to minimize their responsibility or the perceived damage of the crisis.

Ingratiation:bolstering, transcendence, and praising others.

Mortification:strategies consisting of corrective redemption, repentance, and rectification.

Denial:simple denial and shifting the blame.

Evasion of responsibility:provocation, defeasibility, accident, and good intentions.

Reducing the offensiveness:bolstering, minimization, differentiation, transcendence, attacking one’s accuser, and compensation.

Corrective action:taking responsibility for a crisis and planning ways to solve the problem and prevent future crises.

Mortification:confessing responsibility and asking for forgiveness.

Apologia:character-based defense whose success largely depends on the persona of the spokesperson; comprises denial, counterattack, differentiation, apology, and legal strategies.

New media:the convergence of traditional media (such as film, music, language, images, and text) with the interactive ability of computer technology.

PR 2.0:refocusing public relations efforts by placing the public at the forefront via democratic and participatory media.

Chapter 8

Chapter 8 - Persuasion and Personal Relationships

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

    1. Explain the use of power and persuasion in interpersonal relationships.
    2. Identify six principles of power.
    3. Discuss ways to influence goals and engage in persuasive interpersonal relationships.
    4. Identify and explain verbal and nonverbal interpersonal persuasion behaviors.
    5. Apply persuasive behaviors in your interpersonal relationships.

Chapter Outline

  1. Power Defined
  2. Six Principles of Power
  3. Influence Goals in Interpersonal Relationships
  4. Verbal Power Plays
    1. Direct Requests 
    2. Bargaining
    3. Aversive Stimulation 
    4. Ingratiation
    5. Indirect Requests
    6. Moral Appeal
    7. Manipulation
    8. Deception
    9. Distributive Communication 
    10. Threats
  5. Nonverbal Behaviors That Increase Power
    1. Physical Appearance
    2. Spatial Behavior
    3. Eye Behavior
    4. Body Movements
    5. Touch
    6. Voice
    7. Artifacts
  6. Persuasion and Power Across Interpersonal Relationships
    1. Family
    2. Marriage
  7. Summary


Power:is a basic aspect in a relationship because most people have the ability to choose how they will use it.

Dominance:the overuse of power through behaviors. It can impact relationships in a negative manner, sometimes leading to harassment or submission.

Social Influence:is where people change another person’s thoughts, feelings, and/or behaviors.

Perception:is the idea of how others view something.

Relational concept:is related to the relationship in some way.

Resources:is either a physical or abstract concept that a person may possess in the relationship, such as love and support.

Dependence power:is where the individual has other choices, such as another love interest, another job opportunity, and/or friend.

Principle of least interest:if there is a difference between the perceptions of happiness between partners, then the person who is happiest possesses the most power.

Prerogative principle:where powerful people have the ability to defy rules and interactions with others without many of the negative consequences.

Psychological Reactance:when a receiver is challenging and controlling.

Compliance-gaining:strategies to get others to do what we want.

Direct request:simply asking for a request straightforwardly.

Bargaining:consenting to do something in exchange for something else.

Aversive stimulation:individuals cry, complain, sulk, or pout in order to get what they want.

Ingratiation:“kiss up” to others to get what you want.

Illicit ingratiation:being nice, but not sincere, just to get what you want.

Indirect request:hinting.

Moral appeal:imply that a moral person would comply.

Manipulation:makes the other person feel ashamed, jealous, and/or guilty.


Distributive communication:insulting, hurting, or blaming others.

Threats:bullying others.

Principle of Elevation:height influences perception of power.

Visual centrality:increasing perceptions of power by providing more eye contact.

Visual dominance ratio:speaking time with eye contact divided over listening time with eye contact.

Authoritative:is a combination of authoritarian and permissive.

Permissive:nondirective and undemanding.

Authoritarian:demanding and nonresponsive.

Separation and individuation:where the child, usually a teen, tries to create some boundaries for their own identity and ones developed by their parents.

Traditionals: have atraditional view of marriage.

Independents:have nonconventional beliefs about marriage.

Separates:have a higher need for autonomy.

Chapter 9

Chapter 9 - Persuasive Dimensions of Nonverbal Communication

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. Define nonverbal communication and connect to your study of persuasion.
  2. Explain how the nonverbal code of environment can be persuasive.
  3. Understand Sheldon’s body types.
  4. Evaluate facial and eye behavior, for they connect to your study of persuasion.
  5. Apply the nonverbal dimensions of persuasion to real-life situations.

Chapter Outline

  1. Nonverbal Communication as Persuasion
  2. Environment
    1. Formality
    2. Color
    3. Lighting
    4. Sound
    5. Smell
    6. Temperature
  3. Proxemics
    1. Cultural Background
    2. Sex and Sexual Orientation
    3. Status
  4. Kinesics
    1. Posture, Dominance, and Status
    2. Walk
    3. Gestures
  5. Touch
    1. Types of Touch
    2. Appropriateness
  6. Physical Appearance
    1. Body Types
    2. Hair
    3. Clothing
    4. Jewelry
  7. Face and Eyes
    1. Facial Action Coding System (FACS)
    2. Eye Behavior


Nonverbal communication:all the ways to communicate without words.

Environment:the built or natural surroundings that serve as the context in which people interact.

Impression management:the formation of an impression, perception, or view of others

Proxemics:the way that distance and space play a communicative role in our everyday life or how one uses their physical space and spatial zones.

Intimate space:this zone measures 0 to 1½ feet between communicators.

Personal space:1½ to 4 feet of space between communicators.

Social space:4 to 12 feet of distance between communicators.

Public space:12 feet and beyond.

Territoriality:sense of ownership of an object, a particular space, a person, or even time.

Physical appearance:the way our bodies and overall appearance nonverbally communicate to others and impact our view of ourselves in everyday life.

Attraction:how we are drawn toward other people interpersonally, spiritually, emotionally, physically, and/or sexually for possible friendship, dating, love, partnership, and marriage.

Physical attractiveness:culturally derived perception of beauty, formed by features of our appearance.

Viscerotonic:slow, sociable, emotional, forgiving, and relaxed.

Somatonic:show characteristics of dominance, confidence, energy, enthusiasm, competitiveness and optimistic attitudes.

Cerebrotonic:often being tense, awkward, careful, polite, and detached.

Kinesics:the study of human movement, gestures, and posture.

Oculesics:the study of eye behavior.

Touch deprivation:lack of physical contact with people.

Chapter 10

Chapter 10 - Persuasive Dimensions of Health Communication

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. Explain the terms health and health communication.
  2. Identify the instances in which health-related persuasion plays a role in interpersonal relationships.
  3. Discuss the ways in which patients and providers engage in persuasion during the medical encounter.
  4. Explain direct-to-consumer advertising and understand the theoretical explanations underlying the persuasive tactics used.
  5. Discuss the assumptions of current theories that are applied to health campaign messages.

Chapter Outline

  1. Defining Health and Health Communication
  2. Interpersonal Issues of Health
    1. Talking About Health to Others
    2. Persuasion in the Patient-Provider Interaction
  3. Mediated Persuasion in Advertising and Health Campaigns
    1. Direct-to-Consumer Advertising
    2. Pro-Social Health Messages and Health Campaigns
    3. The Real Impact of Persuasive Mediated Messages
    4. Evaluating Mediated Health Messages


Health:more than the absence of illness or injury, a state of physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual well-being.

Health communication:the construction and sharing of meanings about the provision of health care delivery and the promotion of public health through mediated channels.

Health care provider:a professional (e.g., doctor, nurse, therapist) who is trained to provide a health care service to the public.

Socialization:the process that occurs when we are taught what is appropriate and inappropriate in a given communication situation—what to do, say, or expect from others.

Social support:enabling, empowering, and facilitating another person’s ability to meet her/his physical, emotional, and/or informational needs.

Emotional support:listening to and empathizing with a person’s difficult situation, or giving much-needed reassurance.

Informational support:facts, statistics, stories, or resources that enable a person to be more informed about their health situation.

Instrumental support:providing physical or tangible assistance with daily or mundane tasks.

Self-efficacy:the belief one has in his or her ability to do certain things.

Internal locus of control:reflects the belief that one controls the results achieved.

External locus of control:reflects the belief that the cause of events is beyond one’s control, that they are mostly attributed to outside forces such as heredity or a higher spiritual power.

Health Protective Sexual Communication:a set of persuasive strategies used to introduce the topic of safer sex.

Paternalism:the belief that the doctor knows best, that one should defer to the doctor, and that the patient is the one who obeys and cooperates with the provider.

Patient compliance:refers to the patient’s adherence to a doctor’s advice, recommendation, or medical prescription.

Motivated interviewing:a method that can be used by providers to ask questions in a non-threatening way that guides patients to the most appropriate medical and behavioral decisions; a form of persuasion to gain compliance from the patient.

Immediacy:psychological closeness or connectedness between interactants.

Direct-to-consumer advertising:designing and disseminating advertisements intended for patients and consumers, thus bypassing the healthcare providers.

Cultivation theory:explains the impact of television viewing and media consumption on viewers’ perceptions of reality and the world around them.

Health literacy:the ability to understand medical education literature, instructions on prescription drug bottles, a doctor’s instructions, and consent forms for medical procedures.

Social comparison theory:argues that people tend to make self-assessments by comparing themselves to others.

Pro-social messages:messages that are designed not to sell a product or service, but to educate and persuade the public on various health issues.

Health campaigns:mediated messages that are designed to change or reinforce health behaviors, attitudes, or beliefs held by a target population.

Health belief model:argues that people will change a health-related behavior if they feel negatively affected by it, the negative effects of the current behavior are substantial, the behavioral change will bring about a desired result, the effort needed for a person to change are worthwhile, and they are exposed to a novel or eye-opening occurrence within the message.

Internal cues to action:cues within a persuasive message that address motivations internal in the individual.

External cues to action:cues within a persuasive message that address motivations derived from outside the person, such as peer pressure or environmental factors.

Extended parallel process model:states that when people are exposed to fear appeal, they assess their vulnerability to the perceived threat as well as their ability to cope with the threat in order to minimize its impact.

Chapter 11

Chapter 11 - Persuasion in Business and Professional Contexts

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. Understand the importance of persuasion in business and professional life.
  2. Distinguish between direct and indirect persuasive communication in business and professional life.
  3. Understand the persuasive power of email and social networking sites.
  4. Apply your study of persuasion to on-the-job situations.
  5. Describe the persuasive essentials of leadership.

Chapter Outline

  1. Persuasion in Business and Professional Contexts
  2. Using Persuasion to Get the Job
    1. Direct Persuasion
    2. Indirect Persuasion
    3. Email
    4. Social Networking: The Facebook Factor
  3. Persuasion on the Job
    1. Persuading Customers and Clients
    2. The Persuasive Essentials of Leadership
      1. Impression Management
      2. Dress to Impress
      3. Business and Social Etiquette
      4. Utilizing Power in Leadership


Direct persuasion:persuasive cues related to telephone, face-to-face, or online communication, as in a live interview with a hiring committee, manager, or business owner.

Physical appearance:how our bodies and appearance persuade others and impact our view of ourselves.

Olfaction:role of smell in human interaction.

Kinesics:human movement, gestures, and posture.

Vocalics:how people express themselves through voices.

Tone of voice:elements that the human voice can produce and manipulate.

Haptics:human touch.

Professional handshake:full, firm, and equal handshake that makes a good first impression as a professional.

Eye gaze (contact):looking at the general eye area of other people.

Indirect persuasion:decisions or actions that tend not to occur face-to-face, but before or after a job interview.

Cover letter:letter of introduction to a potential employer.

Résumé:a document that details your educational and professional experience.

Typos:mistakes in typing.

Misspellings:mistakes in spelling.

Customer relations:also known as customer service—the interaction between employees or representatives of an organization or business and the people the organization sells to or serves.

Unresponsive behavior:defined as verbally and nonverbally communicating an apathetic or uncaring attitude.

Legitimate power:based on position of authority.

Coercive power:the ability to control another person’s behavior with negative reinforcement.

Reward power:describes control over another person’s behavior with positive reinforcement.

Expert power:based on one’s superior expertise in a specified field.

Referent power:when you want someone to like you or desire to be like someone—yielding power to another.

Connection power:having a connection to people in positions of power or having a strong support system acting as a source of power.

Managerial functions:include important duties like being in charge and responsible for various goals and functions in an organization.

Leadership functions:include influencing and guiding followers as opposed to subordinates, as well as being innovative and creating a vision for future direction.

Bully:verbally aggressive and usually insulting.

Impersonal Comedian/Watchdog:forwards material like jokes, funny stories, and warnings about computer viruses and scams to people in their address book.

Inspirational Speaker:forwards messages about medical tribute months, fundraisers, and good causes; also known to send religious information and prayer requests.

Jack Rabbit:responds to email messages immediately but hurriedly; often uses incomplete sentences, abbreviations (such as “bc” for “because” and “LOL” for “laugh out loud”), no capitals, and no punctuation.

Non-responder:refuses to respond to email messages even when questions are raised.

Over-Talker (aka “It’s All About Me”):sends lengthy self-oriented email messages, often containing vivid, personal self-disclosure, accompanied by numerous recent photos; expects an immediate reply as to what you think about her/him, the disclosure, and the photos.

Sniper:passive/aggressive style; uses brief, one-word replies; too busy to write in complete sentences.

Trainee:first-time user lacking confidence; usually sends the same message two or three times; neglects or forgets to attach pictures and documents.

Turtle:takes two to three weeks to respond to email messages; original message is forgotten by the time the reply is received.

Chapter 12

Chapter 12 - Persuasive Presentations

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. Understand the questions of policy, value, and fact and apply them to your study of persuasion presentations.
  2. List and describe the organizational patterns for persuasive presentations.
  3. Identify and describe the types of arguments.
  4. Identify and describe the standards for arguments.
  5. Recognize common fallacies used in persuasive presentations.

Chapter Outline

  1. Persuasive Presentations in Your Life
  2. Determining Your Persuasive Purpose
    1. Topic
    2. General Purpose Statement
    3. Specific Purpose Statement
    4. Persuasive Presentations
  3. Consider the Audience
  4. Organizing Your Persuasive Presentation
    1. Cause-and-Effect Pattern
    2. Problem-Solution Pattern
    3. Monroe’s Motivated Sequence3
    4. Sample Persuasive Outline
  5. Types of Arguments
    1. Argument by Example
    2. Argument by Definition
    3. Argument by Analogy
    4. Argument by Cause
    5. Argument by Sign
    6. Argument by Statistic
    7. Argument by Principle or Value
  6. Standards for Argument
    1. Relevance
    2. Sufficiency
    3. Credibility


Topic:the general subject of your presentation.

General purpose:large framing statement about the reason for the speech.

Specific purpose:refers to the exact goals of the persuasive presentation.

Persuasive presentations:seek to change, alter, or modify an audience’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or outlook about a topic.

Questions of policy:persuading for a change to an existing law, plan, or policy, or creating a new policy.

Questions of values:persuading for the relative merits (good/bad) of a position.

Questions of fact:persuading if something is true or not.

Attitudes:learned thought processes that guide our behavior and thinking and represent our likes or dislikes of a target.

Beliefs:ideas that a person holds true or false. Beliefs are formed from experiences in the world, attitudes, and significant relationships.

Organizational pattern:helps you define the points of your presentation and keep the audience on track.

Cause-and-effect:organizational pattern addresses a topic in terms of a cause and its effect on another entity.

Problem-solution:pattern of organization that is about solving a dilemma.

Monroe’s Motivated Sequence:persuasive organizational pattern popular with many speakers (attention, need, satisfy, visualization, call to action).

Argument by example:a form of inductive reasoning where a specific example is used to support a broader claim.

Hasty generalization:arguments by example that draw a general conclusion from an atypical or unrepresentative example.

Argument by definition:uses the definition of a concept as the data to illustrate that a specific case falls under that category.

Argument by analogy:looks for similarities between different examples to draw a conclusion.

False analogy:when many factors are different between the two compared cases.

Arguments by cause:arguments about causes and effects.

Arguments by sign:contend that certain factors, examples, materials, or instances are signs of the broader claim.

Arguments by statistic:used for deductive or inductive reasoning, depending on whether the argument moves from specific statistics to a more general claim or from general statistics to a more specific claim.

Sample size:the number of people or study objects that are surveyed in order to draw the numerical conclusions.

Argument by principle or value:why an audience might adhere to one choice over another often comes down to how well the argument links to their previously existing values or principles.

Relevance:the data and warrants used should be related and relevant to the major claim.

Ad hominem:fallacy that attacks the arguer rather than the argument itself.

Ad populum:fallacy that asserts something must be true because many people believe it.

Non sequitur:argument that incorrectly assumes one thing is the cause of another.

Sufficiency:asks if there is enough evidence to support the claim.

Correlation not causation fallacy:asserts that because one thing follows another or because two things often are found together that one must cause the other.

Begging the question/circular reasoning:form of argument where the conclusion is drawn based on the premises of the argument.

Testimonial:argument where the testimony of one user or witness is offered as data for a claim.

Credibility (ethos):crucial part of argument and persuasion—one of the three components of persuasion according to Aristotle.

Chapter 13

Chapter 13 - Persuasive Humor

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. Understand the role humor plays in persuasion.
  2. Evaluate humorous messages for persuasiveness.
  3. Understand how persuaders use humor to reach audiences.

Chapter Outline

  1. What Is Humor?
  2. Three Theories of Humor
    1. Superiority Theory
    2. Relief Theory
    3. Incongruity Theory
  3. Persuasive Effects of Humor
  4. Persuasive Uses of Humor
    1. Connecting With the Audience
    2. Making the Enthymematic Connection
  5. Limitations of Humor in Persuasion


Humor:laughter caused by a psychological reaction to a visual or verbal stimulant.

Superiority theory:explains that humor is found in feeling above or better than the subject being laughed at.

Relief theory:explains that humor is sparked in situations where a feeling of tension and relief takes over and allows for the humor to present itself.

Incongruity theory:explains that humor is a result of a break from an expected pattern or norm.

Enthymeme:rhetorical deduction based on audience-accepted warrants that yield probable conclusions.

Chapter 14

Chapter 14 - Appraisal of Persuasive Messages

Learning Objectives

After studying this chapter, you should be able to:

  1. Identify the purposes of persuasive appraisal.
  2. Know the difference between audience differentiation and audience refutation.
  3. Understand the purpose and effectiveness of different types of evaluation.
  4. Understand why a particular persuasive message worked or failed.

Chapter Outline

  1. Elements of Persuasion Appraisal
    1. Ex Post or Ex Ante?
  2. Purposes of Persuasive Appraisal
    1. Message
    2. Credibility
    3. Purpose
    4. Situation (Constraints)
    5. Outcomes (Post-Analysis)
  3. The Relevance of Theory
    1. Selection
    2. Research
    3. Evaluation: Theory of Planned Behavior
  4. Application
    1. Counter-Factual Reasoning
    2. Audience Differentiation
    3. Audience Refutation
  5. Evaluation
    1. Pragmatic Evaluation
    2. Ethical Evaluation
    3. Implications


Rhetorical criticism:  systematic investigation of a rhetorical artifact (such as a speech), which serves several purposes: documenting social trends, creating general understanding from a case study, producing meta-knowledge, and inviting a radical confrontation with others.

Ex post: after the event.

Artifact: object of persuasive analysis.

Ex ante: before the event.

Framing: the process of managing meaning, aligning thinking and words, and choosing one meaning over another.

Rhetorical situation: the situation itself exerts control over persuasion in the same sense that a question exerts control over an answer—the three elements of a rhetorical situation include the exigence, the audience, and the constraints.

Counter-factual question: seeks to understand how the persuasion outcome might be different if the persuader had taken another approach (including the possibility of doing nothing at all).

Pragmatic evaluation: was the message effective in persuading the target audience?

Ethical evaluation: asking whether the message is truthful and accurate—both in what it directly says, and in what it implies.