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The Witch-Hunt in Early Modern Europe
Fourth Edition


The Witchcraft Sourcebook
Second Edition


Welcome to the companion website for The Witch-Hunt in Early Modern Europe and The Witchcraft Sourcebook, both by Brian P. Levack. Together, these two books provide a thorough introduction for students of witchcraft and the new companion website provides additional invaluable resources for those wishing to further their studies.

On this website you will find:

  • An interactive map showing the geographical spread of witch-hunts and witch trials across Europe and North America
  • An easy-to-use timeline outlining the key events in the history of witchcraft
  • A video interview with the author discussing the study of witchcraft and witch-hunting
  • An extensive bibliography to guide students in their further reading
  • An image gallery
  •  A glossary explaining the key terms in the history of witchcraft

Companion website material by Brian P. Levack and John Vurpillat

Author Interview

In this video, author Brian Levack discusses interesting facts and misconceptions about witch-hunting, highlights current research in the field, and explains the best primary sources for studying the Early Modern period.

For a transcript of this video please go to - https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eSvFMkcO2d4>



To begin exploring the timeline below, items can be clicked on to display the full text. Dragging the timeline to the left or right will pan through the range of years.

The and arrows can be used to navigate through each event consecutively. The or icons will zoom in or out, changing the range of years shown in the viewport.

Interactive Map

Click on the highlighted countries and cities below, to read about witchcraft in each location.

Map of Europe


The Austrian Habsburg Monarchy consisted of an array of hereditary lands that lay within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire. These lands, excluding the crown lands of Bohemia and Hungary, which the monarchy acquired in 1526, witnessed about 900 executions for witchcraft. With a population of about 2 million people, the intensity of witch-hunting in Austria was marginally less than that of the duchy of Bavaria to the west. These estimates are based on research that has been done on only some Austrian territories, most notably Swabian Austria, Styria, Voralberg, and Salzburg. Most Austrian trials took place between 1550 and 1750, peaking between 1670 and 1690, and not coming to an end until 1750. In 1766 Empress Maria Theresa issued an edict that curtailed witch-hunting throughout the monarchy’s lands, but this law only had an impact on territories where witch-trials were still taking place, most notably in Hungary.


The Catholic prince-bishopric of Bamberg, located in Franconia in southeastern Germany, was the site of some of the most intense witch-hunting in all of Europe. Trials began in 1595 and reached a peak between 1626 and 1630, when about 630 persons were imprisoned in the city of Bamberg, and most of them were executed. As in most witch-hunts, the initial accusations came from peasants seeking retribution for their misfortunes, but the ruling prince-bishop, Johann Georg II Fuchs von Dornheim, nicknamed the ‘witch-bishop’, was primarily responsible for the size of this hunt by torturing suspected witches to confess and also to name their accomplices.


Formerly an independent kingdom and today part of the Czech Republic, Bohemia was absorbed into the Austrian Habsburg monarchy in 1526. Without a complete judicial record it is only possible to estimate that there were about 400 executions for witchcraft. Almost all of these were adjudicated in the town courts, as in Poland, and were individual prosecutions. There were no mass prosecutions or witch-panics in Bohemia. As in Hungary, Poland, and the eastern territories of Austria, witch- trials in Bohemia continued into the eighteenth century. A trial in 1756, in which Maria Theresa overturned a death sentence, was probably the last of its kind in the kingdom.


The duchy of Bavaria, which became an electorate in 1623, experienced a number of witch-hunts in the early modern period, but they were not as intense as those in the ecclesiastical territories in Franconia. Although about 3,000 individuals were tried for witchcraft in the duchy over the course of about 100 years, the accused witches represented a relatively small percentage of the population, which hovered around 1.4 million people in 1600. Even more significantly, not more than 1,000 of those tried were executed. This relatively moderate record of witch-hunting had much to do with the reluctance of the central government in Munich to support the trials, and especially not to allow any witch-hunts from getting out of control. The absence of any large-scale prosecutions can be attributed in large part to a division between the zealots on the council, who were eager to try witches as part of a program of Catholic reform, such as inspired the severe witch-hunts in Bamberg and Würzburg, and the so-called politicians, who were concerned mainly with maintaining the stability of the state.


Because of the destruction of the Prussian archives in the twentieth century, knowledge of witchcraft trials in Brandenburg-Prussia, which became a kingdom in 1701, is fragmentary. Records of prosecutions in some cities, such as Braunsberg, suggest that the numbers may have been fairly high. In 1714 King Frederick William I issued an edict that reformed the criminal procedures used in witchcraft trials, but complete decriminalization did not occur until 1776.


Denmark was the first Nordic country to engage in witch-hunting. In 1544 a fairly large chain-reaction hunt claimed the lives of fifty-two persons. In 1547, however, the government declared that the testimony of those who had been convicted of infamous crimes, including sorcery, could not be used to convict another person. It also forbade the application of torture until after a death sentence had been pronounced. These two laws, taken together, prevented the development of large witch-hunts and kept the total number of convictions at a fairly low level. Altogether there were approximately 2,000 witchcraft trials in Denmark and about 1,000 executions. In 1617 a royal ordinance defined witchcraft in terms of diabolical compact and specified that those convicted of such charges would be burned. Nevertheless, charges of diabolism never figured prominently in Danish witchcraft trials.


The Catholic prince-bishopric of Eichstätt in Franconia experienced outbreaks of witch-hunting in 1590-2, 1603, and 1617-1631. During the last of these witch-hunts, which was supervised by an ecclesiastical witch commission established by the prince-bishop, 182 individuals were prosecuted and 175 of them were executed. The purpose of the hunt, which began in the rural regions of the principality but soon moved to the city of Eichstätt, was to implement a program of Catholic reform. Altogether, a total of 242 witches came before judicial authorities in the prince-bishopric during the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. These totals were significantly lower than in the nearby Franconian prince-bishoprics of Bamberg and W ürzburg.


The large majority of prosecutions were based on the parliamentary statutes of 1563 and 1604. Most of these were for maleficium. Only a small percentage of these trials involved charges of diabolism, and most of those were for feeding or entertaining demonic imps or familiars. Charges of making a pact with the devil and attending the sabbath were rare. There were apparently not more than 500 executions, and the conviction rate, based on the trials for which there are records, was only about 25 per cent. The relative mildness of witch-hunting in England can be attributed to the prohibition of torture, the determination of guilt or innocence by juries, and the absence of large, chain reaction witch-hunts. The largest hunt took place in 1645-7, and the last execution occurred in 1685. Execution was by hanging.


Witchcraft prosecutions in Finland began later than in other Nordic countries, beginning in 1640 and reaching a peak in the period 1665-84. The total number of trials probably did not exceed 1,000; notions of Devil-worship only occasionally became the focal point of the trials; torture was used sparingly; juries tempered the zeal of witch-hunters; and the execution-rate was lower than in other Nordic countries. All but one execution in Finland took place in the two Swedish-speaking provinces of Ostrobothnia and Ahvenanmaa.


Some of the earliest witch-hunts took place in the French Alps, but intense witch-hunts within the area under control of the king did not begin until the 1560s, and they peaked in the early seventeenth century. One of the most intense hunts took place in the southwestern province of Labourd in 1609. The total number of executions for witchcraft, which was probably about 1,000, was limited by appeals to the provincial parlements. The Parlement of Paris led the way in this regard, resulting in de facto decriminalization of witchcraft after 1625, and the other parlements eventually followed suit. In 1682 Louis XIV published an edict that drastically reduced the number of prosecutions, with the last execution taking place in 1745.


The French-speaking province of Franche-Comté, which was a possession of the Spanish Habsburg and part of the Holy Roman Empire, was the site of 700 witch trials from the fifteenth century until its absorption into France in 1668. The first major witch-hunts in the province, around 1600, were directed by the demonologist Henri Boguet , whose Discourse on Witches was based to a large extent on cases he adjudicated. The trials in Franche-Comté were far more restrained than in neighbouring Lorraine and the Swiss Pays de Vaud, perhaps due to a reluctance to use torture. In the trials before the provincial parlement, only 53 per cent were executed. One distinctive feature of the trials in Franche-Comté was the belief that many witches were werewolves.


Witch-hunting in Hungary was less intense and took a lower toll than in Poland, although the total number of trials and executions was by no means insignificant. Between 1520 and 1777, just under 1,500 individuals were tried for witchcraft in Hungary, of whom some 450 are known to have been executed (most by burning), while at least 225 suffered non-capital punishments. Most of the trials took place in the kingdom of Hungary, which became part of the Austrian Hapsburg monarchy in 1526. There were also a number of prosecutions in the south-eastern province of Transylvania, which remained an autonomous province within the Ottoman Empire between 1526 and 1699 and did not become fully reintegrated into the kingdom of Hungary until 1711.

Western demonological ideas took a long time to penetrate the country and they were never fully developed. Only when Benedict Carpzov’s Practica rerum criminalium was codified for Austria in 1656 and incorporated into the body of Hungarian law in 1696 were western demonological ideas made readily available to Hungarian judges. The slow reception of learned witch beliefs in Hungary was matched by a belated adoption of inquisitorial procedure, which was not introduced into the kingdom of Hungary until the 1650s. In the province of Transylvania, which had a separate legal system, inquisitorial procedure arrived even later. Until 1725 all accusations in Transylvania were made publicly and under the threat of the talion; witnesses were presented on behalf of both parties; and the main method of probation was the water ordeal, the purpose of which was to produce a confession. Torture was used only if there was strong suspicion of witchcraft and if the water ordeal failed. It was also used on one occasion to secure the names of accomplices. This system was in large part responsible for keeping the number of convictions in Transylvania at a minimum. Most of the Transylvanian trials about which we have information occurred in Siebenburgen, an area originally settled by Germans in the twelfth century. The witch trials that took place in this region were all conducted by secular authorities, although local pastors often played an important part in the process.


There were very few formal prosecutions for witchcraft in Ireland. We have records of only four trials, resulting in three executions and one lynching. The statute passed by the Irish parliament in 1586 resembled the English Act of 1563 in that it was concerned exclusively with maleficium rather than diabolism. The most famous witchcraft trial, that of Florence Newton in 1661, conforms to this pattern, the only demonic element being that she had caused the demonic possession of her victim. The low number of Irish prosecutions can be attributed to the reluctance of the Catholic, Gaelic population to bring charges in courts controlled by England and the reluctance of Presbyterian settlers in Ulster to try cases in secular rather than church courts.


Although some of the earliest witchcraft trials occurred in northern Italy, the total number of executions for witchcraft in Italian territories was fairly small, especially after the establishment of the Roman Inquisition in 1542 . As in Spain and Portugal, however, the number of prosecutions that were classified under the broad umbrella of ‘superstition’ numbered in the thousands. As in Portugal and southern Spain, the belief in the sabbath was not widespread, and this sc eptical tradition, combined with the procedural caution exercised by the Roman Inquisition, helps to explain the absence of mass prosecutions and chain-reaction witch-hunts.


The predominantly French-speaking duchy of Lorraine, which lay on the eastern border of France and within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire, witnessed some of the most intense witch-hunting in Europe. The earliest trials date from the 1470s and the peak era of the trials was 1570-1630. Nicolas Remy, who was appointed to serve on the ducal court in 1576 and was made procureur général of the duchy from 1595 to 1606, was responsible for a large portion of these prosecutions. Remy, who wrote an influential demonological treatise Demonolatry (1595) on the basis of his judicial experience boasted that he had executed more than 800 witches between 1576 and 1592. Altogether, there were nearly 2,000 witch -trials in Lorraine and over 1,400 executions.


The intensity of prosecutions in Norway, which during this entire period was under the control of the kingdom of Denmark, varied from region to region, with the heaviest concentration of trials occurring in the northern province of Finnmark, where 135 witches were tried and 91 of them executed in the seventeenth century. Prosecutions in other parts of Norway were less severe. There were approximately 1,000 Norwegian trials in all, but only about 25 per cent of those tried were convicted and executed. This record of leniency can be attributed to a reluctance to use torture (even though it was allowed) and the infrequency of charges of diabolism. Not surprisingly, diabolical beliefs were strongest in Finnmark.


Witchcraft prosecutions in the kingdom of Poland and the duchy of Lithuania, which were united in 1543, were more intense than in other Eastern European countries. Somewhere between 2,000 and 2,500 executions took place in this commonwealth, and a substantial number of lynchings added to that total. Most prosecutions took place between 1675 and 1725, with the worst period being the early eighteenth century, when trials in most other parts of Europe had ended. The relatively high intensity of witch-hunting in Poland can be attributed to the reception of western European theories of diabolism, the absence of central judicial control over prosecutions, and the unrestricted use of torture. Witchcraft was decriminalized by statute in 1776.


About 900 witches, the majority of whom were male, were executed in Russia during the early modern period. Prosecutions in significant numbers did not begin until the early seventeenth century, with most of these trials taking place between 1625 and 1700 and the heaviest concentration between 1645 and 1660. There was something resembling a ‘witch-scare’ in seventeenth-century Russia, but no ‘witch-panic’. Russian courts used inquisitorial procedure and could administer torture, but these procedures did not bring about large-scale witch- hunts, mainly because of  the absence of Western demonological theory. The Devil was not unknown in Russia, and references to the Devil or other demons occasionally made their way into witchcraft trials, but the crime remained essentially that of practising harmful magic, not Devil-worship. Fear that malefic witchcraft would undermine the hierarchical social order explains the substantial number of Russian prosecutions.


There were more than 4,000 prosecutions in Scotland, and probably about 2,500 executions. Many of these prosecutions occurred during large witch-hunts in 1590-1, 1597, 1628-31, 1649-50, and 1661-2. All trials were based on the parliamentary act of 1563, and the last execution occurred in 1727. The intensity of prosecutions, measured as a proportion of the population, was much greater than in England. This disparity can be attributed to the support of King James VI for the witch-hunts in the 1590s, the more widespread belief in the diabolical dimension of the crime, the zeal of Presbyterian clergy and laity to prosecute confederates of Satan, and the illegal use of torture in the interrogation of suspects, often in the process of pricking them for the Devil’s mark. Witchcraft was decriminalized by the British statute of 1736.

Southern Netherlands

In contrast with the northern Netherlands, which became the Dutch Republic in the late sixteenth century, the ten southern provinces of the Netherlands, which remained under Spanish Habsburg control until 1714, held a large number of witch trials, resulting in at least 2,500 and possibly as many as 3,500 executions between 1450 and 1685. The largest concentration of these executions occurred in the duchy of Luxembourg, where at least 2,000 witches were burned, and in Artois, the Cambrésis, and the county of Namur. The great majority of witch trials and executions in the southern Netherlands took place south of the ‘linguistic frontier’, where French or German rather than Flemish was spoken. The government did little to promote the prosecutions; edicts promulgated in 1592 and 1595 did more to restrain witch-hunting than encourage it. The main ideological support for the trials came from Investigations into Magic (1599/1600)the widely circulated demonological treatise by the Jesuit Martín del Rio, a native of Antwerp.


Although the Spanish Inquisition tried large numbers of individuals for witchcraft, it executed no more than 500 altogether, and many of those executions took place before 1530. The weakness of the belief in the witches’ s abbath, especially in the south, the desire of the Inquisition to reconcile heretics to the faith and punish them only if they relapsed, and the enforcement of strict rules of criminal procedure, especially after 1614, kept the execution- rate very low. The largest witch-hunt in Spanish history, in which more than 1,800 people (a majority of them children) confessed, took place in the northern Basque region in 1609-11, but only a handful of those who confessed were executed. The secular courts were responsible for hundreds of executions, especially in Catalonia in the early seventeenth century, but without judicial records the estimates of the total numbers are based on reports by witch-finders and inquisitors.


The kingdom of Sweden, which had a relatively moderate record of witch-hunting, witnessed one of the few mass prosecutions in the Nordic countries. It occurred between 1668 and 1676, after the trials in the kingdom had appeared to be nearing an end. The hunt began in the northern province of Dalecarlia, spread throughout the north and eventually reached as far south as Stockholm. This hunt, which took more than 200 lives, was distinctive in the role played by children as both accusers and the accused. It came to an end only when the Court of Appeal began to interrogate witches directly and when many of the children admitted that the charges they had brought were harmless.


The Portuguese Inquisition, like its Spanish counterpart, executed very few witches during the early modern period. As in Spain, the number of trials was not insignificant, but very few of those who were prosecuted were put to death. Portuguese inquisitors remained sceptical regarding the reality of the s abbath throughout this period, and they made no significant contributions to European demonology. Like its counterparts in Spain and Italy, the Portuguese Inquisition adhered to fairly strict criminal procedures. This prosecutorial caution, combined with scepticism regarding the sabbath, helps to explain why Portugal experienced no mass witch-hunts.


Prosecutions for witchcraft in Switzerland varied in intensity from one canton to another, which altogether executed as many as 5,000 witches. Some of the earliest trials in which witches were tried for attending the sabbath as well as for maleficia took place in the Alpine regions of the western cantons. The execution-rate also varied considerably, from a low of 21 per cent in the republic of Geneva to 90 per cent in the Pays de Vaud. The last legal execution for witchcraft in Europe took place in the canton of Glarus in 1782.

The Dutch Republic

The northern Netherlands, which proclaimed its independence from Spain in the 1570s and became a republic known as the United Provinces of the Netherlands, had a remarkably restrained record of witch-hunting. Although Dutch courts had the authority to torture witches, they rarely did so, and the trials in the Republic claimed only about 160 lives in all. The Dutch Republic was also the first country in Europe to bring witch trials to an end in the first decade of the seventeenth century. A tradition of sc epticism regarding witchcraft exemplified by Erasmus of Rotterdam in the early sixteenth century, Johannes Wier (Weyer) in the 1560s, and the catholic priest Cornelius Loos in the 1590s, contributed to a reluctance to convict accused witches. The massive demonological treatise The Enchanted World (1691-3) by the Dutch Calvinist minister and biblical scholar Balthasar Bekker, delivered a blow to the belief in witchcraft among the educated throughout Europe.


Witchcraft prosecutions developed late in the Hungarian province of Transylvania, where witch beliefs and inquisitorial procedure were introduced even later than in the kingdom of Hungary. Until 1725 all witchcraft accusations in Transylvania were made publicly and under the threat of the talion; witnesses were presented on behalf of both parties; and the main method of probation was the water ordeal, the purpose of which was to produce a confession. Torture was used only if there was strong suspicion of witchcraft and if the water ordeal failed. These criminal procedures were in large part responsible for keeping the number of convictions at a minimum. Most Transylvanian trials occurred in Siebenburgen, an area originally settled by Germans in the twelfth century.


The electorate of Trier, situated in the Moselle region near the western boundary of the Holy Roman Empire, was the site of some of the most severe witch-hunting in early modern Europe. At least 800 and possibly more than 1,000 executions took place in the electorate, which had a population of only 75,000 people in the early seventeenth century. Trier witnessed the first major chain-reaction witch-hunt in Europe in the 1580s, when the original accusations, which were lodged by villagers and townsmen who had formed witch committees, rapidly escalated during the trials. The use of torture, which extracted not only confessions from the accused but also the names of accomplices, led to the prosecution of many members of the upper ranks of society, including the magistrate Dietrich Flade. The suffragan bishop of Trier, Peter Binsfeld, wrote Treatise on the Confessions of Sorcerers and Witches in 1589 to address questions regarding the nature of witchcraft and the procedures used in the trials. Witch trials in Trier came to an end in the 1650s when the Elector, Karl Kaspar, decided that they were a threat to public order.


The Catholic prince-bishopric of Würzburg, located in Franconia in southeastern Germany, was the site of some of the worst prosecutions during the entire period of the European trials. Some 300 people were executed between 1616 and 1617 during the rule of Prince-Bishop Julius Echter von Mespelbrunn, and another 900 executions occurred between 1625 and 1630 during the rule of Prince-Bishop Philipp Adolf von Ehrenberg. One of the distinctive features of the trials of 1627-9, when 160 individuals were executed in the city of Würzburg, was that the victims were of all ages and came from all ranks of society. They included the mayor’s wife, the wife of the former chancellor, a councillor, 43 clergymen and 17 children or adolescents. Both prince-bishops were zealous Catholic reformers who saw the prosecution of witches as a means to eradicate heresy and immorality. The number of trials in Würzburg declined markedly after 1630, although the last execution in Würzburg and all Franconia occurred in 1749.

Holy Roman Empire

The majority of prosecutions and executions for witchcraft in Europe took place within the boundaries of the Holy Roman Empire, a loosely structured polity that comprised more than 400 principalities, cities, duchies, and ecclesiastical territories. In the German- speaking territories, the total number of executions for witchcraft was somewhere between 20,000 and 25,000. Trials were supposed to follow the provisions of the imperial criminal code, known as the Carolina, promulgated in 1532, but many German territories did not adhere to them. The provision of the Carolina that required local courts to seek advice from the law faculties of nearby universities in difficult cases contributed to a decline in convictions and executions only in the late seventeenth century.


In this section, you will find a glossary explaining the key terms in the history of witchcraft, an extensive bibliography and an image gallery, arranged by category.



absolutism - A theory and form of government in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries in which a ruler did not share power with a legislative assembly and was not limited by the law when acting in the interest of the state.

accusatorial procedure - The system of criminal procedure in medieval Europe between the fifth and early thirteenth centuries. Accusations of criminal conduct were made by the injured party or his kin, who also conducted the prosecution before a judge who presided over the case. The trial was public, and determination of guilt or innocence was often determined by subjecting a person to an ordeal.

alchemy - A form of high magic, rooted in a philosophical tradition, in which the practitioner attempted to convert base metals into precious ones.

apocalypse - The event, prophesied in the Book of Revelation, when the Second Coming of Christ would occur and the world in its present age would end. The period leading up to this event was known as the Last Days, including the final victory of good over evil at Armageddon. The associated belief that Christ would rule for a thousand years is referred to as millenarianism.

apostasy - The rejection or abandonment of one’s Christian faith.

Aristotelianism - The philosophy of the Greek philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.E), which was a major influence on medieval scholasticism, especially in the work of Thomas Aquinas, who interpreted it in Christian terms.

Asmodeus - A powerful Persian, Jewish and Christian demon, sometimes referred to as the Destroyer, whom Christian writers classified as a Prince of Hell.

assizes - English circuit courts held twice a year in each county to hear civil and criminal cases. The great majority of English prosecutions for witchcraft were held at the sessions of these courts.

astrology - A form of divination in which knowledge is obtained by the position of the stars at birth.


Beelzebub - A pagan god of the city of Ekron whose name is translated as Lord of the Flies and who became a Prince of Hell in Christianity. Christian writers confused Beelzebub with Beelzebul, the prince of Jewish demons whose name refers to Baal, the chief rival cultic god to Yahweh in the Hebrew Bible.

benandanti- A fertility cult in the Italian region of the Friuli whose members believed that while in a cataleptic state they ‘went out’ at night and battled witches to determine whether there would be a good harvest or famine.


Calvinism - The religious ideology associated with the sixteenth-century Protestant reformer Jean Calvin, who emphasized the pursuit of an active, disciplined Christian life. Calvinist doctrines included the belief that before the world began God had predestined some people to salvation and others to eternal damnation in Hell.

Canon Episcopi - An article of the canon law of the medieval Church, based on a document composed by Regio of Prüm in the ninth century, that condemned the practice of magic and heretical beliefs among the uneducated that women went out at night with Diana, covering great distances. The title Episcopi [Bishops] comes from the first word of the Canon.

canon law - The law of the Roman Catholic Church that was codified in the twelfth century.

capitalism - An economic system in which wealth in the form of money and property is used systematically by private owners for the sake of profit.

Cathars - Dualist heretics who believed in a cosmic struggle between matter and spirit, according to which God the Father, whom they identified with the Devil, and Christ, whom they believed was pure spirit, came to free humans from the matter that entrapped them. The rhetorical invective against Cathars, which involved the charge that they met secretly at night, ate the flesh of infants, and practiced abortion, was later used against witches.

ceremonial magic See ritual magic

charming - The practice of white magic, often used for healing.

Church of England - The Episcopalian church, consisting of the two provinces of Canterbury and York that became independent of the Roman Catholic Church by virtue of the Act of Supremacy of 1534 which recognized Henry VIII as its Supreme Head.

compurgation - A mode of proof in trials following accusatorial procedure by which an accused criminal could secure acquittal by the testimony by men of high social status that the accused was a man of integrity.

conjuring or conjuration - Summoning up and commanding a demon in ritual magic. Originally interchangeable with adjuration, or putting the Devil on oath in an exorcism, conjuration later acquired the additional connotation of commanding a demon and thus became the equivalent of necromancy.

Council of Trent - A council of the Roman Catholic Church that met in three sessions between 1545 and 1563. Its goal was to reform Catholic rituals and devotional practices and defend Catholic doctrines that Protestants had rejected.

crimen exceptum - i.e., an excepted crime, was the status given to witchcraft and other heinous crimes that made it permissible for courts to prosecute offenders without observing the customary rules regarding the summoning of witnesses, and the use of torture in the criminal prosecutions.

cumulative (or composite) concept of witchcraft - The term first used by Joseph Hansen to denote the gradual synthesis of different notions that formed the stereotype of the witch as a practitioner of harmful magic who made a pact with the devil, flew through the air, and worshipped him collectively at the sabbath.


Deism - The belief that God created the universe and established immutable natural laws of nature but did not subsequently intervene in the operation of the material world or human affairs.

demonology - The branch of scholastic theology that studied the nature and powers of demons. It also refers, more broadly, to treatises on witchcraft.

dualism - A theological or philosophical tenet that emphasizes a rigid distinction between body and mind, matter and spirit, or good and evil.

divination - The art of acquiring unknown or secret knowledge by magical means.

divining rod - A forked stick used in divination to identify buried treasure or minerals.

Dominicans - The Order of Preachers, many of whom served as inquisitors in the medieval and early modern periods.

defiixio - A form of harmful magic practiced in ancient Rome in which the name of the intended victim was inscribed on a lead tablet that was dedicated to demons and a nail or other sharp object was driven through the name of the victim.

demons - Demons are evil spirits which in Christianity are considered to be fallen angels. In the fourth century they were considered to be ranked in hierarchies, with the Princes of Hell occupying the highest rank beneath the Devil, i.e. Satan, similar to the hierarchies used to rank angels.

demonic possession - The process by which a demon is believed to enter a person’s body and gain control of that person’s physical movements and behavior.

deposition - The written testimony of witnesses in a criminal investigation.


Enlightenment - An intellectual and cultural movement of the eighteenth century that emphasized the use of reason and the application of the laws of nature to human society.


fertility cults - Groups of people who worshipped pagan gods in order to guarantee the fertility of crops or animals.


There are no glossary terms available for this letter.


heresy - The denial of one or more doctrines of a religion. In the late medieval and early modern periods inquisitors considered magic and witchcraft to be heretical.

Huguenots - French Calvinists who were granted a limited toleration by the Edict of Nantes in 1598. The edict was repealed by Louis XIV in 1685.


image magic - A form of magic in which piercing, melting, or destroying the image of a person is believed to harm the person himself by virtue of a secret sympathy that exists between the image and the person.

incubi and succubi - Minor demons believed to have sexual intercourse with human beings.

Inquisition - A papal institution, also known as the Holy Office, established in the thirteenth century to prosecute heretics and later witches.

inquisitors - Dominican and Franciscan friars appointed by the papacy to prosecute heretics, magicians, and witches in specific areas.

inquisitorial procedure - The system of criminal procedure used in temporal and ecclesiastical courts on the European continent after 1215. Unlike the accusatorial system it replaced, a prosecution no longer required an accusation from an injured party, and officers of the court assumed responsibility for gathering and evaluating evidence, while the judges assumed responsibility for determining guilt or innocence. Its adoption led to the reintroduction of the use of torture in criminal trials.

invocation - Calling upon demons to assist in the practice of magic.


There are no glossary terms available for this letter.


There are no glossary terms available for this letter.


lamiae - A Latin word for witches, derived from the belief that Lamia, the mythical queen of classical Libya, became a child-eating demon.

love magic - The use of magic to make a person love or have sexual intercourse with another. Love magic could also serve negative ends, as when it was used to prevent sexual intercourse or harm a former lover.

Lucifer - The name assigned to the Devil, i.e. Satan, in the early centuries of Christianity. The name derived from the Roman word (meaning ‘light-bearer’) for the morning star. A reference in the Book of Isaiah to a star that tried to be above others which God cast down for his pride led to the Christian identification of Lucifer as the Devil, whom God cast into Hell after the war in Heaven.


maleficium - The most common Latin word used in the early modern period to identify the causing of harm or misfortune by magical means.

Malleus maleficarum (The Hammer of Witches) - The title of the demonological treatise and manual for inquisitors published in 1487 by the inquisitors Heinrich Kramer (Institoris) and Jacob Sprenger.

magic - A practice intended to influence human behaviour, alter the health of humans or animals, control the environment or change the course of events by using preternatural, supernatural, mysterious, or occult means.

Manichaeism - A dualistic religion founded by the Persian prophet Mani in the third century that became a rival to Christianity in the effort to convert pagans.

mechanical philosophy - The seventeenth-century philosophy of nature according to which nature operated in a mechanical way, just like a machine made by a human being.

metamorphosis - The apparent change of a human being into an animal. How and whether this could be performed by demonic power became a subject of debate among demonologists in the early modern period.

millenarianism - The belief that after the last Judgement Christ would rule as king for a thousand years.

misogyny - The belittlement or hatred of women.


necromancy - A form of divination in which knowledge is obtained by summoning up the spirits of the dead. More generally, the practice of ceremonial magic.

Neo-Platonism - The philosophical system, based mainly on the philosophy of Plato but also incorporating elements of Aristotle, as developed by developed by Plotinus (295-270 C.E.) and revived in Italy in the sixteenth century, most notably by Marsilio Ficino.

night witches - In African belief, whom people imagined, as opposed to the day witches with whom they interacted in their communities.


ordeals - The tests administered to accused criminals in the early and high Middle Ages to determine guilt or innocence in jurisdictions that followed accusatorial procedure.

osculum infame- Literally, the scandalous kiss of the Devil’s anus, allegedly performed by witches at the sabbath.


pagans - Those who worshipped gods other than the one God of Judaism, Christianity and Islam.

parlements - The highest provincial courts in early modern France, the most prominent being the Parlement of Paris.

Pietism - A reform movement within Lutheranism that flourished in the late seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Objecting to the formalism of official Lutheranism, Pietism emphasized the importance of personal piety and devotion. Many of the cases of demonic possessions in Germany during these years originated in Pietist communities.

prickers - Scottish witch-finders who collected fees for inserting sharp objects into suspected witches to find the Devil’s mark.


There are no glossary terms available for this letter.


Renaissance - The revival or rebirth of the culture of classical Greece and Rome. The Renaissance originated in Italy in the late fourteenth century but later spread throughout Europe, mainly during the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries.

ritual magic - The art of summoning up demons in order to command them to perform services for the magician.

Roman Inquisition - The judicial institution established by the papacy in 1542 to prosecute heretics, witches and others suspected of superstitious practices in Italian territories.


Satan - The Hebrew name, meaning adversary or slanderer, assigned to the sprit that was later identified as the Devil in Christianity.

Satanic ritual abuse - The allegation that modern-day Satanists molest and harm children in a variety of bizarre rituals.

scepticism - A tendency to doubt what one has been taught or is expected to believe.

scholasticism - A philosophical and theological system developed in the thirteenth century that attempted to provide all reality, both natural and supernatural, in a systematic, logical way. The greatest of the scholastics was St. Thomas Aquinas.

states - Consolidated territorial areas that have their own political institutions and recognize no higher authority.

state-building - The process of strengthening the jurisdiction and administrative institutions of the state.

strigae (or striges) - Women who in folklore were believed to transform themselves at night into screech owls that sucked the blood of infants. Demonologists in the sixteenth century identified these women as witches who flew on the sabbath and ate the flesh of infants. The Latin word strix, the singular form of striges, became one of the many words for witch.

sorcery - A term derived from the Latin word sortilegium, a form of divination, to describe the practice of harmful magic and therefore witchcraft. Sorcery can be distinguished from other forms of magic in that it involves the use of materials.

Spanish Inquisition - The judicial institution established in 1479 under the authority of the King of Spain to prosecute heretics, witches, magicians, and Jews who had converted to Christianity (conversos).

squassation - The most severe form of strappado in which the person was dropped close to the ground and then jerked back up.

strappado - A torture device in which the prisoner, with his hands tied behind the back, is raised to the ceiling by a pulley. The process was sometimes aggravated by tying weights to the prisoner’s ankles.

superstition A corrupt or false religion, which was a criminal offence in the Spanish and Roman inquisition.


talion - The practice in accusatorial procedure by which an accuser became criminally liable if the court did not support the accusation.

trial by jury - A central feature of the system of criminal procedure used in the common law courts in England in which members of the community who do not have legal training or education decide the guilt or innocence of the accused.

torture - The infliction of physical pain in order to obtain a confession or information.


There are no glossary terms available for this letter.


veneficium- The Latin word for both natural and magical poisoning that was sometimes used as a word for witchcraft in the early modern period.


Waldensians - A medieval heresy that originated at Lyon in the twelfth century and became widespread in France and Germany during the following two centuries. Waldensians, who preached a doctrine of Christian poverty, were virulently anti-clerical and anti-papal and also denied the power of miracles in their day. During the early years of witch-hunting in the fifteenth century, inquisitors identified witches as Waldensians.

werewolves - Human beings believed to have been transformed into wolves. Witches were sometimes accused of becoming werewolves and causing harm in that capacity.

wise woman - A healer who had knowledge of natural remedies in early modern Europe. Wise women were often midwives as well.

witches’ sabbath (or sabbat) - The most common word for the alleged nocturnal gathering of witches. Also referred to in the early modern period as the ‘synagogue of Satan’, ‘the dance’ or ‘the game’.

witch-lynching - A physical attack, often resulting in death, on a witch by a mob, often usually after a court failed to prosecute or convict an accused witch.


There are no glossary terms available for this letter.


There are no glossary terms available for this letter.


Zoroastrianism - The monotheistic religion of Persia founded by Zoroaster that became the official religion of the ancient Persian Empire.


A. Bibliographies

Black, George F.  "List of Works in the New York Public Library Relating to Witchcraft in the United States," Bulletin of the New York Public Library 12 (1908): 658-75.

Burr, George L. "The Literature of Witchcraft,"  in Bainton, Roland H. and L.O. Gibbons (ed.) George Lincoln Burr : His Life and Selections from his Writings.  New York, 1943, pp. 166-89.

Coumont, Jean-Pierre, Demonology and Witchcraft: An Annotated Bibliography. Hes & De Graaf Publishers, 2004.

Crowe, Martha J.  Catalogue of the Witchcraft Collection in the Cornell University Library.  KJO Press, 1971.

Graesse, Johann G. T.  Biblotheca Magica et Pneumatica. Leipzig, 1843. 1960.

Hess, Albert G. "Hunting Witches: A Survey of Some Recent Literature," Criminal Justice History  4 (1983): 47-79.

Lea, H. C.  Materials toward a History of Witchcraft. Arranged and edited by A. C. Howland.  3 vols. Philad:lphia, 1939, 1971.

Melton, J. Gordon. Magic, Witchcraft and Paganism in America: A Bibliography.  New York, 1982.

Midelfort, H. C. E.  "Recent Witch-hunting Research," Papers of the Bibliographical Society of America.  62 (1968): 373-420.

__________________  "Witchcraft, the Occult and Magic," in Reformation Europe: A Guide to Research, ed. S. Ozment. St. Louis, 1982.

Monter, E. W.  "The Historiography of European Witchcraft: Progress and Prospect," Journal of Interdisciplinary History  2 (1972): 435-51.

Muchembled, Robert.  "Satan ou les hommes?," in Dupont-Bouchat et. al., Prophètes et sorciers dans les Pays-Bas XVe-XVIIe siècles. Paris, 1978, pp. 33-9.

Nugent, D.  "Witchcraft Studies, 1959-1971: A Bibliographical Survey," Journal of Popular Culture  5 (1971): 711-725.

Oswald, Erich.  Wörterbuch der deutschen Volkskunde.  Stuttgart, 1955.  See 'Hexe' article for short bib. on Germany. 

Robbins, Rossell H.  The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology.  N. Y., 1959.  Bibliography on pp. 561-71.

________________.  "The Yellow Cross and the Green Faggot," in The Cornell Library Journal  1970.  Notes contain information about rare materials in the White Library.

Russell, Jeffrey B. Witchcraft in the Middle Ages. Ithaca, 1972, pp. 345-77.

Schneider, Heinrich. "Die Hexenliteratur-Sammlung der Cornell Universität in Ithaca, New York," Hessische Blätter für Volkskunde  41 (1950),  196-298.

Thorndike, Lynn.  A History of Magic and Experimental Science. 8 vols. N. Y., 1923-58.  See esp. vol. 6, "The Literature of Witchcraft and Magic after Wier," pp. 515-59. 

Yve-Plessis, R.  Essai d'une bibliographie française méthodique et raissonée de la sorcellerie et de la possession démoniaque … Paris, 1900. 

B. General Studies and reference

Anglo, Sydney (ed.).  The Damned Art: Essays in the literature of Witchcraft.  London, 1977.

Ankarloo, Bengt and Gustav Henningsen.  Early Modern European Witchcraft: Centres and Peripheries.  Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1990.

Ankarloo, Bengt and Stuart Clark (eds.). Witchcraft and Magic in Europe. 6 vols.  London and Philadelphia, 1999-2002.

Baissac, Jules.  Les Grands Jours de la sorcellerie.  Paris, 1890.

Barry, Jonathan and Owen Davies (eds.) Palgrave Advances in Witchcraft Historiography. Basingstoke, 2007.

Barstow, Anne. Witchcraze: A New History of the European Witch Hunts. San Francisco, 1994.

Baschwitz, Kurt.  Hexen und Hexenprozesse  Munich, 1963. French trans. Grenoble-Paris, 1963.

Behringer, Wolfgang. “Weather, Hunger and Fear: The Origins of the European Witch Prosecutions in Climate, Society and Mentality,” German History 13 (1995): 1-27.

_________________. Witches and Witch-Hunts: A Global History. London, 2004.

Ben-Yehuda, N.  "The European Witch-Craze of the 16th and 17th Centuries" American Journal of Sociology  86 (1980); revised version in Erich Goode and Nachman Ben Yehuda, Moral Panics. Oxford, 1994, pp. 144-84.

______________  "Problems Inherent in Socio-Historical Approaches to the European Witch-Craze", Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion  20 (1981), 326-38.

Blécourt, Willem de and Owen Davies (eds.).Witchcraft Continued: Popular Magic in Modern Europe. Manchester, 2004.

Briggs, Robin. Witches and Neighbours: The Social and Cultural Context of European Witchcraft. London, 1996.

Butler, Eliza M.  Ritual Magic.  Cambridge, 1949.

Carus, Paul.  The History of the Devil and the Idea of Evil.  New York, 1969.

Caro Baroja, Julio.  The World of the Witches.  Chicago, 1965.

Castan, Yves. Magie et sorcellerie à la époque moderne. Paris, 1979.

Chaunu, P.  "Sûr le fin des sorciers au XVIIe siècle", Annales E.S.C. July-Aug 1969, pp. 895-911.

Chernyak, E. "Demonologiya i okhota ha ved'm u XVI-XVII wekakh," (Demonology and the Witch Hunt in the 16th-17th Centuries), Voprosy Istorii 10 (1979), 99-111.

Clark, Stuart. "Inversion, Misrule and the Meaning of Witchcraft," Past and Present 87 (1980): 98-127.

___________. Thinking with Demons: The Idea of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe.  Oxford, 1997.

Cohn, Norman.  Europe's Inner Demons; The Demonization of Christians in Medieval Christendom. Rev. ed., Chicago,  1993..  

Owen Davies and Willem de Blécourt (eds.). Beyond the Witch Trials: Witchcraft and Magic in Enlightenment Europe. Manchester, 2004.

Delumeau, Jean.  La peur en occident-- XIVe -XVIII e siècles.  Paris, 1978.

Douglas, Mary (ed.).  Witchcraft Confessions and Accusations.  London, 1970.

Eliade, Mircea.  Occultism, Witchcraft and Cultural Fashions.  1976.

Gijswift-Hofstra, Marijke. "The European Witchcraft Debate and the Dutch Variant," Social History  15 (1990), 181-94.

Ginzburg, Carlo.  "Stregoneria, magica superstizione in Europa fra medioevo ed età moderna", Rechers distoria sociale e religiosa  11 (1977): 119-33.

Golden, Richard M. “Satan in Europe: The Geography of the Witch Hunts” in Changing Identities in Early Modern France, ed. Michael Wolfe, Durham, 1997, pp. 216-47.

_______________(ed.). Enyclopedia of Witchcraft: The Western Tradition. 4 vols. Santa Barbara, 2006.

Hagen, Rune Blix. Dei europeiske trolldomsprosessane. Oslo, 2007.

Harris, Marvan. Cows, Pigs, Wars and Witches. New York, 1974.

Heinsohn, Gunnar and Otto Steiger. "Die Vernichtung der Weisen Frauen," in Mammut, März Texte 1 & 2, ed. Jörg Schröder. Herbstein, 1984.

Hoak, Dale.  "The Great European Witch-Hunts: A Historical Perspective," American Journal of Sociology 88 (1983): 1270-4.

Hoyt, Charles A.  Witchcraft.  Carbondale, IL, 1981.

Hughes, Pennethorne.  Witchcraft.  London, 1952.

Kelly, H. A.  The Devil, Demonology and Witchcraft.  New York, 1974.

Klaits, Joseph.  Servants of Satan: The Age of theWitch Hunts. Bloomington, Ind. 1985.

Kors, Alan C. and Edward Peters (eds.). Witchcraft in Europe, 1100-1700.  Philadelphia, 1972.

Kneubühler, Hans Peter. Die Überwindung von Hexenwahn und Hexenprozess Diessenhofen, 1977.

Larner, Christina, "Witchcraft Past and Present," in Larner, Witchcraft and Religion. Oxford, 1984, pp. 79-91.

Lea, Henry G.  A History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages.  N. Y., 1922.  3 vols.  Orig 1887. 

Lea, Henry C.  Materials toward a History of Witchcraft, arr. and ed. by Arthur C. Howland, 3 vols. New York, 1957.

Lecky, W. E. H.  History of the Rise and the influence of the Spirit of Rationalism in Europe.   2 vols. N. Y. 1903.

Levack, Brian P.  The Witch-Hunt in Early Modern Europe.  London, 1987. 2nd ed. 1995; 3rd ed. 2006; 4th ed. 2016.

_______________"The Great Witch Hunt." In Handbook of European History in the Later Middle Ages, Renaissance and Reformation, 1400-1600, ed. Thomas Brady, Heiko Oberman, and James Tracy. Vol 2.  Leiden: E.J. Brill, 1995, pp. 607-33.

_______________. “State-Building and Witch-Hunting in Early Modern Europe,” in Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief, eds. J. Barry, M. Hester G. Roberts. Cambridge, 1996, pp. 96-115.

_______________. "The Witch" in Baroque Personae, ed. Rosario Villari. Chicago: Chicago, 1995, pp. 239-262.

_______________(ed.). The Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Easrly Modern Europe and Colonial America. Oxford, 2013.

Mair, Lucy.  Witchcraft.  New York, 1969.

Michelet, Jules.  Satanism and Witchcraft.  New York, 1939.

Midelfort, H. C. E. "Were there really witches?, in Robert M. Kingdon (ed) Transition and Revolution: Problems and Issues of European Renaissance and Reformation History.  Minneapolis, 1974, pp. 189-205.

Monter, E. William (ed.).  European Witchcraft.  New York, 1969. 

_________________.  Ritual, Myth and Magic in Early Modern Europe.  Athens, Ohio 1983.

Muchembled, Robert.  "Satan ou les homes?” in Dupont-Bouchon et. al., Prophètes et sorciers dans les Pays-Bas XVe-XVIIe siècles. Paris, 1978.

Murray, Margaret.  The God of the Witches.  London, 1933. 

Murray, Margaret.   The Witch-Cult in Western Europe.  Oxford, 1921.

Nenonen, Marko and Risa Toivo (eds.), Writing Witch-Histories: Challenging the Paraddigm. London, 2014.

Newall, V., (ed.) The Witch  Figure.  London, 1973.

Oster, Emily. “Witchcraft, Weather and Economic Growth in Renaissance Europe,” Journal of Economic Perspectives 18 (204), 215-228.

Palou, J.  La sorcellerie.  Paris, 1957.

Quaife, G. R.  Godly Zeal and Furious Rage: The Witch in Early Modern Europe.  London, 1987.

Robbins, Rossell Hope. The Encyclopedia of Witchcraft and Demonology.  N.Y., 1959.

Roeck, Bernd. “Christlicher Idealstaat und Hexenwahn. Zum Ende der europäischen Verfolgungen,” Historisches Jahrbuch 108 (1988): 379-405.

Roper, Lyndal. The Witch in the Western Imagination. Charlottesville, 2012.

Rummel, Walter and Rita Votmer, Hexen und Hexenverfolgung in der Frühen Neuzeit. Darmstadt, 2008.

Russell Jeffrey B.  A History of Witchcraft.  London, 1980.

Scarre, Geoffrey, Witchcraft and Magic in Sixteenth and Seventeenth-Century Europe.  Atlantic Highlands, NJ, 1987.

Sebald, Hans.  Witchcraft: The heritage of a heresy.  N. Y., 1978.

Seth, Ronald.  Children against Witches.  N. Y., 1969.

Schoeneman, Thomas.  "The Witchcraze as a Cultural Change Phenomenon", Ethos  3 (4) 1975, pp. 529-54.

Sergeant, Philip W.  Witches and Warlocks.  1936.

Seth, Ronald.   Stories of Great Witch Trials.  London, 1967.  343.3 Se 75s.

Soldan, Wilhelm G., and Heinrich Heppe.  Geschichte der Hexenprozesse.  ed. M. Bauer.  Munich, 1912.

Stephens, Walter. Demon Lovers: Witchcraft, Sex and the Crisis of Belief. Chicago, 2001

Summers, Montague.  The Geography of Witchcraft.  N. Y., 1927. 

__________________.  The History of Witchcraft. N. Y., 1956.

Thorndike, Lynn.  A History of Magic and Experimental Science.  N. Y., 1923-58.  8 vols.

________________.  The Place of Magic in the Intellectual History of Europe.  New York, 1905.

Thurston, Robert W. Witch, Wicce, Mother Goose: The Rise and Fall of the Witch Hunts in Europe and North America. London, 2001.

Trevor-Roper, H. R.  "The European Witch-Craze of the 16th and 17th Centuries", in Religion, the Reformation and Social Change, and Other Essays.  London, 1967.. Also inThe European Witchcraze of the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries and Other Essays.  New York 1968. 

Williams, Charles,  Witchcraft   London, 1941. 

C. Anthropological Literature

Agassi, Joseph and Ian C. Jarvie. "Magic and Rationality Again," British Journal of Sociology 24 (1973): 236-45

Ashforth, Adam. Witchcraft, Violence, and Democracy in South Africa. Chicago, 2005.

Diane Ciekawy, “Witchcraft in Statecraft: Five Technologies of Power in Colonial and Postcolonial Coastal Kenya,” African Studies Review 41 (1998), 119-41.

Crawford, J. R. Witchcraft and Sorcery in Rhodesia. Oxford, 1967.

Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger. Harmondsworth, 1970.

______________. "Witch Beliefs in Central Africa," Africa 37 (1967): 72-80.

______________.Witchcraft Confessions and Accusations. London: Tavistock, 1970.

Ehnmark, R.  "Religion and Magic," Ethnos  21 (1956), 1-10.

Evans-Pritchard, E. E.  "The morphology and function of magic," American Anthropologist  31 (1929), 619-41.

____________________"Witchcraft (mangu) among the Azande," Sudan Notes and Records 12 (1929), 163-249.

___________________  Witchcraft, Oracles and Magic among the Azande. 2nd. edn. Oxford, 1950.

Cyprian F. Fisiy, “Containing Occult Practices: Witchcraft Trials in Cameroon,” African Studies Review 41 (1998), 143-163.

Frazer, Sir James G.  The Golden Bough.  London, 1900.  3 vols.

Geertz, Hildred. "An Anthropology of Witchcraft and Magic I," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 6 (1975), 71-89.

Geschiere, P. “Chird-witches against the authority of their elders: Anthropology and History in the Analysis of Witchcraft beliefs amongthe Maka,”in Man, Meaning and History, ed. R. Scholfield, et al. The Hague, 1980.

Gluckman, M.  "Psychological, sociological and anthropological explanations of witchcraft and gossip," Man, n.s.3 (1968), 20-34.

Goode, William.   "Magic and Religion: a continuum", Ethnos  14 (1949), 172-182

_____________.  Religion  among the Primitives.  Glencoe, Ill, 1951.

Hammond, Dorothy.  "Magic: a problem in semantics", American Anthropologist  72 (1970):  1349-56.

Jackson, Michael. "Structure and Event: Witchcraft Confessios among the Kuranko," Man n.s. 10 (1975): 387-403.

Jarvie, I. C. and J. Agassi. "The Problem of the Rationality of Magic," British Journal of Sociology 18 (1967), 55-74.

Kennedy, J. G.  "Psychological and social explanations of witchcraft," Man, n.s.2 (1967), 216-25.

Kluckhohn, Clyde. Navaho Witchcraft.  Boston, 1962.

Lehmann, Arthur C.  and James F. Myers.  Magic, Witchcraft and Religion: An Anthropoligical Study of the Supernatural.  Palo Alto and London, 1985.

Lienhardt, Godfrey. "Some Notions of Witchcraft among the Dinka," Africa 21 (1951), 303-18.

Malinowski, Bronislaw. Magic, Science and Religion and Other Essays.  New York, 1955. 274 p.  572.56 M 295m.

Marwick, Max G. "The Continuance of Witchcraft Beliefs," in P. Smith (ed.), Africa in Transition. New York, 1958.

______________ "The Social Context of Cewa Witch Beliefs," Africa 22 (1952): 120-22.

______________. "The Study of Witchcraft," in A.L. Epstein (ed.), The Craft of Social Anthropology.   New York, 1967, pp. 231-44.

______________(ed.).  Witchcraft and Sorcery.  2nd. edn.,London, 1970.

_____________. Sorcery in Its Social Setting.  Manchester, 1965.

_____________. "Witchcraft as a Social-Strain Gauge," Australian Journal of Science  26 (1964).

______________."The Social Context of Cewa Witch Beliefs," Africa 22 (1952): 120-22.

Middleton, J. F. M.  Lugbara Religion. London, 1960.

_______________. "Witchcraft and Sorcery in Lugbara," in  J. F. M. Middleton and E. H. Winters (eds.) Witchcraft and Sorcery in East Africa.  London, 1963, pp. 257-75.

Meyer, Birgit.”If You are a Devil You Are a Witch and if You Are a Witch You are a Devil--The Integration of ‘Pagan’ ideas ito the Conceptual Universe of Ewe Christians in Southeastern Ghana.” Journal of Religion in Africa 22 (1992): 98-132.

Mauss, Marcel.  A General Theory of Magic.  London,  1950, 1972.

Nadel, S.F.  "Witchcraft and Anti-Witchcraft in Nupe Society,"  Africa  8 (1935): 423-447\.

_________  "Witchcraft in Four  African Societies,"  American Anthropologist  54 (1952): 18-29.

Niehaus, Isak A., “The ANC’s Dilemma: The Symbolic Politics of Three Witch-Hunts in the Soiuth African Lowveld, 1990-1995, African Studies Review 41 (1998): 93-118.

_________. Witchcraft and a Life in the New South Africa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2013.

Nottingham, Elizabeth K.  Religion: A Sociological View.   N. Y., 1971.

O'Keefe, Daniel L. Stolen Lightening: The Social Theory of Magic.   N. Y., 1983.

Otten, Charlotte F.  (ed).  A Lycanthropy Reader: Werewolves in Western Culture.  Syracuse, 1986.

Parrinder, G. Witchcraft: European and African.  London, 1963.

Parsons, Elsie Clews. "Witchcraft among the Pueblos: Indian or Spanish?," Man 27 (1927): 106-12; 125-8.

Richards, "A Modern Movement of Witch-Finders," Africa  8 (1935).

Rosenblatt, P. "Communication in the practice of Love Magic," Social Forces  49 (1971).

Shapera, Isaac. "Sorcery and Witchcraft in Bechuanaland," African Affairs 51 (1952): 41-52.

Shoenemann, Thomas T.  "The Witch Hunt as a Culture Change Phenomenon," Ethos  3 (1975): 529-554.

Swanson, Guy E.  The Birth of the Gods: The Origin of Primitive Beliefs.  Ann Arbor, 1960.

Thomas, Keith. "An Anthropology of  Religion and Magic II," Journal of Interdisciplinary History   6 (1975): 91-109.

Turner, Victor W. "Witchcraft and Sorcery: Taxonomy versus Dynamics," Africa 34 (1964), 314-25.

Vries, J. de. "Magic and Religion", History of Religions. 1 (1962).

Walker, D.E. (ed.). Systems of North American Witchcraft and Sorcery. Moscow, Idaho, 1970.

Wax, R. and M.  "The magical world-view", Journal of the Scientific Study of Religion, 1 (1962).

_____________. "The Notion of Magic," Current Anthropology  4 (1963).

Webster, H.  Magic, a Sociological Study.  Stanford, 1942.

Wilson, M. "Witch Beliefs and Social Structure," American Journal of Sociology 56 (1951): 307-313.

D. Treatises

Addy, Thomas. A Candle in the Dark: or a Treatise concerning the Nature of Witches and Witchcraft.. London, 1656.

Agrippa von Nettesheim, Heinrich C. The Philosophy of Natural Magic.  Chicago, 1913.

______________. Magische Werke sammt den geheimnisvollen Schriften bei Petrus von Albano Berlin, 1916.  5 vols

Baddeley, Richard.  The Boy of Bilson.  London, 1622.

Beaumont, John.  An Historical, Psychological, and Theological Treatise of Spirits, Apparitions, Witchcrafts...  London, 1705.  AK B 384 705 h.

Bekker, Balthasar, The World Bewitch'd. London, 1695. Also available in an AMS reprint.

Bernard, Richard.  A Guide to Grand Jury Men. London, 1627.

Binsfeld, Peter.  Tractatus de confessionibus maleficarum et sagarum.  Trier, 1591.

Bodin, Jean.  De la démonomanie des sorciers.  Paris, 1580; reprinted, Hiedesheim-Zurich and New York, 1988; Anvers, 1586.

__________. On the Demon-Mania of Witches, trans. Randy Scott. Toronto, 2001.

Boguet, Henri.  An Examen of Witches … in the County of Burgundy.  Ed. Montague Summers.  London, 1929.

Boulton, Richard. A Complete History of Magick, Sorcery and Witchcraft. London, 1715.

Bovet, Richard. Pandaemonium or the Devil's Cloyster. ed. M. Summers. Aldington, 1951.

Campanella, Tommaso(1568-1639).  Magica e grazia.  Rome, 1957.  Latin with an Italian trans.

Casaubon, Meric (1599-1671).  A Treatise Proving Spirits, Witches, and Supernatural Operations.  London, 1672. A reprint of his Of credulity and incredulity.  London, 1670.

Ciruelo, Pedro.  A Treatise reproving all superstitions and forms of witchcraft. Ed. Eugene A Maio and D'Orsey W. Peterson. Rutherford, N.J., 1977.

Cooper, Thomas.  The Mystery of Witchcraft.  London, 1617.

Cotta, John (1575?-1650?).  The Triall of Witchcraft.  128 pp.  London 1616.  STC 5836. Reprinted, NY, 1968.

Coxe, Francis.  A short treatise declaring the detestable wickedness on magical sciences.  London, 1561. (1972).

Defoe, Daniel. The Political History of the Devil.  London, 1726,.

Del Rio, Martín A.  Disquisitionum magicarum libri sex.  1617.

_______________. Investigations into Magic, ed. P.G. Maxwell-Stuart. Manchester, 2000.

Daneau, Lambert.  De veneficis. Cologne, 1574. trans, R.W. A Dialogue of Witches   London, 1575.

Dee, John.  A True and Faithful relation …  London, 1659.  

Eymerich, N and F. Peña.  Le manuel des Inquisiteurs. Paris, 1973.

Fairfax, Edward. Daemonologia: A Discourse on Witchcraft. Harrogate, 1882; New York, 1971.

[Filmer, Robert].  An advertsiement to the jury-men of England touching witches together with a difference between an English and Hebrew witch. 1653

Feyerabend, Sigmund.  Theatrum Diabolorum.  Frankfurt, 1569.

Gaule, John.  Select Cases of Conscience Touching Witches. London, 1646.

Gifford, George.  A dialogue concerning witches and witchcraft.  London, 1842. Orig. 1603. Reprinted in Haining, Witchcraft Papers.

Glanville, Joseph.  A Blow at Sadducism in Some Philosophical Considerations about Witchcraft.  London, 1668,

________________ Saducismus triumphatus: or … evidence concerning witches and superstitions.  London, 1681. 

Grillandi, Paolo. Tractatus de Hereticis et sortilegiis. Frankfurt, 1592.

Guazzo, Francesco M.  Compendium Maleficarum.  London, 1929..

Hale, Matthew. A Collection of Modern Relations of Matter of fact, concerning witches and witchcraft upon the persons of people. London, 1693.

Hauber, Eberhard David (ed.)  Bibliotheca, acta et scripta magica: Gründliche Nachrichten und Urteile von solchen Büchern und Handlungne, welche die Macht des Teufels in leiblichen Dingen betreffen.  Lemgo, 1739-45.

Holland, Henry. A Treatise against Witchcraft. Cambridge, 1590.

Hopkins, Matthew.  The Discovery of Witches.  1931.  Facsimile ed. of the 1647 ed. Also reprinted in Haining, Witchcraft Papers.

Hopkins, Matthew.  The discovery of witches; a study of Master Matthew Hopkins, commonly called witch finder generall. Ed. M. Summers. London, 1928,

Hutchinson, Francis.  An Historical Essay Concerning Witchcraft.  London, 1720

Kennett, White.  The Witchcraft of the present rebellion: a sermon preached.  1715.

Kramer, Heinrich. Malleus maleficarum, ed. Christopher Mackay 2 vols.  Cambridge, 2006.

Lancre, Pierre de.  Tableau de l'inconstance des mauvais anges et démons, ed. Nicole Jacques-Chaquin. Paris, 1982.

_____________, On the Inconstancy of Witches, ed. G. Scholz Williams. Tempe, AZ 2006.

Lemnius, Levinus.  De miraculis occultis naturae libre 1111.  Frankfurt, 1611.

________________  … Occulta naturae miracula.  Leipzig, 1588

Mather, Cotton.  Wonders of the Invisible World. Boston,1693.  

Mather, Increase. A farther account of the tryals of the New England witches. 1693.

______________. Cases of conscience concerning evil spirits Impersonating Men. Boston, 1693.  

Molitor, Ulric. Des Sorcières et des devineresses. Paris, 1926.

More, Henry.  An Antidote against Atheism. London, 1655,

Nider, Johannes, Formicarius.  Augsburg, 1475..

Perrault, François.  Demonologie ou discours en general touchant l'existence puissance impuissance des demons et sorciers. Geneva, 1656.

Perkins, William. A Discourse of the Damned Art of Witchcraft. Cambridge, 1608. Also in  The Works of William Perkins, III. Cambridge, 1613.

Perrault, François.  Demonologie ou traitte des demons et sorciers.  Geneva, 1653.

Porta, Giovanni.  Magie naturalis sive de miraculis rerum naturalium libri XX.  Naples, 1563.

Potts, Thomas (1612-1618? 1681?).  Potts's discovery of witches in the County of Lancaster.  Manchester, 1845, 190 pp.  Orig. 1613. 

______________.  The Trial of the Lancaster Witches, 1612. ed.  G. B. Harrison . London, 1929,

Remy, Nicolas.  Demonolatry.  Ed. M. Summers.  London, 1930.

Roberts, Alexander.  A Treatise of Witchcraft.  1616. 

Sinclair, George.  Satan's Invisible World Discovered.  London, 1685,

Scot, Reginald.  The Discoverie of Witchcraft.  London, 1930; N.Y.,1970  (orig. pub. 1584)

Spee, Friedrich. Cautio Criminalis, or a Book on Witch Trials. Trans Marcus Hellyer. Charlottesville, 2003.

Stearne, John. A Confirmation and Discovery of Witchcraft. London, 1648.

Thyraeus, Pierre.  Daemonicae. 1603.

[Wagstaffe, John]. The Question of Witchcraft Debated. London 1669.

Webster, John.  The Displaying of Supposed Witchcraft.  London, 1677,

­­­­­­­Weyer Johann. Witches, devils, and doctors in the Renaissance: Johann Weyer: De praestigiis daemonum, ed. George Mora. Binghamton, NY, 1991.

__________ Histoires des illusions et impostures des diables. 1579.

Witches apprehended, examined and executed.  (1613).


E. The Ancient World

Barb, A. A.  "The Survival of Magic Arts", in The Conflict between Paganism and Christianity, in the Fourth Century,  ed.  A. Momigliano. Oxford, 1963.

Betz, Hans Dieter, ed. The Greek Magical Papyri in Translation, including the Demotic Spells. Chicago, 1966.

Bonner, C.  "Witchcraft in the Lecture room of Libanius", TAPhA  63 (1932):. 34-44.

Brown, P.  "Sorcery, Demons and the Rise of Christianity from Late Antiquity to the Middle Ages", in Religion and Society in the Age of Saint Augustine.  Ed. P. Brown. New York, 1972, pp. 119-46. Also in Mary Douglas (ed.), Witchcraft Accusations and Confessions.

Buriss, E. E.  "The Terminology of Witchcraft", CPh 31 (1936): 137-45.

Eitrem, S.  "La magie comme motif littéraire chez les Grècs et les Romains", SO  21 (1941): 39-83, esp. 59-79.

Ferguson, J.  The Religions of the Roman Empire.  1970.

Jevons, F. B.  "Greaco-Italian Magic", in R. R. Marrett (ed.), Anthropology and the Classics.  New  York, 1908, 1966.

Kee, Howard Clark.  Medicine, Miracles and Magic in New Testament Times. Cambridge, 1986.

Keenan, Mary Emily,”The Terminology of Witchcraft in the Work of Augustine, Classical Philology 35 (1940), 294-7.

Lowe, J.  Magic in Greek and Latin Literature.  1929.

Luck, Georg.  Arcana Mundi: Magic and the Occult in the Greek and Roman Worlds.  Baltimore, 1985.

Mugler, C.  "Sûr quelques points de contact entre la magie et les sciences appliquées des anciens", RPh  47 (1973): 31-7.

Rabinowitz, Jacob. The Rotting Goddess: The Origin of the Witch in Classical Antiquity. New York, 1998.

Russell, Jeffrey B. The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity. Ithaca, 1977.

__________________. Satan: The Early Christian Tradition. Ithaca, 1981.

Schuster, M.  "Der Werwolf und die Hexen", WS  48 (1930):149-78.

Smith, Morton.  Jesus the Magician.  San Fransisco and N. Y., 1978.

Tavenner, E.  Studies in Magic from Latin Literature.  1916, 1966.

F.  Medieval and Renaissance Europe

Anglo, Sydney. "Evident Authority and authoritative evidence: The Malleus Maleficarum," in The Damned Art,  ed. S. Anglo. London, 1977, pp. 1-31.

Bailey, Michael. Battling Demons: Witchcraft, Heresy and Reform in the Late Middle Ages University Park, Pa.,2003.

___________.”From Sorcery to Witchcraft: Clerical Conceptions of Magic in the Later Middle Ages,” Speculum, 76 (2001), 930-960.

Barber, Malcolm.  The Trial of the Templars.  1978.

Blauert, Andreas. Frühe Hexenverfolgungen. Hamburg, 1989.

_______________, ed. Ketzer, Zauberer, Hexen: die anfänge der Europäischen Hexenverfolgungen. Franfurt, 1990.

Bonney, Françoise. "Autour de Jean Gerson. Opinions de théologiens sur le superstitions et la sorcellerie au début du XVe siècle," Le Moyen Age 77 (1971), 85-98.

Borst, Arno. “The Origins of the Witch-Craze in the Alps,” in Medieval Worlds: Barbariians, Heretics and Artists in the Middle Ages. Cambridge, 1991.

Braun, Pierre. "La Sorcellerie dans les lettres de rémission du Trésor de Chartes," Études sur la sensibilité au Moyen Age, (Actes du 102e Congrés national de Sociétés savantes). Limoges, 1977, pp. 257-78.

Brown, Peter. "Society and the Supernatural: A Medieval Change," Daedalus (1975), 135-40.

Cameron, Evan.  The Reformation of the Heretics: the Waldenses of the Alps, 1480-1580.  Oxford, 1984.

Cardini, Franco. Magia, stregoneria, superstizioni nell' Occidente mediaevale. Florence: La Nuova Italia Editrice, 1979. 242 pp.

Chadwick, Henry.  Priscillian of Avila: the Occult and the Charismatic in the Early Church.

Crawford, Jane.  "Evidences for Witchcraft in Anglo-Saxon England," Medium Aevum  32 (1963), 99-116.

Cohn, Norman. Europe's Inner Demons: An Enquiry Inspired by the Great Witch-Hunt. London 1975.

Duni, Matteo. Under the Devil’s Spell: Witches, Sorcerers and the inquisition in Renaissance Italy. Florence. 2007.

Elliott, Dyan. Fallen Bodies: Pollution, Sexuality and Demonology in the Middle Ages. Philadelphia, 1999.

Flint, Valerie I. J. The Rise of Magic in Early Medieval Europe. Princeton, 1991.

Ginzburg, Carlo.  Ecstasies: Deciphering the Witches' Sabbath. New York, 1991.

_______________"Présomptions sur le sabbat," Annales E.S.C. 39 (1984).

______________.  "The Witches' Sabbat: Popular Cult or Inquisitorial Stereotype?" in Understanding Popular Culture: Europe from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century,  ed. Steven L. Kaplan.  Berlin and New York, 1984, pp. 39-51.

Hansen, Joseph.  Quellen und Untersuchungen zur Geschichte des Hexenwahns im Mittelalter.  Bonn, 1901. 133.4 H198q 1963. Also available in Film 2730, reel 4.

Hansen, Joseph.  Zauberwahn, Inquisition und Hexenprozess im Mittelalter.  Munich, 1900. 272.2  H. 198z 1964.

Harmening, Dieter.  Zauberei im Abendland. Von Anteil der Gelehrten am Wahn der Leute. Skizzen zur Geschichte des Aberglaubens. Quellen und Forschungen zur europuaischen Ethnologie, 10. Würzburg, 1991.

Harvey, Margaret. “Papal Witchcraft: the Charges against Benedict XIII,” in Sanctity and Secularity: the Church and the World , ed. Derek Baker (Oxford, 1973), pp. 109-16.

Hopkins, Charles E.  The Share of Thomas Aquinas in the Growth of the Witchcraft Delusion.  Philadelphia, 1940.

Jones, William R.  "Political Uses of Sorcery in Medieval Europe", The Historian 34 (1972), pp. 670-87.

Kieckhefer, Richard.  “Avenging the Blood of Children: Anxiety over Child Victims and the Origins of the European Witch Trials,” in The Devil, Heresy and Witchcraft: Essays in Honor of Jeffrey B. Russell. Leiden, 1998, pp. 91-109.

________________.European Witch Trials: Their Foundations in Popular and Learned Culture, 1300-1500.  London, 1976.

____________. Forbidden Rites: A Necromancer’s Manual of the Fifteenth Century. University Park, PA, 1997.

____________. Magic in the Middle Ages. Cambridge, 1990.

____________.”The Specific Rationality of Medieval magic,” American Historical Review 99

(1994), 813-36.

____________. "The Holy and the Unholy: Sainthood, Witchcraft and Magic in Late Medieval Europe," Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 24 (1994), 355-85.

____________. “The Office of Inquisition and Medieval Heresy: The Transition from Personal to Institutional Jurisdiction,” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 46 (1995), 36-61.

____________. “Magic and ts Hazards in the Late Medieval West,” in Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America, ed. Brian P. Levack, pp. 13-31.

Kelly, H. A.  "English Kings and the Fear of Sorcery", Medieval Studies  39 (1977), pp. 206-38.

Maggi, Armando. In the Company of Demons: Unnatural Beings, Love and Identity in the Italian Renaissance. Chicago, 2006.

Mormando, Franco. The Preacher’s Demons: Bernardino of Siena and the Social Underworld of Early Renaissance Italy. Chicago, 1999.

Murray, Alexander. "Medieval Origins of the Witch Hunt, The Cambridge Quarterly 7 (1976), 63-74.

Nauert, C. G.  Agrippa and the Crisis of Renaissance Thought.   Urbana, IL, 1965.  esp. pp. 201 ff.

Neary, A. “The origins andCharacter of the Kilkenny Witchcraft case of 1324,” Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 83(1983), 333-50.

Paravy, Pierette.  "À Propos de la genese médiévale des chasses aux sorcieres: la traité de Claude Tholosan juge dauphinois (vers 1436), Mélanges de L'École Française de Rome 91 (1979).

_______________.De la chrétienté romaine à la Réforme en Dauphiné: evêques, fidèles et déviants (vers 1430-vers 1530). Rome, 1993.

Pingree, David. Picatrix: The Latin Version of the Ghayat Al-Hakm. London, 1986.

Rose, R. E.  A Razor for a Goat.  Toronto, 1962.

Russell, Jeffrey B.  Witchcraft in the Middle Ages.  Ithaca, New York, 1972.

___________. Lucifer: The Devil in the Middle Ages. Ithaca, 1984.

___________ and Mark Wyndham, "Witchcraft and the Demonization of Heresy," Mediaevalia 2 (1976), 1-21.

Schmidt, Gary D. The Iconography of the Mouth of Hell: 8th Century Britain to the 15th Century. Selingsgrove, 1995.

Schnyder, André. “Der Malleus Maleficarum: Fragen und Beobactungen zu seiner Druckgeschicte sowie zur Rezeption bei Bodin, Binsfeld und Delrio,” Archiv fuur Kulturgeschichte 74 (1992), 323-64.

Segl, Peter (ed.). Der Hexenhammer: Enstehung und Umfeld des Malleus Maleicarum von 1487.  Kiel, 1988.

Shumaker, Wayne.  The Occult Sciences in the Renaissance.  Berkeley, 1972.

Tucker, Elizabeth. "Antecedents of Contemporary Magic in the Middle Ages," Journal of Popular Culture  vol. 14 no. 1 (1980),  70-78.

West, Robert H.  Reginald Scot and Renaissance Writings on Witchcraft.  Boston, 1984.

Wilson, Eric. "The Text and Context of the Malleus Maleficarum." Ph.D. thesis, Cambridge, 1991.

__________. “Institoris at Innsbruck: Heinrich Institoris,,the Summis Desiderantes and the Brixen Witch-Trial of 1485,” in Popular Religion in Germany and Central Europe 1400-1800, ed. Bob Scr9ibner and Trevor Johnson. NY, 1996, 87-100.

Yates, Frances. Giordano Bruno and the Hermetic Tradition. London, 1964.

G.  Regional and National Studies--1500 to the Present

  1. Germany
  2. France and the Low Countries
  3. Switzerland
  4. Italy
  5. Spain, Portugal and Latin America
  6. England, Wales and the Channel Islands
  7. Scotland
  8. Ireland
  9. Colonial North America and the United States
  10. Nordic Countries
  11. Eastern Europe

1. Germany

Baschwitz, Kurt.  Der Massenwahn: Ursache und Heilung des deutschen Hasses.  Munich 1932.

Baumgarten, Achim R. Hexenwahn und Hexenverfolgungen im Naheraum. Frankfurt, 1987.

Behringer, Wolfgang. “Allemagne, ‘Mère de tant de sorcières’ au cour des persécutions,” in Magie et sorcellerie en Europe, ed. R. Muchembled. Paris, 1994, pp. 59-98.

___________________ (ed).  Hexen und Hexenprozesse in Deutschland. Munich, 1988.

___________________. Hexenverfolgung in Bayern. Munich, 1988.

___________________. Kinder “Kinderhenexprozesse: Zur Rolle von Kindern in der Geschichte der Hexenverfolgungen,” Zeitschrift für historische Forschung  16 (1989): 31-47.

___________________. Witchcraft Persecutions in Bavaria: Popular Magic, Religious Zealotry and Reason of State in Early Modern Europe. trans. J. C. Grayson and D. Lederer.  Cambridge, 1998.

___________________. Shaman of Oberstdorf: Chonrad Stoecklin and the Phantoms of the Night. trans. Erik Midelfort. Charlottesville, 1998.

Bever, Edward.  "Witchcraft, Fears and the Suppression of Magic in Early Modern Württemberg", Princeton Ph. D. Diss. (1983).

Binz, Carl. Doctor Johann Weyer. Bonn, 1885; rev. Berlin, 1896.

Brauner, Sigrid. Fearless Wives and Frightened Shrews: the Construction of the Witch in Early Modern Germany. Amherst, 1995.

Burr, George L.  The Fate of Diedrich Flade.  N. Y., 1891,

Decker, Rainer. “Die Haltung der römischen Inquisition gegenüber Hexenglauben und Exorzismus am Beispiel der Teufelsaustreibungen in Paderborn 1657,” in Das Ende der Hexenverfolgung, ed. S. Lorenz and D. R. Bauer (Stuttgart, 1995): 97-115.

_____________.“Die Hexenverfolgungen im Herzogtum Westfalen,” Westfälische Zeitschrift 131/132, (1981-2): 339-86.

_____________. “Die Hexenverfolgungen im Hochstift Paderborn,” Westfälische Zeitschrift 128 (1978): 315-56.

Degn, Christian, Hartmut Lehmann, and Dagmar Unverhau (eds.). Hexenprozesse: Deutsche und scandinavische Beiträge. Neumünster,1983.

Dienst, Heide. "Magische Vorstellungen und Hexenverfolgungen in den österreichen Alpenländern (15-18 Jahrhundert) in E. Zöllner (ed.), Wellen der Verfolgungen in der österreichischen Geschichte. Vienna,1986.

Johannes Dillinger, Böse Leute: Hexenverfolgungen in Schwäbish-Österreich und Kurtrier im Vergleich. Trierer Hexenprozesse Band 5, 1999.

________________. “Evil People”:  A comparative Study of Witch Huntsd in Swabian Austria and the Electorate of Trier Trans. Laura Stokes. Charlotteesville, 2009.

Durrant, Jonathan. Witchcraft, Gender and Society in Early Modern Germany. [Studies in Medieval and Reformation Traditions 124], Leiden, 2007.

Gebhardt, Horst Heinrich. Hexenpozesse im Kurfürstum Mainz des 17 Jahrhunderts.  Aschaffenburg, 1989.

Görres, Johann.  Mystik, magie und dämonie.  Munich, 1927.

Gross, Johann.  Die grosse Ohnmacht des Fürsten der Finsterniss.  Leipzig, 1734.

Haas, A.  "Über das pommersche Hexenwesen im 16 und 17 Jahrhundert", Baltische Studien  34 (1932): 158-202.

Heberling, R.  "Zauberei- und Hexenprozesse in Schleswig-Holstein-Lauenburg", Zeitschrift der Geselschaft für Schleswig-Holsteinishce Geschichte  45 (1915): 116-247.

Herzig, Tamar. Christ Transformed into a Virgin Woman: Lucia Broadelli, Heiruch Institoris, and the Defense of the Faith. Rome, 2013.

Honegger, Claudia."Die Hexen in der Neuzeit", in Honegger, ed. Die Hexen der Neuzeit.. Frankfort, 1978.

Hoppstätdler, K.  "Die Hexenverfolgungen in Saarländischen Raum", Zeitschrift für Geschichte der Saargegund  9 (1959), 210-67.

Jahn, Ulrich.  Hexenwesen und Zauberei in Pommern.  Stettin, 1886.

Kampfen, Peter J.  Hexen und Hexenprozess in Wallis.  1867.

Kiesewetter, Karl.  Faust in der Geschichte und Tradition; mit besonderer Berücksichtigung des occulten Phänomenalismus … Leipzig, 1893.

Kunstmann, H. H.  Zauberwahn und Hexenprozess in der Reichstadt Nürnberg.  Nürnberg, 1970.

Kunze, Michael.  Der Prozess Pappenheimer.  Elsbach, 1981.

_____________.  Highroad to the Stake: A Tale of Witchcraft. Chicago, 1987.

Labouvie, Eva. Zauberei und Hexenwerk. Ländliche Hexenglaube in der frühen Neuzeit. Frankfurt, 1987.

____________.”Männer im Hexenprozess: zur Sozialanthropologie eines ‘männlichen’ Verständnisses von Magie und Hexerei,” Geschichte und Gesellschaft 16 (1190): 56-78.

Lehmann, Hartmut.  "Hexenverfolgungen und Hexenprozesse in Alten Reich zwischen Reformation und Aufklarung," Jahrbuch de Instituts für Deutsche Geschichte 7 (1978), 13-70.

______________. “The Persecution of Witches as Restoration of Order: the Case of Germany, 1590s-1650s,” Central European History 21 (1988), 107-121.

Leutenbauer, S.  Hexerei- und Zaubereidelikt in der Literatur von 1450 bis 1550.  Berlin, 1972.

Liebelt, K.  "Geschichte des Hexenprozess in Hessen-Kassel", Zeitschrift des Vereins für Geschichte und Landekunde 58 (1932), 1-144.

Lorenz, Sönke.  Aktenversendung und Hexenprozesz. Dargestellt am Beispiel der Juristfakultäten Rostock und Greifswald (1570/82-1630). 2 vols. Frankfurt am Main, 1982-83.

_____________. “Johann Georg Goedelmann--Ein Gegner des Hexenwahns? in R. Schmidt, Beiträge zur Pommerschen und mecklenberischen Geschichte (Marburg, 1981), pp. 61-105.

_____________ and Jürgen Michael Schmidt, Wider alle Hexerei und Teufelswerk: Die Europaische Hexenverfolgung und Ihre Auswirkungen auf Süddeutschland. Ostfildern, 2007.

Meili, David.  Hexen in Wasterkingen: Magie und Lebensform in einem Dorf des fruhen 18. Jahrhunderts. Basel, 1980.

Meinhold, W.  Mary Schweidler, the amber witch,  The most interesting trial for witchcraft ever known.  trans. Lady Duff Gordon.London, 1846.

Merzbacher, F.  Die Hexenprozesse in Franken.  Munich, 1970.

Midelfort, H. C. E.  Witch hunting in Southwestern Germany,1562-1684.  Stanford,1972.

_______________  "Witch hunting and the Domino Theory", in James Obelkevich (ed.) Religion and the People.  (1979).

_______________.  "Heartland of the witchcraze: central and northern Europe", History Today  31 (1981).

Paulus, Nikolaus.  Hexenwahn und Hexenprozess, vornehmlich im 16. Jahrhundert.  Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1910.

Pohl, Herbert. Hexenglaube und Hexenverfolgung im Kurfürstentum Mainz. Geschichliche Landeskunde 32. Stuttgart, 1988.

Reich, Felix.  Hexenprozess in Danzig und in den westpreussischen Grenzgebieten. Munich,1940. 

Reizler, S.  Geschichte des Hexenprozess in Bayern. Stuttgart,1896.

Rinscheid, J.  "Die Hexenwahn im Wildenburger Lande", Mitteilungen der Westdeutschen Gesellschaft für Familienkunde 21 (3-4) (1963):, 203-76.

Robisheaux, Thomas. The Last Witch of Langenburg: Murder in a German Village. New York, 2009.

_________________. “The German Witchcraft Trials,” in Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America, ed. Brian P. Levack, pp. 178-98.

Roper, Lyndal. "Stealing Manhood: Capitalism and Magic in Early Modern Germany," Gender and History 3 (1991:, 4-22.

_____________"Witchcraft and Fantasy in Early Modern Germany," History Workshop 32 (1991):19-43.

_____________. Oedipus and the Devil: Witchcraft, Sexuality and Religion in Early Modern Europe. London and New York, 1994.

______________. Witch Craze: Terror and Fantasy in Baroque Germany. New Haven and London, 2005.

Rothkrug, Lionel.  "Icon and ideology in religion and rebellion, 1300-1600: Bauerfreiheit  and religion royale",in J. M. Bak and G. Benecke (eds), Religion and Rural Revolt.  Manchester, 1980.

Rummel, Walter.Bauern, Herren und Hexen: Studien zur Sozialgeschichte sponheimischer und kurtrierischer Hexenprozesse, 1574-1664. Göttingen, 1991.

Sabean, David W.  Power in the Blood: Popular Culture and Village Discourse in Early Modern Germany.  Cambridge, 1984.

Schormann, Gerhard.  Hexenprozesse in Deutschland.  Göttingen, 1981.

__________________.  Hexenprozesse in Nordwestdeutschland.  Hildesheim, 1977.

__________________. Der Krieg gegen die hexen: Das Ausrottungsprogramm des Kurfürsten von Köln. Göttingen, 1991.

Schwarzwälder, Herbert.  "Die Formen des Zauber- und Hexenglaubens und seiner Umgebung, vor allem während des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts," Heimat und Volkstum.  Bremer Nachträge zur niederdeutschen Volkskunde  (1958): 3-68.

_____________________.  "Die Geschichte des Zauber- und Hexenglaubens in Bremen", Bremisches Jahrbuch 46 (1959):156-233 and 47 (1961): 99-142.

Swerhoff, Gerd. “Zentrum und treibende Kräfte der frühneuzeitlichen Hexenverfolgung: Sachse im regionalen Vergleich,” Neues Archiv für sächsische Geschichte 79 (2008), 61-100.

Scribner, Bob. "Witchcraft and Judgement in Reformation Germany," History Today 40 (April, 1990), 12-19.

Siebel, Friedrich W.  Die Hexenverfolgung in Köln.  Ph. D. dissertation, Bonn 1959.

Stokes, Laura. Demons of Urban Reform: Early European Witch Trialsand Criminal Justice, 1430-1530. Basingstoke and New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011.

Trusen, Winfried. ”Rechtliche Grundlagen der Hexenprozesse und ihrer Beendigung,” in Das Ende der Hexenverfolgung, ed. S. Lorenz and D. R. Bauer (Stuttgart, 1995): 213

Unverhau, Dagmar. "Aufruhr und Rebellion im Amt Bergedorf wegen eines Zauberers und dreier Zauberinnen im Jahr 1612," Zeitschrif des Vereins für Hamburgische Geschichte  68 (1982): 1-22.

_________________. "Kieler Hexen und Zauberer zur Zeit der groszen Verfolgungen (1530-1676)," in Mitteilungen der Gesellschaft für Kieler Stadtgeschichte 68 (1981), 41-96.

_________________, “Akkusationsprozess-Inquisitionsprozess. Indikatoren für die Intensität der Hexenverfolgung in Schleswig-Holstein,” in C. Degn, H. Lehman and D. Unverhau, Hexenprozesse: Deutsche und Skandinavische Beiträge (Studien zur Volkskunde und Kulturgeschichte Schleswig Holsteins 12). (Neumünster, 1983): 59-142

Valentinitsch, H. (ed.)  Hexen und Zauberer. Graz, 1987.

van Oorschot, Theo G.M. “Ihrer Zeit voraus: Das Ende der Hexenverfolgung in der Cautio Criminalis,” in Das Ende der Hexenverfolgung, ed. S. Lorenz and D. R. Bauer (Stuttgart, 1995)

Walinski-Kiehl, Robert S. “Godly States: Confessional Conflict and Witch-Hunting in Early Modern Germany,” Mentalité-Mentalities 5 (1988)

Williams, Gerhild Scholz. Defining Dominion: The Discourses of Magic and Witchcraft in Early Modern France and Germany. Ann Arbor, 1995.

Volk, Franz.  Hexen in der Langvogtei Ortenau und der Reichstadt Offenburg.  Lahr, 1882.

Wunde, Heidi. "Hexenprozesse im Herzogtum Preussen während des 16 Jahrhunderts," in Christian Degn, Hartmut Lehman and Dagmar Unverhau, Hexenprozesse: Deutsche und Skandinavische Beiträge (Studien zur Volkskunde und Kulturgeschichte Schleswig Holsteins 12). Neumünster, 1983.

Wüst, Wolfgang. "Inquisitionsprozess und Hexenverfolgung in Hochschrift Augsburg im 17 und 18 Jahrhundert," zeitschrift für Bayerische Landesgeschichte 50 (1987): 109-26.

Zwetsloot, Hugo, S. J.  Friedrich Spee und die Hexenprozesse.  Trèves, 1954.


2. France and the Low Countries

Attfield, Robin, “Balthasar Bekker and the Decline of the Witch-Craze: the Old Demonology and the New Philosophy,” Annals of Science 42 (1985): 383-395.

Barbery D'Aurevilly, Jules A.  Bewitched.  N. Y., 1928, 276 p.  843  B 233e Tw.

_________________________.  The Diaboliques.  N. Y., 1925. Also a 1964 ed. 

Baudrillart, H. J.  Bodin et son temps …  Paris, 1853. Bavoux, François.  "Les caractères originaux de la sorcellerie dans le Pays de Montbéliard", Mémoires de la Société pour l'histoire du droit et des institutions des anciens pays bourguignons, comptais et romands  20 (1958-59).

________________. Hantises et diableries dans la terre abbatiale de Luxeuil d'un procès de l'Inquisition (1529) à l'épidémie démoniaque de 1628-1630. Monaco: Ed. du Rocher, 1956.

________________. Les Procès inédits de Boguet en matière de sorcellerie dans la grande judicature de Saint-Claude. Dijon, 1958.

________________. La Sorcerie au pays de Quingey. Besançon, 1947.

________________. La Sorcerie  en Franche Comté. Monaco, 1954.

Baxter, Christopher. "Jean Bodin's De la Démonomanie des Sorciers: The Logic of Prosecution," in The Damned Art. Ed. S. Anglo, London, 1977.

Bertin, P.  "Une affaire de sorcellerie dans un village d'Artois au XVIe siècle", Bulletin

Beckman, Jacques. "Une épidémie de sorcellerie à Novilles-les-Bois au début du XVIIe siècle," Annales de la société Archéologique de Namur 54 (1968), 425-469. trimestriel de la société academique des antiquaires de la Morinie 18 (1957), pp. 609-17.

________.  La sorcellerie en Franche-Comté.  Monaco, 1954.

Bila, Constantin.  La croyance à la magique au XVIIIe siècle en France dans les contes, romans et traites.  Paris, 1925. 158 Bouisson, Maurice.   Magic: its Rites and History.  London, 1960, 319 pp.  From the French.

Braun, Pierre. "La Sorcellerie dans les lettres de rémission du Trésor des Chartres," Etudes sur la sensibilité au Moyen Age. Actes du 102e Congrès national des Sociétés savantes. Linoges, 1977, Paris, 1979.

Briggs, Robin.  Communities of Belief: Cultural and Social Tension in Early Modern France. Oxford, 1989. 3 chapters on witchcraft.

_____________. Witchcraft and Popular Mentality in Lorraine, 1580-1630," in Occult and Scientific Mentalities in the Renaissance, ed. Brian Vickers.  Cambridge, 1984, pp. 337-49.

_____________. "Women as Victims? Witches, Judges and the Community," French History 5 (1991), 438-50.

_____________. Witches and Neighbors: The Social and Cultural Context of European Witchcraft. New York and London, 1996.

_____________. The Witches of Lorraine. Oxford, 2007.

Brouette, E.  La sorcellerie dans le Compté de Namur au début de l'époque moderne (1509-1646).  Gembloux, 1954.

Chanou, P.  "Le fin des sourciers", Annales E. S. C.  24 (1969): 895-911.

Chastain, André.   Un convive du "Diner d'athees" de Barbey d'Aurevilly.  1958.

de Cauzons, Th.  La magie et la sorcellerie en France.  4 vols.  Incl. materials about the inquisitions on Toulouse.  133 C 313m.

Clark, Stuart,  "The 'Gendering' of Witchcraft in French Demonology: Misogyny or Polarity?," French Studies 5 (1991), 426-37.

Delacroix, Frederic.  Les procès de sorcellerie au XVIIe  siècle.  Paris, 1894.

Delcambre, Étienne.  Le Concept de la sorcellerie dans le duché de Lorraine aux XVIe-XVIIe siècles.  3 vols.  Nancy, 1848-51.

Denis, A.  La sorcellerie à Toul  aux XVI e et XVII e siècles.  Toul, 1888.

Dintzer, Lucien.  Nicolas Rémy et son oeuvre démonologique.  Lyon, 1936.

Dupont-Bouchat, Marie-Sylvie. "La Répression de la sorcellerie dans le duché de Luxembourg aux XVIe et  XVIIe siècles", in  Dupont-Bouchat et. al., Prophètes et sorciers dans les Pays-Bas XVIe-XVIIIe siècles. Paris, 1978.

Durkheim, E.  Les formes élémentaires de la vie religieuse.  Paris, 1912.  Also an Eng. translation, 1915.

Fatio, Olivier. "Lambert Daneau," in Shapers of Religious Traditions in Germany, Switzerland and Poland, 1560-1660, ed. Jill Raitt. New Haven, 1981.

Favret-Saada, Jeanne  Les mots, la mort, les sorts.  La sorcellerie dans la Bocage.  Paris, 1977. trans. as Deadly Words: Witchcraft in the Bocage.  New York, 1980. Febvre, Lucien.  "Sorcellerie: sottise ou révolution mentale?," Annales E. S. C. 3 (1948), 9-15., trans. K. Folca as "Witchcraft: Nonsense or a Mental Revolution? in A New Kind of History from the Writings of Febvre, ed. Peter Burke.  London, 1973, pp. 185-92.

Fix, Andrew. Fallen Angels: Balthasar Bekker, Spirit Belief, and Confessionalism in the Seventeenth-Century Dutch Republic. Dordrecht, 1999.

Foucault, Maurice.  Les procèss de sorcellerie dans l'ancienne France devant les jurisdictions séculières.  Paris, 1907.

Gijswijt-Hofstra, Marijke. "The European Witchcraft Debate and the Dutch Variant," Social History  15 (1990), 181-94.

_______________________"Witchcraft in the Northern Netherlands," in Arina Angerman et al. (eds.), Current Issue in Women's History. London, 1989, pp. 75-92.

Gijswijt-Hofstra and Frijhoff, Willem, eds.Witchcraft in the Netherlands: from the fourteenth to the twentieth century. Rotterdam, 1991.

______________________.Nederland betoverd. Toverij en hekserij van de veertiende tot in de twintingste eeuw. Amsterdam, 1987.

Gilbert, L. "La Sorcellerie au pays messin," Pays Lorrain  (1907).

Golden, Richard M. "Notions of Social and Religious Pollution in Nicholas Remy's Demonolatry,"  in Politics, Ideology and the law in Early Modern Europe: Essays in Honor of J. H. M Salmon, ed. Adrianna E. Bakos. Rochester, 1994, pp. 21-33.

Huxley, Aldous.  The Devils of Loudon.  New York, 1952.

Jeanton, Gabriel, "Un procès de sorcellerie à Mâcon au XVIIe siècle," Revue de folklore français 2 (1931): 317-27.

Klaits, Joseph (1982) “Witchcraft Trials and Absolute Monarchy in France,” in Church, State and Society under the Bourbon Kings of France , ed. R. Golden (Lawrence, Kans.), 148-72.

Krause, Virginia. Witchcraft, Demonology nd Confession in Early Modern France. Cambridge, 2015.

Lange, Ursula.  Untersuchungen zu Bodins Démonomanie.  Frankfort, 1970.

Lavanchy, J. M.  "Sabbats ou Synagogues sur les Bords du Lac d'Annecy," Mémoires et Documents Publiés par L'Académie Salésienne  8 (1885), 381-440.

Le Nail, J.-F. "Procedure contre des sorciéres de Seix en 1562," Société ariègoise, sciences, lettres et arts 31 (1976), 155-232.

Le Roy Ladurie, Emmanuel.  Jasmin's Witch. London, 1987.

________________.  Les paysans de Languedoc.  Paris, 1966. trans. as The Peasants of Languedoc. Urbana 1974. Levron, J.  ""La sorcellerie en Lorraine", Mecure de France 310 (1950): 80-84.

McGowan, Margaret. "Pierre de Lancre's Tableau de l'Inconstance dss Mauvais Anges et Demons,"  in The Damned Art. ed. S. Anglo. London, 1977.

Maes, L. th.  "Un procèss de sorcellerie en 1642, évalué à la lumière de recentes études européennes et d'après la legislation et la theorie du droit du XVIIe siècle", Studia Mechliniensia  79 (1975): 243-68.

Mandrou, Robert.  Magistrats et sorciers en France au XVIIe siècle.  Paris,1968.

Marchou, G. "La sorcellerie dans le Médoc", Tour Saint Jaques 11-12 (supplement July-Oct 1957),  51-6.

Martin, X. "Aspects de la sorcellerie en Anjou,"in Histoire des faits de sorcellerie

Marx, Jean.  L'Inquisition en Dauphiné.  1914.

Maury, Alfred.  La magie et l'Astrologie dans l'antiquité et au Moyen Age ou étude sûr les superstitions paiennes qui se sont perpetuées jusqu'a nos jours.  Paris, 1877.  133.4 M 448m.

Mellot, Jean, "La Sorcellerie en Berry," Tour Saint Jacques  11-12 (1957).

Michelet, Jules   Satanism and Witchcraft.  From the French.  Orig. Paris, 1867.

_____________ La Sorcière.  Paris, 1862.

Mollenauer, Lynn Wood. Strange Revelations: Magic, Poison and Sacrilege in Louis XIV”s France. Penn State, 2007.

Monter, E. William.  "French and Italian Witchcraft", History Today  30 (Nov, 1980).

_________________. Witchcraft in France and Switzerland: The Borderlands during the Reformation.  Ithaca, 1976.

_________________.  "Inflation and Witchcraft: The Case of Jean Bodin", in Action and Conviction in Early Modern Europe , T. K. Rabb and J. E. Siegel (eds.),  Princeton, 1969, pp. 371-89.

_________________. "The Pedestal and the Stake: courtly love and witchcraft", in R. Bridenthal and C. Koonz (eds), Becoming Visible: Women in European History.  Boston, 1977.

__________________. “ Witchcraft Trials in France,” in Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America, ed. Brian P. Levack, pp.218-31.

Muchembled, Robert.  Les Derniers bûchers.: Un Village de Flandre et ses sorcières sour Louis XIV.Paris, 1981.

___________________.Popular Culture and Elite Culture in France, 1400-1750. Baton Rouge, La., 1985.

___________________  Sorcières, justice et société aux XVIe et XVIIe siècles. Paris, 1987.

___________________"Sorcellerie, culture populaire et christianisme au XVIe siècle, principalement en Flandres et en Artois", Annales E. S. C.  (Jan.-Feb. 1973): 264-84.

___________________"The witches of the Cambrésis: the acculturation of the rural world in the 16 and 17 centuries", in James Obelkevich (ed.), Religion and the People, 800-1700.  Chapel Hill, 1979.

Oates, Caroline. "The Trial of a Teenage Werewolf, Bordeaux, 1603."  Criminal Justice History 9 (1988), 1-29.

Ostorero, Martine. Folâtrer avec les démons: Sabbat et chasse aux sorciers à Vevey (1448) (Cahiers Lausannois d’Histoire Médiévale , 15) Lausanne, 1995.

Oudin, "Un procès de sorcellerie au dix-septième siècle," Mémoires de'lAcadémie des sciences, des lettres, et des arts  d'Amiens 35 (1988).

Pearl, Jonathan L. "Witchcraft in New France in the Seventeenth Century: The Social Aspect, " Historical Reflections  4 (1977), 191-205.

_______________. The Crime of Crimes: Demonology and Politics in France, 1560-1620. Waterloo, Ontario, 1999.

Pfister, C.  "Nicolas Rémy et la sorcellerie en Lorraine à la fin du XVIe siècle", Revue Historique  93 (1907).

Rapley, Robert. A Case of Witchcraft: The Trial of Urbain Grandier. Montreal, 1998.

Régné, Jean, "La sorcellerie en Vivarais et la répression inquisitoriale ou séculière du XVe au XVIIe siècle," in  Mélanges...offerts à Charles Bemont.  Paris,1913.

Rowlands, Alison. Witchcraft Narratives in Germany: Rothenburg, 1561-1652. Manchester, 2003.

Sinninghe, J. R. W.  "De eerste heksenprocessen en heksenvervolgingen in Nederland, XVe eeuw", Historia 15 (1950): 170-3.

Simon, Maryse. Les affairs de sorcellerie dans le val de Lièpvre (XVIe et XVIIe siècles). Société Savante de Alsace, 2006.

_____________. “Frontières de la sorcellerie entre Alsace et Lorraine: entrelacs jurisdictionneles et variations contexuelles,” Revue d’Alsace 134 (2008), 195-212.

Soman, A. F. "La Décriminalisation de la Sorcellerie en France," Histoire, Économie et Société  4 (1985), 179-203.

___________ "The Parlement of Paris and the Great Witch Hunt (1565-1640)", Sixtenth Century Journal  9 (1978).

___________ "Les procès de sôrcellerie au Parlement de Paris (1565-1640)", Annales E. S. C.  July-Aug. 1977,  790-814.

___________ "Le Rôle des Ardennes dans la décriminalisation de la sorcellerie en France," Revue historique ardennaise 23 (1988), 23-45.

___________. Sorcellerie et justice criminelle: Le Parlement de Paris (16e-18e siècles). Hampshire, 1992.

___________ "Trente Procès de Sorcellerie dans le Perche (1566-1624), L'Orne Littéraire 8 (1986): 42-57.

___________. "Witch Lynching at Juniville," Natural History 95 (1986): 8-15.

Tuetey, A. La Sorcellerie dans la pays de Montbéliard au XVIIe Siècle. Dôle, 1886.

Villette, P. Abbé.  "La sorcellerie dans le Nord de la France du milieu du XVe siècle à la fin du XVIIIe siècle", Mélanges de Science Réligieuse, 13 (1956),  39-62, 129-56.

_______________.  "La sorcellerie à Douai", Mélanges de Science Réligieuse, 8 (1956): 123-73.

________________.  La sorcellerie et sa répression dans le Nord de la France.  Paris,1976.

Waite, Gary K.  “Between the Devil and the Inquisitor: Anabaptists, diabolical conspiracies and magical beliefs in the sixteenth-century Netherlands.”  Pp. 120-140 in Radical Reformation Studies: Essays presented to James M. Stayer. Edited by W. O. Packull and G. L. Dipple.  Brookfield VT,1999.

Walker, Anita and Edmund H. Dickerman.”Magdeleine des Aymards: demonism or child abuse in early modern France,” Psychohistory Review 24 (1996): 329-64.

Walker, D. P.  Unclean Spirits: Possession and Exorcism in France and England in the Late 16th and Early 17th Centuries.  Philadelphia, 1981.

Wilkins, Kay S. "Attitudes to Witchcraft and Demonic Possession in France during the Eighteenth Century," Journal of European Studies  3 (1973): 349-60.

Williams, Gerhild Scholz. The Discourses of Magic and Witchcraft in Early Modern France and Germany. Ann Arbor, 1995.


3. Switzerland

Bader, Guido.  Die Hexenprozesse in der Schweiz.  Affolteren, 1945.

Blauert, Andreas. Frühe Hexenverfolgungen. Hamburg, 1989.

Broye, Christian. Sorcellerie et superstitions à Genève XVIe-XVIII siècles. Geneva, 1990.

Dettling, A.  Die Hexenprozesse im Kanton Schwyz.  1907. Film 2730, reel 162. 

Fischer, Friedrich.  Die Basler Hexenprozesse in dem 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts.  Basel,1840.

Kamber, Peter. "La Chasse aux sorciers et aux sorcières dans la Pays de Vaud," Revue historique vaudoise, (1982): 21-33.

Monter, E. William.  "La sodomie à l'epoque moderne en Suisse romande", Annales E. S. C.  29 (1974): 1030-1.

_________________."Patterns of Witchcraft in the Jura", Journal of Social History  5  (1971-72): 1-25.

_________________."Witchcraft in Geneva, 1537-1662", Journal of Modern History  43 (1971),   179-204.

__________________Witches in France and Switzerland: The Borderlands during the Reformation.  Ithaca, 1976.

__________________. “Poursuites Précoces la Sorcellerie en Suisse,” in Magie et Sorcellerie en Europe, ed. R. Muchembled. Paris, 1994, pp. 47-58.

Schacher, Joseph.  Das Hexenwesen im Kanton Luzern (1400-1675). Lucerne, 1947.

Trechsel, F. "Das Hexenwesen im Canton Bern," Berner Taschenbuch 19 (1870): 149-234.


4.  Italy

Accati, Louisa. “The Spirit of Fornication: Virtue of the Soul and Vrtue of the Body in Friuli, 1600-1800,” in Sex and Gender in Historical Perspective, ed Edward Muir and Guido Ruggiero. Baltimore, 1990, pp. 110-140.

Aconcio, Giacomo.  Satan's Strategems.  San Francisco, 1940, 2 vols.

Albergamo, Francesco.  Mito e magia.  Naples, 1970,

Barberi.  The Life of Joseph Balsamo, commonly called Cagliostro.  London, 1791,

Bonomo, Guiseppe.  Caccia alle Streghe.  Palermo, 1959.

Brucker, Gene.  "Sorcery in Early Renaissance Florence", Studies in the Renaissance 10 (1963): 7-24.

Burke, Peter. "Witchcraft and Magic in Renaissance Italy: Gianfresco Pico and his Strix, in The Damned Art. Ed. S. Anglo. London, 1977.

Decker, Rainer. Die Päpste und die Hexen: Aus den geheimen Akten der Inquisition. Darmstadt, 2003.

____________. Witchcraft and the Papacy: An Account Drawing on the Formerly Secret Records of the Roman Inquisition, trans. Erik Midelfort. Charlottesville, 2008.

Deutscher, Thomas. “The Role of the Episcopal Tribunal of Novara in the Suppression of Heresy and Witchcraft, 1563-1615,” Catholic Historical Review 77 (1991), 403-21.

Gebhart, Emile.  Mystics and Heretics in Italy at the end of the Middle Ages.  London, 1922.

Ginzburg, Carlo.  The Night Battles: Witchcraft and Agrarian Cults in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries. tr. John and Anne Tedeschi.  Baltimore, 1983.

______________. “Witchcraft and Popular Piety: Notes on a Modenese Trial of 1519,” in Clues, Myths and the Historical Method, trans. John and Anne C. Tedeschi. Baltimore, 1989, pp. 1-16.

Herzig, Tamar. Christ Transformed into a Virgin Woman: Lucia Broadelli, Heiruch Institoris, and the Defense of the Faith. Rome, 2013.

____________. “Witchcraft Prosecutions in Italy,” in Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America, ed. Brian P. Levack, pp.  249-67.

Martin, Ruth.  Witchcraft in Venice 1550-1650.  Oxford, 1989.

Monter, E. William.  "Witchcraft in France and Italy", History Today 30 (1980).

Monter, E. William and J. A. Tedeschi.  "Toward a Statistical Profile of the Italian Inquisitions, Sixteenth to Eighteenth Centuries," in The Inquisition in Early Modern Europe, ed. G. Henningsen and J. Tedeschi. Dekalb, IL, 1986, pp.130-57.

Mormando,  Franco. The Preacher’s Demons: Bernardino of Siena and the Social Underworld of Early Renaissance Italy. Chicago, 1999.

__________________. “Bernardino of Siena, Popular preacher and Witch-Hunter: A 1426 Witch Trial in Rome,” Fifteenth-Century Studies 24 (1998),

Odorici, Federico.  Le streghe valtellina e la santa inquisizione.  Milan, 1861.

O'Neil, Mary. "Magical Healing, Love Magic and the Inquisition in Late Sixteenth-Century Modena," in Inquisition and Society in Early Modern Europe, ed. Stephen Haliczar. Totowa, NJ, 1987, pp. 88-114.

Seitz, Jonathan. Witchcraft and Inquisition in Early Modern Venice. Cambridge, 2011.

Simplicio, Oscar di. Inquisizione Stregoneria Medicina: Siena e il stato (1580-1721). Siena, 2000.

Scully, Sally. “Marriage or a Career? Witchcraft as an Alternative in Seventeenth-Century Venice,” Journal of Social History 28 (1995): 857-76.

Tedeschi, John. "Inquisitorial Law and the Witch," in Early Modern European Witchcraft, ed. B. Ankarloo and Gustav Henningsen. Oxford, 1990, pp. 83-118.

_____________.  "Preliminary Observations on Writing a History of the Roman Inquisition", in F. F. Church and T. George (eds.) Continuity and Discontinuity in Church History.  Leiden, 1979.

______________. “The Roman Inquisition and Witchcraft: San Early Seventeenth-Century Instruction on Correct Trial Procedure,” Revue de l’histoire des religions 200 (1983), 163-80.


5. Spain, Portugal and Latin America

Bennassar, B.  L'inquisition espagnole XVe-XIXe siècle.  Paris, 1979.

Bethencourt, Francisco. "Portugal: A Scrupulous Inquisition," in Early Modern European Witchcraft, ed. B. Ankarloo and G. Henningsen. Oxford, 1990, pp. 403-422.

Corrêa de Melo, Maria Christina. “Witchcraft in Portugal during the eighteenth century, analysed through the accusations of the Tribunal Santo Oficio de Évora,” Studies in Voltaire and the Eighteenth Century, 303 (1992), 573-8.

Caro Baroja, Julio. Los peublos del norte de la peninsula iberica.  Madrid, 1943. 

________________.  El Senor inquisidor y otras por oficio.  Madrid, 1968.

________________.  Vidas mágicas e Inquisición . Madrid, 1967, 2 vols. 

Cervantes, Fernando.”The Devils of Querétaro: Scepticism and Credulity in Late Seventeenth-Century Mexico, Past & Present 130 (1991): 51-69.

_________________ The Idea of the Devil and the Problem of the Indian. London, 1991.

________________. The Devil in the New World: The Impact of Diabolism in New Spain. New Haven, 1994.

Cirac Estopañán, Sebestián  Los procesos de hechicerias en la Inquisición  de Castilla la Nueva.  Madrid, 1942.

Darst, D.H. "Witchcraft in Spain: The Testimony of Martin de Casteñega's Treatise on Superstition and Witchcraft (1529)," Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 123 (1979): 298-322.

Dedieu, Jean-Pierre. L’Administration de la foi: L’Inquisition de Toléode (XVIe-XVIIIe siècle). Madrid, 1989.

Fuero juzgo en latin y castellano, cotejado con los mas antiguos y preciosos codices por la Real Academia Española.  Madrid, 1815.

Gareis, Iris (ed.): Entidades maléficas y conceptos del mal en las religiones latinoamericanas / Evil Entities and Concepts of Evil in Latin American Religions. (Bonner Amerikanistische Studien, Vol.45). Aachen, 2008.

____________. “Merging Magical Traditions: Sorcery and Witchcraft in Early Spanish and Portuguese America,” in Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America, ed. Brian P. Levack, pp. 412-28..

Gari Lacruz, Angel. "Variedad de Competencias en el delito de brujeria 1600-1650 en Aragon," in La Inquisición Española: Nueva visión, nuevos horizontes.  Madrid, 1980,  pp.319-327.

Greenleaf, R. E.  Zumarraga and the Mexican Inquisition 1536-1543.  Washington, 1962.

_____________.  The Mexican Inquisition of the 16th Century.  Albuquerque, 1969.

Henningsen, Gustav.  "El 'Banco de datos' del Santo Oficio: Las relaciones de causas de la Inquisición española," Boletín de la real acadamia de la historia de la inquisiicon medieval y moderno 74 (1977). 547-70. Also in Dansk Folkemindesampling.  Studier No. 12 Copenhagen, 1978. With English summary.

_____________.  "The Papers of Alonso de Salazar Frias, A Spanish Witchcraft Polemic, 1610-1614", in Temenos  5 (1969): 85-106.

_____________.  The Witches' Advocate: Basque Witchcraft and the Spanish Inquisition, 1609-1614.  Reno, 1980.

Kamen, Henry.  Inquisition and Society in Spain in the 16th and 17th Centuries.  Bloomington, Ind., 1985.

______________ The Spanish Inquisition.  N. Y., 1965.

Knutsen, Gunnar. Sevants of Satan and Masters of Demons. Oslo, 2004.

Lafuente y Zamalloa, Modesto.  La Brujeria en Barcelona.  Barcelona, n. d..

Lea, Henry.  Chapters from the rReligious History of Spain, connected with the Inquisition.  Philadelphia, 1890.

­­­__________. A History of the Inquisition in Spain.  New York,1907, 1922. 4 vols.

__________. The Inquisition in the Spanish Dependencies.  N. Y., 1908.

Llorca, Bernadino.  La inquisition en España.  Barcelona, 1946.

Marchena, Abbe.  Jurisprudencia inquisitorial.Montpellier, 1819.

Mello e Souza, Laura de. O diabo e a terra de Santa Cruz. Sao Paulo, 1987.

___________________. The Devil and the Land of the Holy Cross: Witchcraft, Slavery, and Popular Religion in Colonial Brazil. Austin, 2003.

Menedez y Pelago, M. Historia de los heterdoxes españoles.  7 vols.

Metcalf, Alida C. Families of planters, peasants and slaves: strategies for survival in Santana de Parnaiba, Brazil, 1720-1820.  University of Texas PhD, 1983.

Monter, William. Frontiers of Heresy: The Spanish Inquisition from the Basque Lands to Sicily. Cambridge, 1990.

_______________. "The New Social History Meets the Spanish Inquisition", Journal of Social History  (1984).

_______________. “Witchcraft in Iberia,” in Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America, ed. Brian P. Levack, pp. 268-82.

Morgado Garcia, Arturo. Demonios, magos y brujas en la España modern. Cadiz, 1999.

Paiva, José Pedro. Práticas e crençcas mágicas. O medo e a necessidade dos mágicos na diocese de Coimbra (1650-1740). Coimbra, 1992.

Palacios, Modesto Laza.  El laboratio de celestina.  Malaga, 1958. 

Palmer, Colin A.  "Religion and Magic in Mexican Slave Society, 1670-1650". in S. Engerman and E. Genovese (eds), Race and Slavery in the Western Hemisphere: Quantitative Studies.  Princeton, 1975.

Pavia, Mario N.  Drama of the siglo de oro; a study of magic, witchcraft, and other occult beliefs.  N. Y., 1959,

Pladevello, Antoni.  Persecutio de les bruizes a les comarques de vic a principis del seale XVII.  Barcelona, 1974.

Redden, Andrew. Diabolism in Colonial Peru 1560-1750. London, 2007.

Spence, Lewis.  Arcane Secrets and Occult Lore of Mexico and Mayan Central Ameria: A Treasury of Magic, Astrology, Witchcraft, Demonology and Symbolism.  1930, reprint.

Silverblatt, Irene.  Moon, Sun and Witches: Gender Ideologies and Class in Inca and Colonial Peru.  Princeton,1987.

Tausiet, Maria. Ponzoña en los ojos: Brujería y superstición en Aragón en el siglo XVI, Saragossa, 2000; Madrid, 2004..

___________. Urban Magic in Early Modern Spain: Abracadabra Omnipotens.  Basingstoke, 2014.

Villaneuva, Joquin Perez (ed.).  La Inquisición Española: Neuva Vision, Nuevos Horizontes.  Madrid, 1980.


6. England, Wales and the Channel Islands

Almond, Philip C. England’s First Demonologist: Reginald Scot & ‘The Discoverie of Witchcraft’. London and New York, 2011

Anderson, A. and R. Gordon.  "Witchcraft and the Status of Women: The Case of England", British Journal of Sociology 29 (1978).

Anglo, Sydney. "Reginald Scot's Discoverie of Witchcraft: Scepticism and Sadduceeism," in The Damned Art, Ed. S. Anglo. London, 1977.

Baine, Rodney M.  Daniel Defoe and the Supernatural.  Athens, Ga. 1968.

Balleine, G.R.  "Witch Trials in Jersey," Société Jersiase, Bulletin  13 (1939), 379-398.

Barry, Jonathan. Witchcraft and Demonology in Southwest England, 1640-1789. Basingstoke, 2012.

Bostridge, Ian. “Witchcraft Repealed,” in Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief, eds. J. Barry, M. Hester G. Roberts. Cambridge, 1996, pp. 309-334.

_____________. Witchcraft and Its Transformations, c.1650-c.1750. Oxford, 1997.

Bragge, Francis.  A full and impartial account of the discovery of sorcercy and witchcraft, practis'd by Jane Wenham of Hertfordshire … London, 1712.

Brand, John.  History and antiquities of  Newcastle.  2 vols. London,1789.

Brann, Noel.  "The Conflict between Reason and Magic in 17th Century England: A Case Study of the Vaughan-More Debate", Hunt Lib. Quarterly  XLVII (1980): 103-26.

Briggs, Katherine M.  Pale Hecate's Team: An Examination of the Beliefs on Witchcraft and Magic among Shakespeare's Contemporaries. London, 1962,

Carnochan, W. B.  "Witch-Hunting and Belief in 1751:  The Case of Thomas Colley and Ruth Osborne", Journal of Social History  4 (1970-71): 388-403.

Clark, Stuart and P. T. Morgan.  "Religion and Magic in Elizabethan Wales: Robert Holland's Dialogue on Witchcraft," Journal of Ecclesiastical History 27 (1976): 31-46.

______________.  A short discoverie of the unobserved  dangers … London, 1612. 

Coudert, Allsiojn. Henry More and Witchcraft,” in Henry More (1614-1687): Tercentenary Studies, ed. Sarah Hutton Dordrecht, 1990, pp. 114-136.

Crawford, Jane.  "Evidences for Witchcraft in Anglo-Saxon England," Medium Aevum  32 (1963): 99-116.

Curtis, S. Crey. “Trials for Witchcraft in Guernsey.” La Société guernesaise: Reports & Transactions, 13 (1937): 109-43.

Dalton, Michael/ The countrey justice: containing the practice of the JP's out of their sessions.  London, 1677.

Darrel, John.  A true narration of the … vexation by the devil of 7 persons in Lancashire.  London, 1600.

Davies, Owen. “Newspapers and Popular Belief in Witchcraft and Magic in the Modern Period,” Journal of British Studies 37 (1998): 139-165.

___________. Witchcraft, Magic and Culture, 1736-1951. Manchester, 1999.

Davies, R. Trevor.  Four centuries of witch beliefs.  London, 1947. 

Deacon, Richard.  Matthew Hopkins: Witch-Finder General.  London, 1976.

Dewar, Stephen. “Witchcraft and the Evil Eye in Guernsey,” Guernsey Historical Monograph 3 (1968): 3-12.

DeWindt, Anne Reiber. "Witchcraft and Conflicting Visions of the Ideal Village Community," Journal of British Studies 34 (1995), 427-463.

Durston, Gregory..  Witchcraft and Witch Trials: a History of English Witchcraft and its Legal Perspectives, 1542 to 1736, London, 2000.

Elmer, Peter. “Saints or Sorcerers’: Quakerism, Demonology and the Decline of Witchcraft in Seventeenth-Century England,” in Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief, eds. J. Barry, M. Hester G. Roberts. Cambridge, 1996, pp. 145-79.

_________. “Towards a Politics of Witchcraft in Early Modern England,” in Languages of Witchcraft: Narrative, Ideology and Meaning in Early Modern Culture, ed. Stuart Clark. Basingstoke, 2001, pp. 101-118.

Estes, Leland. "Good Witches, Wise Men, Astrologers and Scientists: William Perkins and the Limits of the European Witch Hunts," in Hermeticism and the Renaissance. Ed. I. Merkel and A. Debus. Washington, DC, 1988, pp. 154-165.

____________. "Reginald Scot and his Discoverie of Witchcraft: Religion and Science in the Opposition to the European Witchcraze," Church History 52 (1983): 444-56.

Ettrick, WIlliam.  Witchcraft at Toner's Puddle, Nineteenth Century, from the Diary of Rev. WIlliam Ettrick. Ed. Christine Hole. Dorchester, 1964.

Ewen, Cecil H. L'Estrange. Witchcraft and demonianism.  London, 1933.

_______________________ Witchcraft in the Norfolk Circuit.  Privately printed, 1939.

_______________________ Witchcraft in the Star Chamber. Privately printed, 1938.

_______________________ Witch Hunting and witch trials, 1559-1736.  London, 1929.

Flower, Margaret.  The wonderful discoverie of the witchcrafts of M. amd P. Flower.  London, 1619, 1972.

Gaskill, Malcolm. “Attitudes to Crime in Early Modern England, with special reference to witchcraft, coining and murder.” Ph.D. thesis, University of Cambridge, 1994.

______________. Crime and Mentalities in Early Modern Enland. Cambridge, 2000.

______________. “Witchcraft and Evidence in Early Modern England,” Past and Present 198 (2008), 33-70.

______________.  "Witchcraft and Power in Early Modern England: the case of Margaret Moore, " in Kermonde, Jenny and Garthine Walker, eds.Women, Crime and the Courts in  Early Modern England. Chapel Hill, 1994, pp. 125-45.

_______________. “Witchcraft in Early Modern Kent: stereotypes and the background to accusations,” in Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe: Studies in Culture and Belief, eds. J. Barry, M. Hester G. Roberts. Cambridge, 1996, pp. 257-287.

_______________, “The Devil in the Shape of a Man: Witchcraft, conflict and belief in Jacobean England,” Historical Research 71 (1998): 142-171.

_______________. Witchfinders: A Seventeenth-Century English Tragedy. London, 2005.

Geis, Gilbert.  "Lord Hale, Witches and Rape", British Journal of Law and Society, 5 (1978): 26-44.

___________ and Ivan Bunn. "Sir Thomas Browne and Witchcraft," International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 4 (1981): 1-11.

___________. A Trial of Witches: A Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft Prosecution. London,1997.

Gibson, Joyce.  Hanged for Witchcraft: Elizabeth Lowys and her Successors.  Canberra,1988.

Gibson, Marion. Reading Witchcraft: Stories of Early English Witches. London, 1999.

_____________ (ed.) Witchcraft and Society in England and America, 1550-1750. Ithaca, 2003.

Gregory, Anabel. "Witchcraft, Politics and "''Good Neighbourhood' in Early Seventeenth-Century Rye," Past & Present 133 (1991): 31-66.

Guskin, Phyllis J. "The Context of Witchcraft: The Case of Jane Wenham (1712)," Eighteenth Century Studies 15 (1981): 48-71.

Haining, Peter (ed.). The Witchcraft Papers.  Secaucus, NJ, 1974. (Reprints of witchcraft pamphlets.0

Hester, Marianne. Lewd Women and Wicked Witches: A Study of the Dynamics of Male Domination. London: Routledge, 1992.

Hitchcock, James. "George Gifford and Puritan Witch Beliefs."Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte  58 (1967), 90-99.

Hole, Christina.  Witchcraft in England.  N. Y., 1947.

Holmes, Clive. "Popular Culture? : Witches, Magistrates and Divines in Early Modern England,"  in Understanding Popular Culture: Europe from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century,  ed. S. Kaplan. Berlin , NY and Amsterdam, 1984, pp. 85-111.

____________. "Women: Witnesses and Witches," Past & Present  140 (1993): 45-78.

Hunter, Michael.’The Witchcraft Controversy and the Nature of Free-Thought in Restoration England: John Wagstaffe’s The Question of Witchcraft Debated (1669)” in Science and the Shape of Orthodoxy, ed. M. Hunter. Woodbridge, 1995, pp. 286-307.

____________.”Witchcraft and the Decline of Belief,” Eighteenth-Century Life 22 (1998), 139-47.

Jackson, Louise. “Witches, Wives and Mothers: Witchcraft Persecutions and Women’s Confessions in Seventeenth-Century England,” Women’s History Review 4 (1995): 63-83.

Kennett, White.  The Witchcraft of the present rebellion: sermon preached.  1715.

Kittredge, George L.   Witchcraft in Old and New England.  Cambridge, MA: Harvard, 1929; New York, 1972.

Landon, Rane Eve.  Religion, Witchcraft and the Supernatural in Elizabethan England.  Harvard PhD dissertation.

Levack, Brian P. "Possession, Witchcraft and the Law in Jacobean England," Washington and  Lee University Law Review  52 (1996): 1613-1640.

Lodge, Thomas.  Wits Miserie and the World's Madnesse.  London, 1596.

McCormick, D.  The Hell-Fire Club.  942.575 M137h.

_____________. Murder by Witchcraft: A Study of the Lower Quinton and Hagley Wood Murders.  London, 1968.

Macfarlane, Alan.  Witchcraft in Tudor and Stuart England.  London, 1970.

________________.  "A Tudor Anthropologist: George Gifford's Discourse  and Dialogue," in The Damned Art. Ed. Sydney Anglo, 1977.

MacDonald, Michael. Mystical Bedlam: Madness, Anxiety, and Healing in Seventeenth-Century England. Cambridge, 1981.

__________________. Witchcraft and Hysteria in Elizabethan London. London, 1990.

MacLachlan, Hugh V. and J. K. Swales, "Lord Hale, Witches and Rape," British Journal of Law and Society 5 (1978): 251-61.

Marshburn, J. H. Murder and Witchcraft in England 1550-1640.  Norman Okla, 1971.

Mason, James. The Anatomy of Sorcerie.  (1612).  Film STC reel 853.

Middleton, Paul. "Seventeenth-Century Witchcraft in Northumberland,"  Archaeologia Aeliana  45 (1967), 161-6.

Newton, John and Jo Bath (eds.), Witchcraft and the Act of 1604. London, 2008.

Notestein, Wallace.  A History of Witchcraft in England from 1558-1718.   New York, 1968,

Oates, Titus.  The Witch of Endor, or the Witchcrafts of the Roman Jesebel.  1679

Pitts, John Linwood (ed.).  Witchcraft and Devil Lore in the Channel Islands.   Guernsey, 1886.

Pollock, Adrian.  "Social and Economic Characteristics of Witchcraft Accusations in 16th and 17th Century Kent," Archaeologia Cantiana  95 (1979): 37-48.

Peel, E,. and Southern, Pat.  The Trials of the Lancashire Witches.

Poole, Robert (ed.). The Lancashire Witches: Histories and Stories. Manchester, 2002.

Prior, M.E. “Joseph Glanvill, Witchcraft and Seventeenth-Century Science, “ Modern Philology 30 (1932), 167-93.

Purkiss, Diane. “Desire and Its Deformities: Fantasies of Witchcraft in the English Civil War, Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 27 (1997): 103-132.

_____________. The Witch in History: Early Modern and Twentieth-Century Representations. London, 1996.

Rickert, Corinne.  The Case of John Darell: Minister and Exorcist.  (U. of Florida, 1962).

Rosen, Barbara (ed.). Witchcraft.  Stratford on Avon, 1969. A collection of pamphlets.

Rowse, A. L.  The Elizabethan Renaissance.  chapt IX: "Mentality and Belief: Witchcraft and Astrology", pp. 258-304.

Rushton, Peter. "A Note on the Survival of Popular Christian Magic," Folklore 91 (1980): 115-118.

______________. "Women, Witchcraft and Slander in Early Modern England: Cases from the Church Courts of Durham, 1560-1675," Northern History 18 (1982): 116-132.

Sawyer, Ronald C. "'Strangely Handled in All Her Lyms': Witchcraft and Healing in Jacobean England," Journal of Social History, 22 (1989), 461-85.

Sharpe, J. A. Instruments of Darkness. London 1996.

___________ "Women and Witchcraft in Seventeenth-Century England: Some Northern Evidence," Continuity and Change 6 (1991): 179-199.

___________. Witchcraft in Seventeenth-Century Yorkshire: Accusations and Counter Measures. Borthwick Papers, no. 81. York, 1992.

___________. “Women Witchcraft and the Legal Process,” in Kermonde, Jenny and Garthine Walker, eds.Women, Crime and the Courts in  Early Modern England. Chapel Hill, 1994, pp. 106-124.

Victoria Silver, ‘“Wonders of the invisible world”: the trial of the Lowestoft witches’, in Reid Barbour and Calire Preston (eds.), Sir Thomas Browne: The World Proposed (Oxford, 2009), pp. 118-45.

Smith, Constance I.  "Northamptonshire in the History of Witchcraft", Northamptonshire Past and Present   6 (1971-2).

Stoyle, Mark. The Black Legend of Prince Rupert’s Dog: Witchcraft and Propaganda during the English Civil War. Exeter, 2011.

Suggett, Richard. "Witchcraft dynamics in early modern Wales," in Women and Gender in early modern Wales. Ed. Michael Roberts and Simone Clarke. Cardiff , 2000, pp. 75-103.

Swain, J.T. “The Lancashire Witchcraft Trials of 1612 and 1634 and the Economics of Witchcraft,” Northern History 30 (1994), 64-85.

Teall, J. L.  "Witchcraft and Calvinism in Elizabethan England", in Journal of the History of Ideas, 23 (1962) 22-36.

Thomas, Keith.  Religion and the Decline of Magic.  London, 1971.

Tyler, P.  "The Church-Courts at York and Witchcraft Prosecutions 1567-1640", Northern History 4 (1969): 84-109. 

Unsworth, C. R. "Witchcraft Beliefs and criminal procedure in Early Modern England," in Legal Record and Historical Reality, ed. Thomas G. Watkin  (London, 1989), pp. 71-98.

Valletta, Frederick. Witchcraft, Magic and Supersition in England, 1640-70.  2000.

Walker, D. P.  Unclean Spirits: Possession and Exorcism in France and England in the late 16 and early 17th Centuries.  Philadelphia, 1981.

Willis, Deborah. Malevolent Nurture: Witch-Hunting and Maternal Power in Early Modern England. Ithaca, 1995.

______________“Shakespeare and the English Witch-Hunts: Enclosing the Maternal Body,” in Enclosure Acts: Sexuality, Property, and Culture in Early Modern England, ed. R. Burt and J. M. Archer. Ithaca, 1994, pp. 96-120.

Wright, Thomas.  A dialogue concerning witches and witchcraft.  London, 1842.  Taken from the 1603 edition of George Gifford.

Yates, F. A.  The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age.  London, 1979.

Young, Alan R. "Elizabeth Lowys: Witch and Social Victim," History Today   22 (1972): 879-85.


7.  Scotland

Adam, Isobel. Witch Hunt. London, 1978.

Adams, W. H. D.  Witch, warlock and magician.  Historical sketches of magic and witchcraft in England and Scotland.  (London, 1889)

Black, G. F.  "Witchcraft in Scotland 1510-1727", in Bulletin of the New York Public Library  41, ii (Nov, 1937),  811-47, 917-936; 42 (1938), 34-74

___________Calendar of Cases of Witchcraft in Scotland 1510-1727.  N. Y., 1938, 1971.

___________Some Unpublished Scottish Witchcraft Trials.  New York, 1940.

Brims, John. “The Ross-shire Witchcraft Case of 1822,” Review of Scottish Culture 5 (1989)

Campbell, John.  Witchcraft and Second-Sight in the Highlands and Islands of Scotland.  Glasgow, 1902.

Clark, Stuart. "King James's Daemonologie: Witchcraft and Kingship," in The Damned Art. Ed. S. Anglo. London, 1977.

Cowan, Edward."The Darker Vision of the Scottish Renaissance", in I. B.Cowan and D. Shaw (eds.), The Renaissance and Reformation in Scotland.  Edinburgh, 1983.

Ferguson, John. "Bibliographical Notes on the Witchcraft Literature of Scotland," Proceedings of the Edinburgh Bibliographical Society  3 (1899)

GoodareJulian (ed.) The Scottish Witch-Hunt in Context, Manchester, 2002.

______________.“The Framework for Scottish witch-hunting in the 1590s,” Scottish Historical Review 81 (2002): 240-50.

_____________. “Women and the Witch-Hunt in Scotland,” Social History 23 (1998): 288-308.

______________.”The Scottish Witchcraft Act,” Church History 74 (2004): 39-67.

______________.”John Knox aon Demonology and Witchcraft,” Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte, 96 (2005), 221-45.

____________ _,”The Scottish Witchcraft Panic of 1597” in Goodare, ed., The Scottish Witch-hunt in Context, Manchester, 2002, pp. 51-72.

_____________, James VI, King. Daemonologie (1597), ed. G.B. Harrison, London, 1924.

Keiller, Alexander. The Personnel of the Aberdeenshire Witchcraft Covens. London, 1922.

Larner, Christina.  "The Crime of Witchcraft in Scotland," in Larner, Witchcraft and Religion. Oxford, 1984, pp. 23-33.

_______________. Enemies of God: The Witch Hunt in Scotland.  Baltimore, 1981.

_______________. "Two Late Scottish Witchcraft Tracts: Witchcraft Proven and The Tryal of Witchcraft," in The Damend Art. Ed. S. Anglo. London, 1977.

_______________.  "James VI and I and Witchcraft", inThe Reign of James VI and I, ed. A. G. R. Smith. London, 1973.  Also in Larner, Witchcraft and Religion.  Oxford, 1984, pp. 3-22.

________________. "Witch Beliefs and Accusations in England and Scotland,"  History Today 31 (1981); also in Larner, Witchcraft and Religion, Oxford, 1984, pp. 69-78.

Larner, C., C. H. Lee and H. V. McLachlan.  Source-Book of Scottish Witchcraft.  Glascow, 1977.

Legge, F.  "Witchcraft in Scotland," The Scottish Review 18 (1891), 257-88.

Levack, Brian P.  "The Great Scottish Witch Hunt of 1661-1662,”Journal of British Studies  20 (1980), 90-108.

_____________. “The Decline and End of Scottish Witch-hunting,” in Goodare (ed.), The Scottish Witch-hunt in Context, Manchester 2002, pp. 166-181.

_____________. Witch-hunting in Scotland: Law, Politics and Religion. London, 2008.

MacDonald, S W. “The Devil’s Mark and the Witch-Prickers of Scotland,”Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 90 (1997)

Macdonald, Stuart. The Witches of Fife: Witch-hunting in a Scottish Shire, 1560-1710. East Linton, 2002.

MacDonald, S.A. Thom and A. Thom, “The Bargarran Witch Trial: A Psychiciatric Reassessment,” Scottish Medical Journal 41 (1996)

Maxwell-Stuart, Peter G. “The Fear of the King is Death: James VI and the Witches of East Lothian,” in W.G. Naphy and P. Roberts, Fear in Early Modern Society (1997).

__________________. Satan’s Conspiracy: Magic and Witchcraft in Sixteenth-Century Scotland. East Linton, 2001.

__________________. An Abundance of Witches: the Great Scottish Witch-Hunt. Stroud, 2005.

McLachlan, Hugh and J. K. Swales. “Scottish Witchcraft: Myth or Reality?” Contemporary Review 260 (1992), 79-84.

McLachlan, Hugh and Kim Swales. “The Bewitchment of Christian Shaw: A Reassessment of the Famous Paisley Witchcraft Case of 1697,” in Twisted Sisters: Women, Crime and Deviance in Scotland since 1400, ed. Yvonne Galloway Brown and Rona Ferguson. East Linton, 2002, pp. 54-83.

Millar, John. A History of the Witches of Renfrewshire. Paisley, 1809.

Murray, George, M. R. Apted and Ian Hodkinson, "Prestongrange and its Painted Ceiling," Transactions of the East Lothian Antiquarian and Field Naturalists' Society 10 (1966).

Neill, W. N.  "The Professional Pricker and his Test for Witchcraft," Scottish Historical Review 19 (1922), 205-13. 

Nelson, George. "A Sermon on Witchcraft in 1697," Scottish Historical Review 7 (1910): 390-399.

Newes from Scotland  (London, 1591) ed. G. B. Harrison, London, 1924.

Normand, Lawrence and Gareth Roberts (eds.), Witchcraft in early Modern Scotland: James VI’s Demonology and theNorth Berwick Witches. Exeter, 2000.

A Relation of the Diabolical Practice of above twenty Wizards and Witches of the Sheriffdom of Renfrew.  London, 1697.

Roughead, William. "The Witches of North Berwick," in The Riddle of the Ruthvens and Other Essays.  New ed. Edinburgh: Moray Press, 1936, pp. 144-66.

Scott, Sir Walter.  Witchcraft Letters Addressed to J. G. Lockhart, Esq. New York, 1970.

Seth, Ronald.  In the Name of the Devil.  1969.

Sharpe, Charles K.  Historical Account of the Belief in Witchcraft in Scotland.  London and Glasgow, 1894.

Stevenson, David. “Major Weir: a Justified Sinner,” Scotttish Studies 16 (1972)

Strafford, Helen. "Notes on Scottish Witchcraft Cases 1590-91", in Essays in Honor of Conyers Read.  ed. N. Downs, Chicago, 1953.

Truckell, A. E. "Unpublished Witchcraft Trials," Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society 51-52 (1975-6), 48-58, 95-108.

A True Narrative of the Sufferings and Relief of a Young Girl. Edinburgh, 1698.

A True and Full Relation of the Witches of Pittenweem. Edinburgh, 1704.

Webster, David (ed.).  Collection of Rare and Curious Tracts on Witchcraft and Second Sight.  Edinburgh, 1820.

Wormald, Jenny, “The Witches, the Devil and the King,” in Freedom and Authority: Scotland c. 1050- c.1650, ed. T. Brotherstone and D. Ditchburn, Edinburgh 2000, pp. 164-180.

Yeoman, Louise. "The Devil as Doctor: Witchcraft, Wodrow and the Wider World," Scottish Archives 1 (1995)


8. Ireland

Bourke, Angela. The Burning of Bridget Cleary: A True Story. Harmondsworth,2001.

Byrne, Patrick.  Witchcraft in Ireland.  Cork, 1975.

Croker, Thomas C.  Fairy legends and traditions of the south of Ireland.  London, 1862, Lapoint, Elwyn C. “Irish Immunity to Witch-Hunting,” Eire-Ireland 30 (1989): 76-92.

Lapoint, E.C.‘Irish Immunity to Witch-Hunting: 1534–1711’, Eire-Ireland 27 (1992): 76–92,

Seymour, St. John.  Irish Witchcraft and Demonology.  Dublin, 1913.

McAuliffe, Mary. ‘Gender, History and Witchcraft in Early Modern Ireland: A Re-reading of the Florence Newton trial’, in Gender and Power in Irish History, ed. M. A. Gialenella Valiulis, (Dublin, 2009): 39-58.

Sneddon, Andrew. Posssesssed by the Devil Dublin, 2013.

_______________. “Witchcraft Beliefs and Trials in Early Modern Ireland,” Irish Economic and Social History 29 (2012): 1-25.

Spence, Lewis.  The Magic Arts in Celtic Britain.  N. Y., 1945, Wright Thomas.  Fairy Legends and Traditions of the South of Ireland.  London, 1862.


9. Colonial North America and the United States

Adler, Margot.  Drawing down the Moon: Witches, Druids, Goddess-Worshippers and Other Pagans in America Today.   Boston, 1979.

Allen, Neal W., Jr.  "A Maine Witch," Old-Time New England 61 (1971): 75-81.

Beard, George M. Psychology of the Salem Witchcraft Excitement of 1692. New York, 1882.

Boas, Ralph and Louise.  Cotton Mather, Keeper of Puritan Conscience.  N. Y. 1928.

Booth, Sally.  The Witches of Early America.  N. Y., 1975.

Boyer, Paul. and Nissenbaum, Stephen.  Salem Possessed:  The Social Origins of Witchcraft.  Cambridge, Mass, 1974.

___________________________. Salem Village Witchcraft: A Documentary Record of Local Conflict in Colonial New England.  Belmont, CA, 1972.

Breslaw, Elaine. Tituba, Reluctant Witch of Salem: Devilish Indians and Puritan Fantasies. New York, 1996.

Briggs, Katherine.  "Some Seventeenth-Century Books on Magic," British Journal of Folklore 64 (1953): 445-62.

Brown, David C. "The Case of Giles Corey," Essex Institute Historical Collections 121 (1985): 282-299.

Burr, George L., ed.  Narratives of the Witchcraft Cases. 1648-1706.  N. Y., 1914.

_________________ "New England's Place in the History of Witchcraft", in Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, new series 21 (1911): 185-217.

Butler, Jon.  "Magic, Astrology and the Early American Religious Heritage 1600-1760", Amercian Historical Review 84 (1979): 317-346.

Caporeal, Linda S.  "Ergotism: the Satan Loosed in Salem," Science  192 (1976): 21-26.

Cardoza, A. Rebecca.  "A modern American witch-craze," in Marwick, Max (ed.).  Witchcraft and Sorcery.  London, 1970.

Condon, David F. Witchcraft Trials in the Seventeenth Century,” in Legal Record and Historical Reality. London, 1989, pp. 99-10.

Craker, Wendel, “Spectral Evidence, Non-Spectral Acts of Witchcraft and Confessions at Salem in 1692,” Historical Journal 40 (1997)

Cross, Tom Pete.  "Witchcraft in North Carolina," Studies in Philology 16 (1919): 217-87.

Davis, Richard Beale.  "The Devil in Virginia in the 17th Century,"  Virginia Magazine of History and Biography 65 (1957): 131-49; also in Literature and Society in Early Virginia 1608-1840.  Baton Rouge, 1973.

Demos, John P.  Entertaining Satan: Witchcraft and the Culture of Early New England.  New York, 1982.

_____________."John Godfrey and his Neighbors: Witchcraft and the Social Web in Colonial Massachusetts," William and Mary Quarterly  33 (1976): 242-65.

_____________."Underlying Themes in the Witchcraft of Seventeenth-Century New England", American Hist. Review  75 (1970): 1311-26.

Drake, Frederick C.  "Witchcraft in the American Colonies 1647-1662," American Quarterly  20 (1968),  694-725.

Drake, Samuel G.  Annals of Witchcraft in New England and Elsewhere in the U.S.  New York, 1967.

_______________. The Witchcraft Delusion in New England.  Includes Cotton Mather's The wonders of the invisible world  and Robert Calef's More wonders of the invisible world  1866.Orig 1869.  3 vols.

Erikson, Kai.  Wayward Puritans.  New York, 1966.

Fox, Sanford.  Science and Justice: The Massachusetts Witchcraft Trials. Baltimore, 1968.

Fuess, Charles M. “Witches at Andover," Proceedings of the Massachusetts Historical Society 70 (1953): 14.

Games,  Alison. (ed.). Witchcraft in Early North America. Lanham, Md., 2010.

Godbeer, Richard. The Devil's Dominion: Magic and Religion in Early New England.  Cambridge,1992.

______________. “Witchcraft in British America,” in Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America, ed. Brian P. Levack, pp. 393-411.

Gummere, Amelia M.  Witchcraft and Quakerism: A Study in Social History.  Philadelphia,1908.

Hale, John, A modest enquiry into the nature of witchcraft.  Boston, 1702.

Hall, David D. "Witchcraft and the Limits of Interpretation," New England Quarterly 58 (1985).

___________. ed. Witch-Hunting in Seventeenth-Century New England: A Documentary History, 1638-1692. Boston, 1991.

____________. Worlds of Wonder, Days of Judgment: Popular Religious Belief in Early New England. Cambridge, Ma., 1990.

Harley, David. “Explaining Salem: Calvinist Psychology and the Diagnosis of Possession.” American Historical Review 101 (1996): 307-330.

Heyrman, Christine L.. "Specters of Subversion, Societies of Friends: Dissent and the Devil in Provincial Essex County, Massachusetts" in Saints and Revolutionaries, ed. David Hall. New York, 1984, pp. 38-74.

Hansen, Chadwick.  Witchcraft at Salem.  New York, 1969.

Hansen, Chadwick. "Andover Witchcraft and the Causes of the Salem Witchcraft Trials," in The Occult in America: New Historical Perspectives, ed. Howard Kerr and Charles L. Crow. Urbana, 1983, pp. 38-57.

Hoffer, Peter. The Devil’s Disciples: The Makers of the Salem Witchcraft Trials. Baltimore, 1996.

____________.The Salem Witchcraft Trials: A Legal History. Lawrence, KS, 1997.

Hoadly, Charles J. "A Case of Witchcraft in Hartford," The Connecticut Magazine 5 (1899): 557-61.

Karlsen, Carol F.  The Devil in the Shape of a Woman: Witchcraft in Colonial New England.  New York, 1987.

Keeney, Steven H.,  "Witchcraft in Colonial Connecticut and Massachusetts: An Anotaded Bibliography", Bulletin of Bibliography  33 (1976):  61-72.

Kences, James  E. "Some Unexplored Relationships of Essex County Witchcraft to the Indian Wars of 1675 and 1689," Essex Institute Historical Collections 120 (1984): 179-212.

Kibbey, Ann.  "Mutations of the Supernatural: Witchcraft, Remarkable Providences and the Power of Puritan Men." American Quarterly 34 (1982): 125-48.

Kittredge, George L.  Witchcraft in Old and New England.  Cambridge, MA, 1929.

Konig, David.  Law and Society in Puritan Massachusetts.  Chapel Hill, 1980.

LaPlante, Eve. Salem Witch Judge: The Life and Repentance of Samuel Sewall. New York, 2007.

Lawson, Deodat, “Christ's Fidelity the Only Shield against Satan's Malignity Asserted in a Sermon...1692,”in Jahrbuch für Amerikastudien 9 (1964): 228-270.

Levermore, C.H. "Witchcraft in Connecticut," New Englander 44 (1885), 792-812.

McMillan, Timothy J. “Black Magic: Witchcraft, Race, and Resistance in Colonial New England,” Journal of Black Studies 25 (1994), 99-117.

Mappen, Marc (ed.)  Witches and Historians: Interpretations of Salem Witchcraft.  Huntington, N.Y., 1979.

Mather, Increase. Cases of conscience concerning evil spirits … Boston, 1693.

Matossian, Mary. "Ergot and the Salem Witchcraft Trials," in Mary Matossian Poisons of the Past. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1989.

Middlekauff, Robert.  The Mathers: Three Generations of Puritan Intellectuals, 1596-1596-1728.  N. Y., 1971.

Miller, Perry.  The New England Mind: From Colony to Province.  Cambridge, Mass. 1953.

Moore, George H. "Notes on the Bibliography of Witchcraft in Massachusetts," Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society  n.s. 5 (1888) 249-72.

__________________. "Notes on the History of Witchcraft in Massachusetts," Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society, n.s. 2 (1882), 162-81.

Nevins, Winfield S. Witchcraft In Salem Village in 1692.  Salem, 1916, 273 pp.  973.25 N 417W 1916.

Norton, Mary Beth. In the Devil's Snare : the Salem witchcraft crisis of 1692. New York, 2002. 

Orion, Loretta. Never Again the Burning Times: Paganism Revived. Prospect Heights, Il. 1995.

Owen, Dennis E. "Spectral Evidence: The Cosmology of Salem Village in 1692," in Essays in the Sociology of Perception, ed. Mary Douglas. London, 1982, pp. 275-301.

Parke, F. N.  "Withchcraft in Maryland", Maryland Historical Magazine  31 (1936), pp. 271-98.

__________." Witchcraft in New York, New York Historical Society Collections  (1869), 273-76.

Poole, William F.  Cotton Mather and witchcraft: two notices of Mr. Upham, his reply.  Boston, 1875, 30p.   Z 818 M 42Bp.

Recantation of Confessors of Witchcraft. Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 2nd ser., 3 (1815), 221-25.

Records of Salem Witchcraft, Copied from the Original Documents.  Ed. by W. E. Woodward.  N. Y., 1969.  Orig. 1864-65.  133.4 R 245W 1969.

Reis, Elizabeth. Damned Women: Sinners and Witches in Puritan New England. Ithaca, 1997.

_____________, ed. Spellbound: Women and Witchcraft in America. Wilmington, 1998.

Rosenthal, Bernard. Salem Story: Reading the Witch Trials of 1692. Cambridge, 1993.

Sewall, Samuel.  Diary.  1927, 272 pp.

Stahlman, William D.  "Astrology in Colonial America: An Extended Query," William and Mary Quarterly  3rd ser. 13 (1956), 551-63.

Starkey, Marion L.  The Devil in Massachusetts: a Modern Inquiry into the Salem Witch Trials.  N. Y., 1949.

Strandness, T. B.  Samuel Seward: a Puritan Portrait.  Michigan, 1967, 188 pp.

Tapley, Charles S.  Rebecca Nurse.  Boston, 1930.

Taylor, John Metcalf.  The Witchcraft Delusion in Colonial Connecticut.  N. Y., 1908.

Thomas, M. Wynn. "Cotton Mather's Wonders of the Invisible World: Some Metaphorphoses of Salem Witchcraft," in The Damned Art., ed. S. Anglo. London, 1977.

Turell, Ebenezer. "Detection of Witchcraft," Massachusetts Historical Society Collections, 2nd ser. 10,  6-22.

Upham, Caroline E.  Salem Witchcraft in Outline.  Salem, 1895,

Upham, Charles W.  Lectures on Witchcraft, comprising a history of the delusion in Salem in 1692.  Boston, 1831.

_________________.  Salem Witchcraft.  N. Y., 1959.  2 vols.

Wendell, Barrett. "Were the Salem Witches Guiltless?" Essex Institute Historical Collections 29: 129-47.

Werking, Richard H.  "'Reformation is Our Only Preservation': Cotton Mather and Salem Witchcraft," William and Mary Quarterly 29 (1972): 281-90.

Willard, Samuel.  Some miscellany observations on our present debates concerning witchcraft.   1692 .  microprint 3  631. Reprinted in Jahrbuch für Amerikastudien 9 (1964): 271-82.

Weisman, Richard.  Witchcraft, Magic and Religion in 17th-Century Massachusetts. Amherst, 1984.


10. Nordic Countries

Alver, Bente G.  Heksetro og Trolddom: Et Studie i  Norsk Heksevaesen.  Oslo, 1971.

Ankarloo, Bengt. "Sweden: The Mass Burnings (1688-1676)," Early Modern European Witchcraft, ed. B. Ankarloo and G. Henningsen. Oxford, 1990, pp. 285-317.

_______________. Witchcraft prosecutions after the end of the of the Witch Trials: A Contribution to Danish Ethnology,” ARV  44 (1988), 103-53.

_______________ Trolldomprocesserna i Sverige  [The Witchcraft Trials in Sweden]. Stockholm, 1971. Contains an English summary.

Dahlsgard, Inga. “Witch Hunts and Absolutism in Ancient Denmark,” Cultures 8 (1982): 32-40.

Degn, Christian, Hartmut Lehmann, and Dagmar Unverhau (eds.). Hexenprozesse: Deutsche und scandinavische beiträge. Neumünster, 1983.

Gentz, Lauritz.  "Vad förorsakede de stora häxprocesserna" [What Caused the Great Trials for Witchcraft?], Arv 10 (1954), 1-39.  With English summary.

Hastrup, Kirsten. "Iceland: Sorcerers and Paganism," in Early Modern European Witchcraft, ed. B. Ankarloo and G. Henningsen. Oxford, 1990, pp. 383-401.

Heikkinen, Antero. Paholaisen Liittolaiset.  Helsinki, 1969. Contains an English summary, pp. 374-94.

Heikkinen, Antero and Timo Kervinen, "Finland: The Male Domination," in Early Modern European Witchcraft, ed. B. Ankarloo and G. Henningsen. Oxford, 1990, pp. 319-338.

Henningsen, Gustav. "Hekseforfølgelse efter 'hekseprocessernes tid'. Et bidrag til dansk ethnohistorie", Folk og Kultur  (1975): 98-151. With English summary.

___________________.”Witch Persecution after the Era of the Witch Trials,” ARV-Scandinavaian Yearbook of Folklore 44 (1988): 103-153.

Jacobsen, J. C.  Danske Domme i Trolddomssager [Danish Judgements in Sorcery Cases]. Copenhagen, 1966.

Johansen, Jens Christian V. "Denmark: The Sociology of Accusations," in Early Modern European Witchcraft, ed. B. Ankarloo and G. Henningsen. Oxford, 1990, pp.339-65.

_______________________. "Hexen auf Mittelalterlichen Wandmalereien: zur genese der hexenprozesse in Dänemark," in Ketzer, zauberer, hexen, ed. Andreas Blauert. Franfort, 1990, pp. 217-40.

_______________________"Witchcraft in Elsinore, 1625-1626," in  Mentalities-Mentalités (Hamilton, Nouvelkle-Zélande), 3, no. 1-2 (1985): 1-8.

_______________________. Witchcraft, Sin and Repentance: The Decline of Danish Witchcraft Trials,” Acta Ethnographica Acad. Sci. Hungarica 37 (1992): 413-23.

Knutsen, Gunnar W. “A Central Periphery? Witchcraft Trials in Southeastern Norway,” in S. Sogner, ed.  Fact, Fiction and Forensic Evidence. (1997) 63-74.

_______________. “Norwegian Witchcraft Trials: A Reassessment,” Continuity and Change, 18 (2003): 185-200.

______________. Trolldomsprosessene på Østlandet. Oslo, 1998.

Monter, E. William. "Scandinavian Witchcraft in Anglo-American Perspective," in Early Modern European Witchcraft, ed. B. Ankarloo and G. Henningsen. Oxford, 1990, pp. 425-434.

Naess, Hans Eyvind. "Norway: The Criminological Context," in Early Modern European Witchcraft, ed. B. Ankarloo and G. Henningsen. Oxford, 1990, pp. 367-82.

__________________Trolldomsprosessene i Norge pa 1500-1600-tallet.  Oslo, 1982.

Nenonen, Marko.  Noituus, taikuus ja noitavainot: Ala-Satakunnan, Pohjois-Pohjanmaan ja Viipurin Karjalan maaseudulla vuosina1620-1700 [Witchcraft, Magic and Witch Trials in rural Lower Satakunta, Northern Ostrobothnia and Viipuri Carelia, 1620-1700.]  With English summary, pp. 430-450. Suomen Historiallinen Seura, Historiallisia Tutkimuksia 165.Helsinki, 1992.

Rafnsson, M. The Witch-hunts in Iceland. Hólmavik, 2003.

Toivo, Raisa Maria. Witchcraft and Gender in Modern Society: Finland and the Wider European Experience. Aldershot, 2008.

Tørnsø, Kim.  Djaevletro og folkemagi: Trolddomsforføgelse i 1500- og 1600-tallets Vestjylland. Aarhus,1986.

Weirs-Jenssen, Hans.  Anne Pedersdotter: A Drama in Four Acts.  trans. John Masefield.  Boston, 1917. HRC

Willumsen, L.H. “Witches of the High North: The Finnmark Witchcraft Trials in the Seventeenth Century,” Scandinavian Journal of History, 3 (1997): 199-221.

_____________.  Witches of the North: Scotland and Finmark. Leiden, 2013.


11. Eastern Europe

Baranowski, B.  Procesz czarownic w Polsce w XVII i XVIII wieku.  Lodz, 1952.

Bylina, S. “Magie, sorellerie, et cultue populaire en Pologne aux XVe  et XVIe siècles,” Ethnographica Hungaria 37 (1991/2): 173-90.

Byloff, Fritz.  Hexenglaube und Hexenverfolgung in den österreichischen Alpenländern.  Berlin and Leipzig, 1934.

Evans, R. J. W.  The Making of the Hapsburg Monarchy, 1500-1700.  Oxford, 1979.

Klaniczay, Gábor. "Benandante-kresnik-zduhac-táltos", in Ethnographia 94 (1983).

___________. "Decline of Witches and Rise of Vampires in 18th-Century Habsburg Monarchy," Ethnologia Europaea 17 (1987), 165-80.

____________ "Hungary: The Accusations and the Universe of Popular Magic," in Early Modern European Witchcraft, ed. B. Ankarloo and G. Henningsen. Oxford, 1990, pp. 219-55.

___________. "Shamanistic Elements inCentral European Witchcraft," in Shamanism in Eurasia, ed. Mihaly Hoppál. Göttingen, 1984., pt. II, 404-22.

___________. “Witch-Hunting in Hungary: Social or Cultural Tensions?” Acta Ethnographica  Acad. Sci. Hungar.  37 (1991-2),

___________ and Éva Pocs “Witch Beliefs and Witch Hunting in Central and Eastern Europe,” Acta Ethnographica Hungarica 37 (1991-2) 

__________. The Uses of Supernatural Power. Princeton 1990.

Kivelson, Valerie A. "Through the Prism of Witchcraft: Gender and Social Change in Seventeenth-Century Muscovy," in Russia's Women: Accommodation, Resistance, Transformation, ed. B. E. Evans, B. A. Engel and C. D. Worobec. Berkeley, 1991, pp. 74-94.

________________. Desperate Magic The Moral Economy of Witchcraft in Seventeenth-Century Russia. Ithaca, 2013.

Körner, Támás, "Boszorkányszervezeetek Magyarországon [The Hungarian Witch Organization] Ethnographia  80 (1969): 196-211, with German summary.

Kovács, Zoltán.  "Die Hexen in Russland," Acta Ethnographica Acad. Sci. Hungarica  22 (1973): 51-87.

Kristóf, Ildikó. “‘Wise Women’, Sinners and the Poor: the social background in a 16th-18th-Century Calvinist City of Eastern Hungary,” Acta Ethnographica Acad. Sci. Hungarica 37 (1991-2), pp. 93-119.

____________. “Witch Hunting in Early Modern Hungary,” in Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America, ed. Brian P. Levack, pp.334-54

Levack, Brian P. “Witch-Hunting in Poland and England: Similarities and Differences,” in Britain and Poland-Lithuania: Contacts and Comparisons from the Middle Ages until 1795, ed. Rihard Unger (Leiden, 2008), pp. 233-41.

Lorint, F. E. and J, Bernabé.  La sorcellerie paysane.  Approche anthropologique de l'Homo Magus, avec une étude sûr la Roumanie.  Brussels, 1977.

Ostling, Michael. Between the Devil and the Host: Imagining Witchcraft in Earl Modern Poland. Oxford, 2011

______________. “Witchcraft in Poland: Milk and Malefice,” in Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America, ed. Brian P. Levack, pp 318-33.

Pilaszek, Małgorzata. Procesy o czary w Polsce w wiekach XV-XVIII. Lodz: 2008.

Ryan, W.F. The Bathhouse at Midnight: Magic in Russia. University Park, 1999.

________. “The Witchcraft Hysteria in Early Modern Europe: Was Russia an Exception?”Slavonic and East European Review 76 (1998): 66-75.

Schiffmann, Aldona Christina. “The Witch and Crime: the persecution of witches in twentieth-century Poland.” ARV 43 (1987): 147-167.

Schram, Ferenc.  Magyarországi Boszokány perek 1529-1768.  2 vols Budapest, 1970.

Szendrey, A.  "Hexe-Hexendruck", Acta Ethnographica Hungarica.  4 (1955): 129-68.

Tazbir, Janusz. “Hexenprozesse in Polen,” Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte 71 (1980): 280-307.

Várkonyi, Agnes. “Connections between the Cesation of Witch Trials and the Transformation of the Social Structure Related to Hygiene,” Acta Ethnographica Acad. Sci. Hungaricae 37 (1991-2): 425-77.

Wijaczka, Jacek. Procesy o czary w Prusach Ksiazecych w XVI-XVII wieku. [Witch Trials in Ducal Prussia in the 16th and 17th centuries. Torun, 2007.

Wislicz,”The Township of Kleczew and Its Neighbourhood Fightting the Devil (1624-1700),” Acta Poloniae Historica 89 (2004): 65-95.

Worobec, Christine D. “Witchcraft Beliefs and practices in Prerevolutionary Russian and Ukrainian Villages,” Russian Review 54 (1995): 165-87.

________________. Possessed: Women, Witches and Demons in Imperial Russia. Dekalb, 2001.

Zguta, Russell. "The Ordeal by Water (Swimming Witches) in the East Slavic World," Slavic Review 36 (1977): 220-30.

____________ "Witchcraft and Medicine in Pre-Petrine Russia," Russian Review 37 (1978): 438-48.

____________.  "Witchcraft Trials in 17th-century Russia", American Historical Review  82 (1977): 1187-1207.

H. Possession and Exorcism

Almond, Philip C. Demonic Possession and Exorcism in Early Modern England: Contemporary Texts and their Cultural Contexts. Cambridge, 2004.

Barry, Jonathan. “Public Infidelity and Private Belief?: The Discourse of Spirits in Enlightenment Bristol,” in Beyond the Witch Trials, ed. Owen Davies and Willem de Blécourt (Manchester 2004).

Beattie, John and John Middleton (eds.). Spirit Mediumship and Society in Africa. New York: Africana Publishing, 1969.

Bechtel, Guy. Sorcellerie et Possession: L’affaire Gaufridy. Paris, 1972.

Blackwell, Jeannine, ‘Controlling the Demoniac: Johann Salomo Semler and the Possession of Anna Elisabeth Lohmann (1759)’. In Impure Reason: Dialectic of Enlightenment in Germany, ed. W. Daniel Wilson and Robert C. Holub. 425-42. Detroit, 1993.

Bouguignon, Erika.  Possession. San Francisco, 1976.

Brown, Karen McCarthy.  Mama Lola: a Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn. Updated edition. Berkeley, 2001.

Caciola, Nancy. Discerning Spirits: Divine and Demonic Possession in the Middle Ages. Ithaca, 2003.

Cambers, Andrew,” Demonic Possession, Literacy and Superstition in Early Modern England,” Past and Present 202 (2009): 3-35.

Certeau, Michel de. The Possession at Loudun. Chicago, 1996.

Cervantes, Fernando.”The Devils of Querétaro: Scepticism and Credulity in Late Seventeenth-Century Mexico, Past & Present 130 (1991), 51-69.

Chajes, J. H. “Judgments Sweetened: Possession and Exorcism in Early Modern Jewish Culture,” Journal of Early Modern History 1 (1997): 124-69.

Ernst, Cecile. Teufelaustreibungen: Die Praxis der Katholishen Kirshe im 16. und 17. Jahrhundert. Bern,1972.

Ferber, Sarah. "The Demonic Possession of Marthe Brossier, France 1598-1600," in Charles Zika (ed.), No Gods Except Me: Orthodoxy and Religious Practice in Europe 1200-1600. Melbourne, 1991, pp. 59-83.

____________. Demonic Possession and Exorcism in Early Modern France. London, 2004.

Freud, Sigmund. "A Seventeenth-Century Demonological Neurosis," in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works, ed. J. Strachey, vol 19, pp. 67-105.

Goddou, André.  "The Failure of Exorcism in the Middle Ages," Miscellanea Mediaevalia  12:  Soziale Ordungen in Selbstverständnis des Mittelalters.  Berlin, 1980, pp. 540-547.

Harris, Grace. "Possession "Hysteria' in a Kenya Tribe, American Anthropologist  59 (1957), 1046-66.

Harley, David. “Explaining Salem: Calvinist Psychology and the Diagnosis of Possession.” American Historical Review 101 (1996): 307-330.

Huxley, Aldous.  The Devils of Loudun.  New York, 1952.

Kallendorf, Hilaire. Exorcism and its Texts: Subjectivity in Early Modern Literature of England and Spain. Toronto, 2004.

Kreiser, B. Robert.  "The Devils of Toulon: Demonic Possession and Religious Politics in Eighteenth-Century France," in Church, State and Society under the Bourbon Kings of France, ed. Richard M. Golden. Lawrence, Kans., 1982.

Levack, Brian P. The Devil Within: Possession and Exorcism in the Christian West. New Haven and London, 2013.

_____________. “Demonic Possession in Early Modern Scotland,” in Witchcraft and belief in Scotland, ed. Julian Goodare, Joyce Miller and Lauren Martin. Basingstoke 2008, pp. 166-84.

____________ "Possession, Witchcraft and the Law in Jacobean England," Washington and Lee University Law Review  52 (1996): 1613-1640.

Levi, Giovanni Inheriting Power: The Study of an Exorcist, tr. L.G. Cochrane.  Chicago, 1985.

Lewis, I. M. "Spirit Possession and Deprivation Cults," Man, n.s. 1 (1966): 307-329.

__________. Ectastic Religion: an anthropological study of Spirit Possession and Shamanism. Baltimore, 1971.

Lottin, A. Lille: citadelle de la contre-réforme? (1598-1668). Dunkirk, 1984.

Mandrou, Robert (ed.). Possession et sorcellerie au XVIIe siècle. Paris: Fayard, 1979.

Macdonald, Michael. Witchcraft and Hysteria in Elizabethan England. London, 1990.

McLachlan, Hugh and Kim Swales. “The Bewitchment of Christian Shaw: A Reassessment of the Famous Paisley Witchcraft Case of 1697,” in Twisted Sisters,: Women, Crime and Deviance in Scotland since 1400, ed. Yvonne Galloway Brown and Rona Ferguson. East Linton, 2002, pp. 54-83.

Midelfort, H. C. Erik. "The Devil and the German People: Reflections on the Popularity of Demon Possession in Sixteenth-Century Germany," in Religion and Culture in the Renaissance and Reformation, ed. S. Ozment (Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies), 11 (1989): 99-119.

__________________ ""Catholic and Lutheran Reactions to Demon Possession in the Late Seventeenth-Century," Daphnis 15 (1986),:623-48.

__________________. "Sin, Melancholy Obsession: Insanity and Culture in 16th Century Germany," in Understanding Popular Culture: Europe from the Middle Ages to the Nineteenth Century,  ed. S. Kaplan. Berlin, NY and Amsterdam, 1984., 113-145..

Montgomery, John W. (ed.). Demon Possession: A Medical, Historical, Anthropological and Theological Symposium.  Minneapolis, 1976.

Nischan, Bodo. "The Exorcism Controversy and Baptism in the Late Reformation," Sixteenth-Century  Journal 18 (1987):  31-51.

Norman, A.J. "Witchcraft, Demoniacal Possession and Insanity," Journal of Mental Science 57 (1911), 475-

Oesterreich, Traugott K.  Possession, Demoniacal and Other among Primitive Races in Antiquity, the Middle Ages and Modern Times.  N. Y., 1966.

Pattison, E. Mansell. "Psychosocial Interpretations of Exorcism,"Journal of Operational Psychology 8 (1977): 5-19.

Pearl, Jonathan. "Demons and Politics in France, 1560-1630," Historical Reflections 12 (1985), 241-251.

Pearl, Jonathan. "'A School for the Rebel Soul': Politics and Demonic Possession in France, Historical Reflections 16 (1989), 286-306.

Roper, Lyndal. "Magic and Theology of the Body: Exorcism in Sixteenth-Century Augsburg,"in Charles Zika (ed.), No Gods Except Me: Orthodoxy and Religious Practice in Europe 1200-1600. Melbourne, 1991, pp. 84-113.

Sands, Kathleen H. Demonic Possession in Elizabethan England. Westport, CT, 2004.

Sluhovsky, Moshe. Believe not Every Spirit: Possession, Mysticism and Discernment in Early Modern Catholicism. Chicago, 2007.

_______________“A Divine Apparition or Demonic Possession? Female Asgency and Church Authority in Demonic Possession in Sixteenth-Century France, “ Sixteenth Century Journal 27 (1996): 1039-

_______________. “The Devil in the Convent,” American Historical Review 107 (2002): 1379-1411.

Spanos, Nicholas P. and Jack Gottlieb.  "Demonic Possession, Mesmerism, and Hysteria: A Social Psychological Perspective on Their Historical Interactions," Journal of Abnormal Psychology 88 (1979), 527-46.

_________________________________. “Ergotism and the Salem Witchcraft Trials,” Science 194 (1976),:1390-1394.

Tausiet, Maria. “Feijoo versus the Falsely Possessed in EighteenthCentury Spain.” In Beyond the Witch Trials, ed. Owen Davies and Willem de Blécourt, pp. 45-60.

Waardt, Hans de et al. (eds.). Dämonishe Besessenheit: Zur Interpretation eines kulturhistorischen Phänomomens. Bielfeld, 2005.

Walker, Anita M. and Edmund H. Dickerman, " 'A Woman under the Influence': A Case of Alleged Possession in Sixteenth-Century France." Sixteenth Century Journal 22 (1991): 535-54.

Walker, D. P.  Unclean Spirits: Possessions and Exorcism in France and England in the late 16th and early 17th Centuries.  London and Philadelphia, 1981.

Wilkins, Kay S. "Attitudes to Witchcraft and Demonic Possession in France during the Eighteenth Century," Journal of European Studies 3 (1973): 349-60.

Worobec, Christine D. Possessed: Women, Witches and Demons in Imperial Russia. DeKalb, 2001.

I.  Psychological Studies

Anderson, Robert D.  "The history of witchcraft: a review with some psychiatric comments", American Journal of Psychiatry 126 (1970).

Baeyer-Katte, Wanda von. "Die Historischen Hexenprozesse: Der Verbürokratizierte Massenwahn", in W. Bitter (ed.) Massenwahn in Geschichte und Gegenwart.  Stuttgart,1965.

Barnett, Bernard.  "Drugs of the Devil," New Scientist  22 (1965), 222-5.

________________"Witchcraft, Psychopathology and Hallucinations", British Journal of Psychiatry  111, no. 474 (1965): 439-45.

_______________ "Witchcraft, Psychotherapy and Hallucinations," American Journal of Psychiatry  99 (1942-3), 42-54.

Burstein, Sona R.  "Aspects of the psychopathology of old age revealed in the witchcraft cases of the 16th and 17th centuries", British Medical Bulletin  6 (1949). 

Delcambre, Etienne.  "La Psychologie des inculpés Lorrains de sorcellerie", Revue historique de droit français et étranger.  Ser. 4, 32 (1954).

_________________.  "Les procès de sorcellerie en Lorraine.  Psychologie des juges", Tijdschrift voor Rechtsgesciednenis  21 (1954). 389-419.

Duerr, Hans Peter.  Dreamtime: concerning the Boundary between Wilderness and Civilization.  Oxford, 1985.

Gentz, Lauritz.  "Vad förorsakade de stora häxprocesserna?", Arv  10 (1954)., 1-39, with English summary.

Gluckman, M.  "Psychological, sociological and anthropological explanations of witchcraft and gossip", Man  3 (1968).

Harner, Michael J.  "The role of hallucinogenic plants in European witchcraft", in Harner, Michael J. (ed.) Hallucinogens and Shamanism.  London, 1973.

Harper, C.  "The Witches' Flying Ointment", Folklore  88,  105-06.

Heinemann, Evelyn. Hexen und hexenangst: eine psychoanalytische Studie über den Hexenwahn der frUuhen neueit. Franfort, 1986.

Hemphill, R. E.  "Historical Witchcraft and Psychiatric Illness in Western Europe". Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine  59  (1966):  891-901.

Heucher, Johann.  … Magic plants …. Edinburgh, 1886.  Appendix "Confessions of witches under torture".  Confessions in Guernsey. 

Kennedy, J. G.  "Psychological and social explanations of witchcraft", Man  2 (1967).

Levitt, Eugene E.  The Psychology of Anxiety. 1980.

MacDonald, Michael.  Mystical Bedlam.  Madness, Anxiety and Healing in 17th Century England.  Cambridge, 1979.

Mandrou, Robert (ed.).  Possession et sorcellerie au XVIIe siècle. Paris, 1979.

Master, R. E. L.  Eros and Evil.  The Sexual Psychopathology of Witchcraft.  N. Y., 1962.

Rosen, George.  "Psychopathology of the social process: I. A study of the persecution of witches in Europe as a contribution to the understanding of mass delusion and psychic epidemics", Journal of Health and Human Behavior  1 (1960).

Schoenemann, Thomas T.  "The Role of Mental Illness in the European Witch Hunts of the 16th and 17th Centuries: An Assessment", Journal of the History of Behavioral Sciences  13 (1977): 337-51.

Spanos, Nicholas P. "Witchcraft in Histories of Psychiatry: A Critical Analysis and an Alternative Conceptualization," Psychological Bulletin 85 (1978): 417-39.

Spanos, Nicholas P. and Jack Gottlieb. "Demonic Possession, Mesmerism, and Hysteria: A Social Psychological Perspective on Their Historical Interactions," Journal of Abnormal Psychology 88 (1979): 527-46.

Szasz, Thomas.  The Myth of Mental Illness.  N. Y., 1962.

Tourney, Garfield.  "The Physician and Witchcraft in Restoration England", Medical History 16, no. 2 (1972): 143-55.

Trethowan, W. H.  "The Demopathology of Impotence," British Journal of Psychiatry 109 (1963): 341-7.

Veith, Ilza.  Hysteria: The History of a Disease.  Chicago, 1965.

J. Legal Studies

Avis, P. D. L.  "Moses and the magistrate: a study in the rise of Protestant legalism", Journal of Ecclesiastical History  26 (1975).

Bartlett, Robert.  Trial by Water and Fire: The Medieval Judicial Ordeal. Oxford, 1986.

Currie, Elliott P.  "Crimes without criminals: witchcraft and its control in Renaissance Europe", Law and Society Review 3.

Damaska, Mirjan  "The Death of Legal Torture",Yale Law Journal  86 (1978): 860-84.

Darr, Orna Alyagon. Marks of an Absolute Witch: Evidentiary Dilemmas in Early Modern England. Farnham, Surrey, 2011.

Eiden, Herbert and Rita Voltmer (eds.), Hexenprozesse und Gerichtspraxis. Rier, 2002.

Gaudemet, J.  "Les ordiales au moyen âge: doctrin et practiques canoniques", in La Preuve   (Receuils de la Société Jean Bodin 17) Brussels, 1965.

Held, Robert.  Inquition/Inquisición: A Bilingual Guide to the Exhibition of Torture Instruments from the Middle Ages to the Industrial Era presented in Various European Cities. .Florence, 1985. Dorset Press, 1987.

Ives, G.  A History of Penal Methods: Criminals, Witches, Lunatics.

Kieckhefer, Richard. "The Office of Inquisition and Medieval Heresy: the Transition from Personal to Institutional Jurisdiction," Journal of Ecclesiastical History, 46 (1995): 36-61.

Jerousschek, Günter. “Die Hexenverfolgungen als Problem der Rechtsgeschichte: Anmerkungen zu neueren Verøofflichentlichungen aus dem Bereich der Hexenforschung,” Zeitschrift für neuere Rechtsgeschichte 15 (1993): 202-24.

Langbein, John.  Prosecuting Crime in the Renaissance.  Cambridge, Mass, 1974.

______________.  Torture and the Law of Proof.  Chicago, 1976.

Larner, Christina.  "Crimen exceptum?: the crime of witchcraft in Europe?", in  B. Lenman, G. Parker and V. Gatrell  (eds.), Crime and the Law.  London, 1980; also in Larner, Witchcraft and Religion, Oxford, 1984, pp. 35-67.

Lea, Henry C.  The Ordeal.  ed. Edward Peters.  Philadelphia, 1973.

_______________.  Torture.  ed. Edward Peters.  Philadelphia, 1973.

Lenman, Bruce and Geoffrey Parker.  "The state, the community and the criminal law in early modern Europe," in B. Lenman, G. Parker and V. Gatrell (eds.), Crime and the Law.  London, 1980.

Levack, Brian P. Witchcraft and the Law,” in Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America, ed. Brian P. Levack, pp. 468-84.

Levy, Leonard W.  "Accusatorial and inquisitorial systems of criminal procedure: the beginnings", in H. Hyam and L. Levy (eds.), Freedom and Reform.  N. Y., 1967.

Lorenz, Sönke. “Die letzten Hexenprozesse in den Spruchakten der Juristfakultäten: Versuch einer Beschreibung,” in Das Ende der Hexenverfolgung, ed. S. Lorenz and D. R. Bauer (Stuttgart, 1995), pp. 227-47

Lowell, A. L.  "The Judicial Use of Torture," Harvard Law Review 2 (1897):  290-300.

McCachy, Charles H.  Deviant Behavior: Crime, Conflict and Interest Groups.

Melville, R.D.  "The Use and Forms of Judicial Torture in England and Scotland", Scottish Historical Review  2 (1905): 225-49.

Midelfort, H.C.Erik. "Johann Weyer and the Transformation of the Insanity Defense," in The German People and the Reformation. Ed. R. Po-Chia Hsia. Ithaca, 1988.23-261.

Nicolas, Augustin.  Si la torture est un moyen seur à verifier les crimes secret: dissertation moral et juridique … Amsterdam, 1682.

Pearl, J. L. "Bodin's Advice to Judges in Witchcraft Cases," Proceedings of the Annual Meetingof the Western Society for French History 16 (1989):  95-102.

Peters, E.  The Magician, the Witch and the Law.  Philadelphia, 1978.

Pfister, Oskar.  Calvins Eingriffen in der Hexer- und dei Hexenprozess von Penny, 1545.  Zurich, 1947.

Robeisheaux, Thomas. “’The Queen of Evidence’: The Witchcraft Confession in the Age of Confessionalism,” in J. Headley, Hans Hillerbrand and A. Papala, eds.), Confessionalization in Europe, 1550-1700: Essays in Honor and Memory of Nodo Nischan. Ashgate, 2004, pp. 175-206.

Rogge, John O.  Why Men Confess.  New York, 1959.

Ruthven, M.  Torture: The Grand Conspiracy.  London, 1980.

Sauter, Marianne. Hexenprozess und Folter: Die Strafrechtliche Spruchpraxis der Juristenfakultät Tübingen im 17. und beginnenden 18. Jahrhundert. Bielefed, 2010.

Sharpe, Jim. "Women, Witchcraft and the Legal Process," in Kermonde, Jenny and Garthine Walker, eds.Women, Crime and the Courts in  Early Modern England. Chapel Hill, 1994, pp. 106-124.

Soman, Alfred. "Decriminalizing Witchcraft: Does the French Experience Furnish a European Model?," Criminal Justice History 10 (1989):  1-22.

Stokes, Laura. Demons of Urban Reform: Early European Witch Trials and Criminal Justice, 1430-1530. Basingstoke, 2011.

Stokes, Laura. “Experiments in Pain: Reason and the Development of Judicial Torture,” in Ideas and Cultural Margins in Early Modern Germany: Essays in Honor of H.C. Erik Midelfort. Ashgate, 2009.

Tedeschi, John. "Inquisitorial Law and the Witch," in Early Modern European Witchcraft, ed. B. Ankarloo and Gustav Henningsen. Oxford, 1990, pp. 83-118.

Unsworth, C. R. "Witchcraft Beliefs and criminal procedure in Early Modern England," in Legal Record and Historical Reality, ed. Thomas G. Watkin  (London, 1989), pp. 71-98.

Unverhau, Dagmar. “Akkusationsprozess-Inquisitionsprozess. Indikatoren für die Intensität der Hexenverfolgung in Schleswig-Holstein,” in C. Degn, H. Lehman and D. Unverhau, Hexenprozesse: Deutsche und Skandinavische Beiträge (Studien zur Volkskunde und Kulturgeschichte Schleswig Holsteins 12). (Neumünster, 1983), pp. 59-142

Zagolla, Robert. Folter und Hexenprozess: Die strafrechtliche Spruchpraxis de Juristenfakultät Rostock im 17. Jahrhundert. Bielfeld 2007.

Zguta, Russell. "The Ordeal by Water (Swimming Witches) in the East Slavic World," Slavic Review 36 (1977): 220-30.

K.  Women and Gender

Anderson, A. and R. Gordon.  "Witchcraft and the Status of Women: The Case of England", British Journal of Sociology  29 (1978). 

Bainton, Roland.  Women of the Reformation: From Spain to Scandanavia.  Minneapolis, 1977.

Barstow, Anne Llewellyn. "On Studying Witchcraft as Women's History: A Historiography of the European Witch Prosecutions," Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 4 (1988).

_______________________.  Witchcraze: a New History of the European Witch Hunts. New York, 1994.

Becker-Cantarino, Barbara. ”Feminist Consciousness and ‘Wicked Witches’: Recent Studies of Women in Early Modern Europe,” Signs  20 (1994), 152-75.

Bever, Edward.  "Old age and witchcraft in early modern Europe", in P. Stearns (ed.), Old Age in Pre-Industrial Europe. Princeton, 1983.

Blécourt, Willem de. “Witch Doctors, soothsayers and priests. On cunning folk in European historiography and tradition,” Social History 19 (1994): 285-303.

_________________. "The Making of the Female Witch: Reflections on Witchcraft and Gender in the Early Modern Period," Gender and History 12, no. 2 (2000).

Bovenschen, Sylvia.  "The Contemporary Witch, the Historical Witch and the Witch Myth: The Witch, Subject of the Appropriation of Nature and Object of the Domination of Nature," New German Critique 15 (1978): 83-119.

Briggs, Robin. "Women as Victims? Witches, Judges and the Community," French History 5 (1991): 438-50

Briffault, R.  The Mothers: a study of the origins of sentiments and institutions.  , New York, 1927. 

Burghartz, Susanna. "The Equation of Women and Witches: A Case Study of Witchcraft Trials in Lucerne and Lausanne in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries," in The German Underworld, ed. Richard J. Evans London: Routledge, 1988, pp. 57-74.

Clark, Stuart, "The 'Gendering' of Witchcraft in French Demonology: Misogyny or Polarity?," French Studies 5 (1991): 426-37.

Coudert, Allison P. "The Myth of the Improved Status of Protestant Women: The Case of the Witchcraze," in The Politics of Gender in Early Modern Europe, ed. J.R. Brink, et.al. (vol 12 of Sixteenth-Century Essays and Studies), pp. 61-94.

Daly, Mary.  Gyn/Ecology: The Metaethics of Radical Feminism.  Boston, 1978.

De Bruyn, Lucy.  Women and the Devil.

Dresen-Coenders, Lène. "Witches as Devils' Concubines: On the Origin of Fear of Witches and Protection against Witches," in Saints and She-Devils: Images of Women in the 15th and 16th Centuries. London, 1987.

Dworkin, Andrea.  Women Hating.  NY. 1974.

Ehrenreich, Barbara and Deirdre English.  Witches, Midwives and Nurses: A History of Women Healers.  Old Westbury, NY.

Garrett, Clarke.  "Women and Witches: Patterns of Analysis", Signs  3  (1977):  461-70.

Goodare, Julian. "Women and the Witch-Hunt in Scotland," Social History, 23 (1998), 288-307.

Harley, David. "Historians as Demonologists: the myth of the midwife-witch." Social History of Medicine 3 (1990): 1-26.

Heinsohn, Gunnar and Otto Steiger. Die Vernichtung der Weisen Frauen: Beitrage ur Theorie und Geschichte von Bevölkerung und Kindheit.  Herbstein, 1985.

_______________________________. "The Elimination of Medieval Birth Control and the Witch Trials of Modern Times." International Journal of Women's Studies. 5 (1982): 193-214.

Hester, Marianne. Lewd Women and Wicked Witches: a study of the dynamics of male domination. London: Routledge, 1992.

Holmes, Clive. "Women: Witnesses and Witches,"  Past & Present  140 (1993): 45-78.

Honegger, Claudia. "Comment on Garrett's "Women and Witches," Signs  4 (1979):792-8.

Horsley, Richard A.  "Who were the witches?: The social roles of the accused in the European witch trials," Journal of Interdisciplinary History  9 (1979): 689-715.

Jackson, Louise. “Witches, Wives and Mothers: Witchcraft Persecutions and Women’s Confessions in Seventeenth-Century England,” Women’s History Review 4 (1995): 63-83.

Karlsen, Carol F.  The Devil in the Shape of a Woman: Witchcraft in Colonial New England.  New York, 1987.

Kittell, Ellen E. “Toward a Perspective on Women, Sex and Witches in the Later Middle Ages,” in Von Menschen und ihren Zeichen, ed. Ingrid Matschinegg et al. Bielefeld, 1990, pp. 13-40.

Kivelson, Valerie A. "Through the Prism of Witchcraft: Gender and Social Change in Seventeenth-Century Muscovy," in Russia's Women: Accommodation, Resistance, Transformation, ed. B. E. Evans, B. A. Engel and C. D. Worobec. Berkeley, pp. 74-94.

Lederer, Wolfgang.  The Fear of Women.   Cambridge, MA, 1968.

Matalene, C.  "Women as Witches", International Journal of Women's Studies 1 (1978): 573-87.

Merchant, Carolyn. The Death of Nature: Women, Ecology and the Scienetific Revolution.  N.Y., 1980.

Moia, Nelly. "Comment on Garrett's "Women and Witches," Signs 4 (1979): 798-802.

Monter, E. William.  "La sodomie a l'époque moderne en Suisse romande", Annales  29 (1974).

Nelson, M. "Why Witches Were Women," in Women: a Feminist Perspective, ed. J. Freeman. 2nd edn. Pao Alto, Calif., 1979.

Nogueria, Carlos.  “Sexuality and Desire: The Witches of Castille,” Revista Brasileira de Historia 15 (1987-8), 169-84.

Pollock, Adrian.  "Social and economic characterisitcs of witchcraft accusations in 16 and 17th-century Kent", Archaeologica Cantiana 95 (1979).

Rowlands, Alison. “Witchcraft and Gender in Early Modern Europe,” in Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America, ed. Brian P. Levack, pp. 449-67.

______________ ed.), Witchcraft and Masculinities in Early Modern Europe. Basingstoke, 2009.

Ruether, Rosemary.  "The Persecution of Witches: A Case of Sexism and Agism?,"  Christianity and Crisis 34 (1974), 291-5.

Sallmann, Jean-Michel. “Witches” in Renaissance and Enlightenment Paradoxes. Vol. 3 of A History of Women, ed. N. Davis and A. Farge. Cambridge, 1993, pp. 444-57.

Sebald, Hans. Witch-Children: from Salem Witch-Hunts to Modern Courtrooms. Amherst, NY, 1995.

Sharpe, J. A. "Women and Witchcraft in Seventeenth-Century England: Some Northern Evidence," Continuity and Change 6 (1991): 179-199.

Swales, J. K. and Hugh V. McLaughlin.  "Witchcraft and the Status of Women: A Comment", British Journal of Sociology  (1979), pp, 349-58.

Toivo, Raisa Maria. Witchcraft and Gender in Modern Society: Finland and the Wider European Experience. Aldershot, 2008.

Ward, John O. "Women, Witchcraft and Social Patterning in the Later Roman Lawcodes,"  Prudentia 12 (1980): 93-108.

Whitney, Elspeth. “The Witch ‘She’/The Historian ‘He’: Gender and the Historiography of the European Witch-Hunts,” Journal of Women’s History 7 (1995): 77-101.

_______________. “Sex, Lies and Depositions: Puerre de Lancre’s Vision of the Witches’ Sabbath,” in Crossing Boundaries, ed. Sally McKee. Turnhout, 1999, pp.  238-261.

Widdowson, John. "The Witch as a Frightening and Threatening Figure." in The Witch Figure, ed. Venetia Newall. London and Boston,1973, pp. 200-220.

Wiltenburg, Joy. Disorderly Women and Female Power in the Street Literature of Early Modern England and Germany. Charlottesville, 1992. Chapter 9: "Women and Crime."

Wijasczka, Jacek. “Men Standing Trial for Witchcraft at the Lobzenica Court in the Second Half of the Seventeenth Century.” Acta Poloniae Historica 93 (2006): 69-85.

______________. Procesy o czary w regionie ´swietokrzyskim w XVII-XVIII wieku (Witch Trials in the Swiety Kryz Region in the 17th and 18th Centuries) in Z przeszlosci regionu swietokrzyskiego od XI do XX wieku, ed. J. Wijaczka. Kielce 2003.

______________. Procesy o czary w Prusach Ksiazecych w XVI-XVII wieku. Torun, 2007.


L.  Religion, The Reformation and Witchcraft

Brauner, Sigrid. "Martin Luther on Witchcraft: A True Reformer?" in  The Politics of Gender in Early Modern Europe, ed. J.R. Brink et al. Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies 12 (1989): 29-42.

Delumeau, Jean.  Catholicism between Luther and Voltaire: A New View of the Counter-Reformation.  London, 1977.

Estes, Leland.  "Reginald Scot and His Discoverie of Witchcraft: Religion and Science in the Opposition to the European Witch Craze," Church History 17 (1983): 444-56.

Haustein, Jörg. “Bibelauslegung und Bibelkritik: Ansätze zur Überwindung der Hexenverfolgung,” in Das Ende der Hexenverfolgung, ed. S. Lorenz and D. R. Bauer, Stuttgart, 1995, pp..249-257.

Midelfort, H. C. Erik.  "Witchcraft and Religion in Sixteenth-Century Germany: The Formation and Consequence of an Orthodoxy," Archiv für Reformationsgeschichte  62 (1971): 266-78.

Oberman, Heiko. Masters of the Reformation.  Cambridge, 1981.

Paulus, Nikolaus. Hexenwahn und Hexenprozess, vornehmlich im 16 Jahrhundert.  Freiburg, 1910.

Perella, Nicholas James. The Kiss Sacred and Profane: An Interpretation. History of Kiss Symbolism and Related Religico-Erotic Themes.  Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1969.

Rothkrug, Lionel.  Religious Practice and Collective Perceptions: Hidden Homologies in the Renaissance and Reformation.  Historical Reflections 7 (1980).

Rhodes, Henry T. F.  The Satanic Mass.  London, 1954.

Seligmann, Kurt.  Magic, Superstition and Religion.  New York, 1971.

Sharot, Stephen.  Messianism, Mysticism and Magic: A Sociological Analysis of Jewish Religious Movements. 

Thiers, J. B.   Traité des superstitions qui regardent les sacremens  Paris, 1741, 2 vols

Trachtenberg, Joshua.  The Devil and the Jews.  New Haven, 1943.

____________________.  Jewish Magic and Superstition.  N. Y., 1970.

Waite, Gary. Heresy, Magic and Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe. Basinstoke, 2003.

__________. Eradicating the Devil’s Dominion:  Anabaptists and Witches in Reformation Europe, 1525-1600. Toronto, 2007.

Walinski-Kiehl, Robert S. “Godly States: Confessional Conflict and Witch-Hunting in Early Modern Germany,” Mentalité-Mentalities 5 (1988)

White, Lynn, Jr.  "Death and the Devil", The Darker Vision of the Renaissance  ed. R. S. Kinsman.  Berkeley,1974.

Wright, A. D.  The Counter-Reformation: Catholic Europe and the Christian World.  N. Y., 1982.  A section on witchcraft.

Yates, F. The Occult Philosophy in the Elizabethan Age. London, 1979.

M.  Disease, Medicine and Witchcraft

Andreski, Stanislav.  "The Syphilitic Shock", Encounter 58 (1982).

Anglo, Sydney. "Melancholia and Witchcraft: The Debate between Wier, Bodin and Scot," in Folie et déraison à la Renaissance, ed. A Gerlo.  Brussels, 1976.

Cotta, John.  A short discoverie of the dangers of ignorant practisers of physicke.  (1612). 

Diethelm, Oskar, "The Medical Teaching of Demonology in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries," Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences  6 (1970):3-15.

Elmer, Peter. “Medicine and Witchcraft,” in Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America, ed. Brian P. Levack, pp. 561-74.

Estes, Leland.  "The medical origins of the European witchcraze: a hypothesis", Journal of Social History  17 (1983), 271-84.

Forbes, Thomas R.  The Midwife and the Witch.  New Haven, 1966.

Fox, Sanford J.  Science and Justice: The Massachusetts Witchcraft Trials.  Baltimore, 1968.

Nemec, J.  Witchcraft and Medicine, 1484-1793.  Washington, 1974.

Porter, Roy and Dorothy Porter,  Health for Sale: Quackery in England, 1660-1850. Manchester 1989.

Ruggiero, Guido. Binding Passions. Oxford, 1992.

Sawyer, Ronald C. "'Strangely Handled in All Her Lyms': Witchcraft and Healing in Jacobean England," Journal of Social History, 22 (1989): 461-85.

Tourney, Garfield.  "The Physician and Witchcraft in Restoration England", Medical History 16 (1972).

Veith, Ilza.  Hysteria: The History of a Disease. Chicago, 1965.

Zilboorg, G.  The Medical Man and the Witch During the Renaissance. New York, 1941.

Zguta, Russell. "Witchcraft and Medicine in Pre-Petrine Russia," Russian Review 37 (1978), 438-48.

N. Science and Witchcraft

Brann, Noel.  "The conflict between reason and magic in 17th-century England: a case study of the Vaughn-More debate", Huntington Library Quarterly   43 (1980).

Clark, Stuart.  "The Scientific Status of Demonology," in Occult and Scientific Mentalities in the Renaissance, ed. Brian Vickers.  Cambridge, 1984.

____________. "The Rational Witchfinder: Conscience, demonological naturalism and popular superstition," in Science, Culture and Popular Belief in Renaissance Europe ed.  Stephen Pumfrey, Paoloi Rossi and Maurice Slawinski. Manchester, 1991, pp. 222-248

Cragg, G. R.  From Puritanism to the Age of Reason. Cambridge, 1960.

Debus, Allen G.  Science and Education in the 17th Century: the Webster-Ward Debate.  N. Y., 1970.

Easlea, Brian.  Witch Hunting, Magic and the New Philosophy: An Introduction to the Debates of the Scientific Revolution 1450-1750. Brighton, 1980.

Elmer, Peter. “Science and Witchcraft,’ in Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America, ed. Brian P. Levack, pp. 548-560.

Estes, Leland.  "Reginald Scot and His Discoverie of Witchcraft: Religion and Science in the Opposition to the European Witch Craze," Church History 17 (1983), 444-56.

Hansen, Bert. "Science and Magic," in Science in the Middle Ages, ed. David C. Lindberg. Chicago, 1978, pp. 483-506.

Heyd, Michael.  "The reaction to enthusiasm in the 17th century: toward an integrative approach", Journal of Modern History  53 (1981).

Hutchison, Keith. "What Happened to Occult Qualities in the Scientific Revolution?" Isis 83 (1982), 233-53.

Jobe, T. H.  "The Devil in Restoration Science: The Glanvill-Webster Witchcraft Debate", Isis  72 (1981) 343-56.

Kirsch, Irving. "Demonology and Science during the Scientific Revolution," Journal of the History of the Behavioural Sciences 16 (1980), 359-68.

Popkin, Richard H.  The History of Skepticism from Erasmus to Descartes.  Assen, 1964.

Prior, Moody E.  Joseph Glanville, witchcraft and 17th century science.  Chicago, 1932.193 p.  061.

Redwood, John.  Reason, Ridicule and Religion.  London , 1976. chapter 6.

Rosen, Edward. "Kepler and Witchcraft Trials," Historian  28 (1966): 447-50.

Shapiro, Barbara, Probability and Certainty in Seventeenth-Century England.  Princeton, 1983.  Chapter 6.

O. Renaissance Magic

Camden, Carroll, Jr. " Astrology in Shakespeare's Day," Isis 19 (1933), 26-73.

Clulee, Nicholas H. " Astrology, Magic and Optics: Facets of John Dee's Early Natural Philosophy," Renaissance Quarterly 30 (1977), 632-80.

Copenhaver, Brian P. "Scholastic Philosophy and Renaissance Magic in the De Vita of Marsilio Ficino,"  Renaissance Quarterly 37 (1984): 523-54.

Curry, Patrick. Prophecy and power: Astrology in Early Modern England. Cambridge 1989.

_____________.(ed.), Astrology, Science and Society. Woodbridge, 1989.

Garin, Eugenio. "Magic and Astrology in the Civilization of the Renaissance," in Science and Civic Life in the  Italian Renaissance, ed. E. Garin. Garden City, NY: Anchor Books, 1969, pp. 146-65.

Hine, William L.  "Marin Mersenne: Renaissance Naturalism and Renaissance Magic," in  Occult and Scientific Mentalities in the Renaissance. ed. B. Vickers.  Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1984, pp. 165-76.

Idel, Moshe. "The Magical and Neoplatonic Interpretation of the Kabbala in the Renaissance," in Bernard D. Cooperman, ed.  Jewish Thought in the Sixteenth Century. Cambridge Mass., 1983, pp. 186-242.

McCulloch, S. C. "John Dee: Elizabethan Doctor of Science and Magic," South Atlantic Quarterly 50 (1951), 72-85.

McGuire, J. E.  "Neoplatonism and Active Principles: Newton and the Corpus Hermeticum," in  Hermeticism and the Scientific Revolution, ed. R.S. Westman and J.E. McGuire. Los Angeles: William Andrews Clark Memorial Library, 1977, pp. 91-142.

Merkel, Ingrid and Allen G. Debus. Hermeticism and the Renaissance: Intellectual History and the Occult in Early Modern Europe. Washington, D.C.: Folger Shakespeare Library, 1988.

Nauert, Charles G. "Magic and Scepticism in Agrippa's Thought," Journal of the History of Ideas 18 (1957): 161-82.

Rossi, Paolo. " Hermeticism, Rationality and the Scientific Revolution, " in  Reason, Experiment and Mysticism in the Scientific Revolution, ed. M.L. Righini Bonelli and W. R. Shea. New York, 1975, 247-73.

Schmitt, Charles B. "Reappraisals in Renaissance Science," History of Science 16 (1978): 200-14.

Secret, F.  "L'Humanisme florentin du Quattrocento vu par un kabbalist français, Guy Le Fèvre de la Boderie," Rinascimento 5 (1954): 105-12.

Vickers, Brian.  "Frances Yates and the Writing of History," Journal of Modern History, 51 (1979): 287-316.

_____________. “On the Goal of the Occult Sciences in the Renaissance,” in Georg Kaufmann, ed. Die Renaissance im Blick der Nationen Europas, Wiesbaden, 1991, pp. 51-93.

Walker, Daniel P.  Spiritual and Demonic Magic from Ficino to Campanella.  London, 1958.

Webster, Charles. "Alchemical and Paracelsian Medicine," in  Health, Medicine and Mortality in the Sixteenth Century  ed. Charles Webster Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1979,

Westfall, R. S.  "Newton and the Hermetic Tradition," in Science, Medicine and Society in the Renaissance: Essays to honor Walter Pagel, ed. Allen G. Debus. New York: vol. 2, pp. 183-98.

Yates, Frances. "The Hermetic Tradition in Renaissance Science," in  Art, Science and History in the Renaissance, ed. Charles S. Singleton, Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1968, pp. 255-74.

Zambelli, Paola. "Magic and Radical Reformation in Agrippa of Nettesheim," Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 39 (1976): 69-103.

_____________. “Scholasticism and Humanistic Views of hermeticism and Witchcraft,” in Ingrid Merkel and Allen Debus, eds. Hermeticism and the renaissance: Intellectual History and the Occult in Early Modern Europe. Washington, DC. 1988, pp. 126-53.

Zika, Charles. "Reuchlin's De  verbo mirifico  and the magic debate of the late fifteenth century,"  Journal of the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes 39 (1976),:104-38.

P. Witchcraft in Art and Literature

Bazin, Germain. "The Devil in Art," in Satan, ed. Bruno de Jésus-Marie. New York,  1952, pp. 351-67.

Bekker, Huggo. "The Lucifer Motif in the German Drama of the Sixteenth Century," Monatshefte  51 (1959):  237-47.

Boatright, Mody  C. "Witchcraft in the Novels of Sir Walter Scott," Studies in English , No. 13: The University of Texas Bulletin, No. 3326 (July 8, 1933).

Bouvier, E. "La croyance au merveilleux à l'époque classique," in Mélanges d'histoire littéraire offerts à Daniel Mornet. Paris: Nizet, 1951, pp. 99-108.

Comensoli, Viviana. "Witchcraft and Domestic Tragedy in The Witch of Edmonton", in The Politics of Gender in Early Modern Europe, ed. J.R. Brink et al. (vol 12 of Sixteenth Century Essays and Studies), pp. 43-59.

Davidson, Jane P. "Great Black Goats and Evil Little Women: The Image of the Witch in Sixteenth-Century German Art,"   Journal of the Rocky Mountain Medieval and Renaissance Association 6 (1985), 141-57.

______________ David Teniers the Younger.   Boulder, Co., 1979.

______________. The Witch in Northern European Art., 1470-1750. Freren, 1987.

DuBruck, Edelgard. "The Devil and Hell in Medieval French Drama: Prolegomena," Romania  100 (1979): 165-179.

Durstoor, P.E. "Legends of Lucifer in Early English and in Milton,"  Anglia 54 (1930), 213-68.

Fränger, Wilhem. The Millenium of Hieronymous Bosch. Chicago, 1952.

Gettings, Fred.  The Occult in Art, New York, 1979.

Grien, Hans Baldung.  Prints and drawings.  Ed. by James H. Marrow and Alan Shestack. 

Hoak, Dale, "Art, Culture and Mentality in Renaissance Society: The Meaning of Hans Baldung Grien's Bewitched Groom (1544)," Renaissance Quarterly 38 (1985): 488-510.

Hoak, Dale E.  "Witchhunting and Women in the Art of the Renaissance", History Today (1981).

Hufts, Linda C. "Baldung and the Witches of Freiburg: the Evidence of Images," Journal of Interdisciplinary History 18 (1987): 249-76.

Koch, Robert A. Hans Baldung Grien: Eve, the Serpent and Death.  Ottawa, 1974.

Kocher, Paul H. "The Witchcraft Basis in Marlowe's Faustus," Modern Philology  38 (1940): 9-36.

Levin, David. "Salem Witchcraft in Recent Fiction and Drama," New England Quarterly 28 (1955): 537-46.

McCormick,Jane."Witchcraft in Literature," Psychic 5 (1973): 50-54

McFarland, Ronald, ' "The hag is astride": witches in seventeenth-century literature', JPC 11, 1 (1977): 88-97.

Mobius, Helga.  Women in the Baroque Age. (A chapter on Witches and Saints.)

Neave, Dorinda. “The Witch in Early  Sixteenth-Century German Art,” Woman’s Art Journal 9 (1988):3-9.

Onat, Etta Soiref (ed.).  The Witch of Edmonton: A Critical Edition.  1980.

Orians, G. Harrison. "New England Witchcraft in Fiction," American Literature  2 (1930-1): 54-71.

Paul, Henry  N. The Royal Play  of Macbeth. New York, 1951.

Parsons, C.O. Witchcraft and Demonology in Scott's Fiction. Edinburgh, 1964.

Purkiss, Diane. ‘Witchcraft in Early Moder Literature,” in Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America, ed. Brian P. Levack, pp. 122-40.

Reed, Robert R. The Occult on the Tudor and Stuart Stage.  Boston, 1965.

Roper, Lyndal. The Witch in the Western Imagination. Charlottesville, 2012.

Salerno, Luigi with Ira Kohn, “Four Witchcraft Scenes by Salvator Rosa,” Bulletin of the Cleveland Museum of Art 65:7 (1978)

Seiferth, Wolfgang, "The Concept of the Devil and the Myth of the Pact in Literature Prior to Goethe," Monatshefte 44 (1952): 271-89.                                                                                      

Steadman, John M. "Eve's Dream and the Conventions of Witchcraft," Journal of the History of Ideas 26 (1965): 567-74.

Swan, Caludia. Art, Science and Witchcraft in Early Modern Holland: Jacques de Gheyn II. Cambridge, 2005.

Willis, Deborah. "Shakespeare and the English Witch-Hunts: Enclosing the Maternal Body," in Enclosure Acts: Sexuality, Property, and Culture in Early Modern England, ed. Richard Burt and John M. Archer. Ithaca, 1994, pp. 96-120.

Wright, Thomas.  Histoire de la caricature et du grotesque dans la litterature et dans l'art.  Paris, 1875. 

Zika, Charles. The Appearance of Witchcraft: Print and Visual Culture in sixteenth-century Europe. London, 2007.

___________. Exorcising Our Demons: Magic, Witchcraft and Visual Culture in Early Modern Europe. Leiden, 2003.

__________. "Fears of Flying: Representations of Witchcraft and Sexuality in Early Sixteenth-Century Germany," Australian Journal of Art 8 (1989-90): 19-48.

____________. "Les parties du corps, Saturne et le cannibalissme: représentations visuelles des assemblées des sorcières au XVIe siècle" in Le sabbat des sorciers en Europe (XVe-XVIIIe siècles, ed. Nicole Jacques-Chaquin and Maxime Préaud. Grenoble, 1993, pp. 389-418.

____________.”Fashioning New Worlds from Old Fathers: Reflections on Saturn, Amerindians and Witches in a Sixteenth-Century Print,” in Dangerous Liaisons, ed. D. Merwick. Melbourne, 1994.

_____________.”Images of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe,” in Oxford Handbook of Witchcraft in Early Modern Europe and Colonial America, ed. Brian P. Levack, pp.. 141-156.

Q. Satanic Ritual Abuse

Devine, Susan E. Out of Darkness: Exploring Satanism and Ritual Abuse. New York, 1992.

deYoung, Mary. “One Face of the Devil: The Satanic Ritual Abuse Moral Crusade and the Law,” Behavioral Sciences and the Law 12 (1994): 389-407.

La Fontaine, J. S. Speak of the Devil: Tales of Satanic Abuse in Contemporary England (Cambridge, 1998)

______________. The Devil’s Children. Farnham, 2009.

Laycock, Joseph. “Carnal Knowledge: The Epistemology of Sexual Trauma in Witches’ Sabbath, Satanic Ritual Abuse, and Alien Abduction Narratives,” Preternature 1 (2012): 100-129.

Nathan, Debbie and Michael Snedeker. Satan’s Silence: Ritual Abuse and the Making of a Modern American Witch Hunt. 2001.

Wright, Larry. Remembering Satan. New York, 1995.

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