Taylor and Francis Group is part of the Academic Publishing Division of Informa PLC

This site is operated by a business or businesses owned by Informa PLC and all copyright resides with them. Informa PLC's registered office is 5 Howick Place, London SW1P 1WG. Registered in England and Wales. Number 3099067.

Informa

Click on the tabs below to view the content for each chapter.

Chapter 1

In addition to the Bloom Stretch ideas in Chapter 1 of Streamlined ID, you can test your understanding with these exercises, examples, and job aids:

Understand

  • Understanding Technology as Process. As stated in Chapter 1, the word “technology” has both a product and process meaning. Because it refers to a more concrete concept, the product meaning of technology is easy to communicate: “instructional technologies are different physical media used to communicate instructional messages and support teaching and learning.” The process meaning of technology is more abstract and not as easily understood. Here’s a helpful analogy for those familiar with the Dewey Decimal system used to classify and organize books in most public and school libraries. After reading the Dewey system analogy, see if you can come up with a different analogy to help others understand the process meaning of “technology.”
  • Defining the Field. The field of Instructional Design and Technology (IDT) overlaps with many other fields (e.g., Learning Sciences, Human Performance Technology, etc.) and continues to evolve in many different directions. We recommend that you begin a concept map of your knowledge of the field (use a mind mapping tool like Popplet or Spiceynodes), and continue to refine and add to it as you learn more. Here’s an example of one person’s mind map and timeline (our schema of the field is different and yours likely will be, too): http://designer.50g.com/docs/ISD_foundations.pdf
  • Keeping Up With the Field. One way to keep up with and understand the significance of new developments in the field is to do a web search of blogs devoted to instructional design, learning, technology, and other related topics. Pick a few favorite bloggers and subscribe to their feeds using an RSS feed reader that meets your needs (e.g., a desktop reader, web-based reader, browser feed reader, Smartphone or tablet apps, etc.). You can start by checking out three of our favorites, who are sure to lead you to others: Cathy Moore (http://blog.cathy-moore.com), Jane Hart (http://www.c4lpt.co.uk/blog/), and Harold Jarche (http://www.jarche.com/).

Apply

  • Working with SMEs. Part of effective instructional design practice involves working effectively with Subject Matter Experts (SMEs). Apply the guidelines in this exercise to develop a list of topics to investigate, questions to ask at your next SME meeting, and information to share with your SME(s).

Analyze

  • What personal attitudes and abilities promote good instructional design? There are many attitudes, dispositions and “habits of mind” that will serve you well in life, and some are of particular importance in professional design practice. After reading this information, analyze your own traits and practices to identify your strengths and areas where improvements will enhance your creative productivity.
  • Systems. Using a systems view when designing solutions to educational challenges can help you identify the relationships among the people and factors involved, and the way in which these elements interact and influence each other. Every system has inputs and outputs. For example, a preschool class is a system with inputs that include varying student characteristics and abilities that impact what the teacher can cover and the resulting learning outcomes (outputs). Another input would be varying home situations that impact the students’ physical and emotional status when they arrive at school. The students’ home systems thus influence the tranquility of the classroom and the children’s receptivity to cooperative learning activities. Select a learning system and identify the inputs (e.g., quality of instruction, experience of instructor, employee abilities, funding, etc.), outputs (e.g., student achievement, job placement, course evaluations, productivity ratings, etc.), and the direct and indirect relationships and interactions.

Evaluate

  • What makes a successful learning experience? As noted in Chapter 1, “Planning for a successful instructional design means beginning with the end in mind.” Of course, the measures you use to gauge success depend on the original goal identified for the learning experience. So, what kind of learning are you targeting? This information about Fink’s (2003) six kinds of significant learning will help you evaluate your previous learning experiences and identify effective factors and practices that will enhance your ability to design successful learning experiences for others.
  • What does a quality learning experience look like? Defining the criteria for quality is an essential factor for success in your instructional design practice. Use this list of resource suggestions to help you identify and build a list of quality criteria for the learning experiences that you design.

Create

  • Develop a professional development plan of IDT competencies. Take a systematic approach to becoming a competent instructional designer by developing a personal professional development plan. There are a variety of professional organizations that have published lists of competencies and standards for instructional design/development and related careers. To develop your own plan of the competencies you will develop, use this Competency Worksheet and the accompanying List of Professional Organizations that have published competencies and standards for the field.

All Levels

  • ADDIE Model. As an example of how you might implement all the Bloom’s levels to master one topic in Chapter 1, apply the levels to your mastery of the ADDIE model, as conceptualized in the book:
  • Remember – Redraw (from memory) the iterative version of the ADDIE model as illustrated in Chapter 1 of Streamlined ID.
  • Understand – Explain the model and the iterative process it represents to someone unfamiliar with instructional design.
  • Apply – Implement the ADDIE process using a small amount of familiar content.
  • Analyze – For a specific instructional problem, explain how you would implement the process, and whether you would skip or expand any of the activities listed.
  • Evaluate – Compare the iterative process depicted in the model with either the traditional, linear ADDIE model or with another design model, and describe the strengths and weaknesses of each portion of the process.
  • Create – Adjust the model to meet your needs as a designer. Add, remove or change elements or the configuration. Or, form an entirely new design process model.

Chapter 2

In addition to the Bloom Stretch ideas in Chapter 2 of Streamlined ID, you can test your understanding with these exercises, examples, and job aids:

Apply

  • Identifying Instructional & Non-Instructional Solutions. Part of the challenge of defining project scope is to determine whether the needs identified should be met with an instructional or a non-instructional solution. Read through these needs analysis worked examples that feature both instructional and non-instructional solutions. Then, try your skills at defining the scope for this needs analysis scenario. When you are finished, compare your answers to those provided in this list of possible needs analysis solutions.
  • Needs Analysis Job Aid. Use the attached scope and needs analysis worksheet as a job aid, as you plan and carry out your project needs analysis. Table 2.2 in Streamlined ID provides a list of analysis methods under the headings, “Ask,” “Observe,” and “Study/Analyze.” Use that table in conjunction with this list of specific analysis techniques to plan your investigation.

Analyze

  • Analyzing Knowing–Doing Gaps in Organizations. Pfeffer and Sutton (2000) claim that even though leaders often know what needs to be done to positively impact performance and results, they are often unaware of whether, and to what extent, such practices are being implemented in their organizations. They recommend that designers identify any “knowing-doing” (p. 265) gaps by asking leaders about the specific practices and behaviors that lead to success in their environment (business, industry, sector, country, locality, discipline, grade level, etc.). Then, they say it is important to ask those leaders and individuals at all levels of the organization, about what is actually happening in the organization. Customize this sample needs survey template to your organization and use it to compare the perceptions and expectations of stakeholders. It will help you analyze whether there is a gap between what senior leaders know and think is happening, and what others in the organization report is actually occurring in the organization.
  • Determining project scope by analyzing content relationships and dependencies. How do you determine the scope of a project and the content to cover? One way is to identify all the content possibilities and then analyze the dependencies and relationships between those content topics. This enables you to distinguish essential, need-to-know and/or foundational knowledge and skills from the nice-to-know or more advanced topics. When carried out with an SME, this process provides a justification for project scope and may also identify a logical sequence for the learning experiences you design. The attached content scope diagram for a jewelry making workshop provides a simple example of content dependencies and provides you with an opportunity to consider some sequencing possibilities. After you have attempted to identify a possible content scope and sequence, compare your decisions to the options listed in this content scope and sequencing chart.

Evaluate

  • From Needs to Project Goals. Study the attached examples of needs statements and project goals that were developed to address those needs. Assess the merits of each goal statement to select the one that you think best addresses the need described. Justify your selection.

Create

  • Develop your own analysis questions. Planning a successful needs analysis involves first coming up with a list of questions for stakeholders that will enable you to define the problem, determine the causes or indicators, and analyze the resulting needs. Begin by identifying the questions to ask and the people to question. Customize this list of needs analysis questions to create your own interview questions for stakeholders about project needs, resources, and constraints.
  • Reporting your analysis results and presenting the project scope. Once you have collected and analyzed needs and have a grasp of the project scope, you should summarize your results and seek approval or feedback on your scope definition and proposed plans. You will likely include information from your analysis of the learners, the project contexts and content (covered in Chapters 3, 4, and 5). Each project and situation is unique, so the requirements for justifying your plan and reporting your analysis data will vary. As you craft a project scope document for the approval of your stakeholders, you may wish to refer to this project scope report example and this free template from Bright Hub’s Eric Stallworth (http://images.brighthub.com/media/D6DF94_sample-scope-statement.doc).

All Levels

  • Needs Analysis. As an example of how you might implement all the Bloom’s levels to master what you’ve learned in Chapter 2, apply the levels to your mastery of needs analysis, as conceptualized in the book:
  • Remember – List some of the common roles and responsibilities carried out by different people during the instructional design process (e.g., designer, SME, stakeholders, etc.).
  • Understand – Select your choice of a project need and explain how that need represents a “gap between what is and what should be.”
  • Apply – Use the attached scope and needs analysis worksheet to identify stakeholder perceptions of a problem, define needs and the causes of those needs, identify alternative solutions to meet those needs, and define an overall project goal.
  • Analyze – Table 2.3 in the book provides examples of how different stakeholders perceive the causes and solutions for a common problem. Analyze the similarities and differences in how the different stakeholders see the problem and identify the potential reasons for any discrepancies.
  • Evaluate – Select and compare any two solution alternatives provided in Table 2.3 and evaluate the pros and cons of each, addressing the potential human and non-human resources and constraints involved in each alternative.
  • Create – Customize the example of a project scope approval report to produce a form that you can use as you gather and analyze project scope and needs data for your instructional design project.

Chapter 3

In addition to the Bloom Stretch ideas in Chapter 3 of Streamlined ID, you can test your understanding with these exercises, examples, and job aids:

Apply

Analyze

Be sure to reflect on how your strong intelligences might influence your design of instruction, and consider ways to ensure that your instruction facilitates learning through a variety of approaches, as highlighted by this multiple intelligences planning tool.

  • What impact do learner characteristics have on an instructional design? Choose one of the learner analysis scenarios and use Figure 3.1 and Table 3.1 in Streamlined ID to identify ways that learner characteristics and needs might impact an instructional design. Use the information in the scenario as well as your imagination to provide specific examples for at least five of the circled items in Figure 3.1 or Table 3.1 (e.g., examples and practice activities, content treatment, delivery formats and modes, etc.). In particular, consider how differences between learners in prior knowledge and experience; motivation, goals, and interests; and intelligence and mental capabilities will impact your design. You can also refer to these additional learner characteristics to expand on your analysis.

Evaluate

  • How do you design successful learning experiences for adults? Using this information on age-related differences in learner characteristics as a resource, evaluate a learning experience that you have encountered as an adult. Was that learning experience designed well for adult learners? How could the designer have done a better job of addressing the needs and characteristics of adult learners?

Create

  • Develop your own analysis questions. Planning a successful learner analysis involves first coming up with a list of questions to ask to identify learner characteristics and needs. Begin by identifying the questions to ask and the people to question. Customize this list of learner analysis questions to create your own interview questions for stakeholders about project needs, resources, and constraints.
  • Design a plan for online learner support. Use this information about online learner wellness needs to design a support plan for an online course. Search the web to locate resources that your learners would require to fulfill their wellness needs.  

All Levels

Planning How to Address Learner Differences. Accommodating learner needs is important to ensure accessible instruction, but trying to customize instruction to address every category of individual differences is impossible and would yield little in the way of learning results. Clark and Feldon (2005) emphasize that only three categories of individual differences have demonstrated significant positive effects for learning when considered in instructional designs: intelligence and mental capabilities, motivational goal orientations, and prior knowledge. However, it is good to be informed about other categories of individual differences so that you can make an informed justification for whatever design decisions you make. Use this information on cognitive styles & learning styles as a resource as you use all the Bloom’s thinking skills levels to master what you’ve learned in Chapter 3:

Remember – List and give examples of the three categories of individual differences that have been shown through research to provide significant effects in learning when considered in instructional designs.

Understand – Describe the impact of a learner profile on different aspects of an instructional design.

Apply – Use the learner analysis worksheet to identify learner characteristics and needs for your instructional design project.

Analyze – Analyze the 13 learning styles models described in the cognitive styles & learning styles resource to identify similarities and differences between the models.

Evaluate – Read the descriptions of the four cognitive constructs listed first in the table in the cognitive styles & learning styles resource and then conduct a web search to locate references to these constructs in articles and instructional designs. Evaluate whether the author or designer’s use of the construct was valid and justified.

Create – Select any construct or cognitive styles model from the cognitive styles & learning styles resource, research the construct/model, and then use it as the basis for a learning unit design.

Chapter 4

In addition to the Bloom Stretch ideas in Chapter 3 of Streamlined ID, you can test your understanding with these exercises, examples, and job aids:

Apply

  • Context Analysis. Apply what you know about context analysis, customizing the list of context analysis questions to gather data about the contexts involved in your choice of an instructional design project. 
  • Identify Stakeholder Assumptions. Identify the theoretical basis for these stakeholder assumptions. Then check Tables 4.4, 4.5, 4.6, and 4.7 in Streamlined ID and adjust your categorization, if necessary. Finally, check your answers against this answer key to see how we categorized each assumption. Remember that scholars differ on the theory basis of some of these assumptions, but as long as you are familiar with the probable origins you will be prepared to dialogue with your stakeholders to come to an agreement on the theoretical context for your project.
  • Identify the Theoretical Context. If you are learning in conjunction with a group, this exercise will give you an opportunity to try out your ability to identify the theory base of a unit of instruction and your ability to justify your position. Access the web-based instructional units at the following links, and then explore the instruction to identify the theory or theories likely used as a basis for the design. Compare your answers to your peers and discuss what features of the instruction led you to identify it with a particular theoretical base or pedagogical approach. You can also try to identify the assumptions and principles that the designers might have used in their design. Any web-based unit of instruction will do, but you can start with these:
  • Interactive Music Theory at http://www.emusictheory.com/interact.html
  • Virtual Frog Dissection at http://froggy.lbl.gov/virtual

Analyze

  • Context Analysis Worked Examples. Read through the context analysis examples for learning contexts, performance contexts, and cultural contexts. Then use the context analysis worksheet resource in conjunction with Table 4.2 in Streamlined ID (Planning the Learning Context: Options to Consider) to analyze this context analysis scenario
  • Analyzing the Differences between Theories. While there are many learning theories used by designers for determining a theoretical context, you should be particularly familiar with the “big three” theories: Behaviorism, Cognitivism, and Constructivism. To help you distinguish between the three, complete this theory comparison chart using the following classic article as a reference:
  • Ertmer, P.A., & Newby, T.J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50–72.
  • Note: This article can usually be accessed online or through a library database, but if you cannot locate it, use the theory charts in Chapter 4 of Streamlined ID to fill out the chart.
  • Comparing Values across Cultures & Career Environments. An awareness of the culture (purposes, goals, and values) of the environment in which you are operating can help you create more effective instruction. If you are unfamiliar with the culture of a society or an organization, your ignorance can impact the success and acceptance of your design by key stakeholders and learners. One way to analyze a cultural context is to do an informal survey to see how stakeholders and target learners would rank different values. Use this comparison of life values across cultures to help you identify and analyze the societal or organizational cultures of your stakeholders and target learners. How do their values compare with your own? Consider how your results might impact the design of instruction. How might the results influence your plans for grouping, learner interactions, content presentation, and assessment? If your target audience represents a mix of cultures, should you design the learning experiences to foster consensus and/or to optimize the benefits of multiple perspectives and varied prior knowledge and experiences?

Evaluate

  • What pedagogical approach is appropriate? Using Table 4.3 from Streamlined ID, evaluate a given unit of instruction to determine whether the pedagogical approach taken was appropriate for the contexts involved. 
  • Evaluate the Level of Alignment between the performance and learning contexts in the context analysis examples.

Create

  • Develop a plan for an online unit of instruction. Use Table 4.2 in Streamlined ID (“Planning the Learning Context: Options to Consider”) to design two versions of a unit of online instruction: one for Same Time/Different Location (synchronous online instruction), and one for Different Time/Different Location (asynchronous online instruction).
  • Create an Analogy to Explain the Differences. Using Table 4.3 in Streamlined ID (“Contrasting Pedagogical Approaches”) as a guide, create an analogy to explain the differences between Instructivism, Constructivism and Connectivism.

All Levels

  • Planning How to Address Learner Differences. Communicating an effective message is an essential aspect of your job as an instructional designer. Good communication enhances the learning context. The Source of the message, the Message itself and the Channel it flows through, the Receiver of the message, and the Feedback and Noise involved all interact to influence the fidelity (and thus the success) of the instructional message. You can use what you have learned about the communication process from Chapter 4 at each of Bloom’s thinking skills levels to develop your ability to analyze the contexts of instruction:
  • Remember – Redraw the communication model from Chapter 4 from memory, labeling all parts of the process.
  • Understand – Explain how “noise” can interfere with the fidelity of your message at several points in the communication process.
  • Apply – Apply the alternative perspectives regarding the communication process identified by Spector (2012) to identify alternate ways your stakeholders may be viewing the communication process for the learning experience you are to design. Those perspectives include: Psychological (focused on interpretation and feelings), Social constructivist (focused on the creation of internal representations and interpretations), Systemic (focused on throughput and efficiency), and Critical theory (focused on values and challenging communication practices that seek to control individuals).
  • Analyze – Use the description of each element of the communication model illustrated in Figure 4.1 to help you identify and analyze the key elements for your instructional design project.
  • Evaluate – Evaluate a learning experience that you feel was less than effective to determine whether the communication process was compromised by any of the following:
    • A mismatch of beliefs about the topic, or expectations for what the instruction will do, between the learners and those responsible for designing or funding it;
    • A lack of feedback or a problem with the feedback process; or
    • A mismatch of social and cultural assumptions between the learners and those designing the instruction.
  • Create – Use what you have learned to design a learning experience for which the message is effective, fidelity is maximized, and noise and negative influences are minimized.

Chapter 5

In addition to the Bloom Stretch ideas in Chapter 5 of Streamlined ID, you can test your understanding with these exercises, examples, and job aids:

Apply

  • Gathering Information about Content. Apply what you know about content analysis, customizing the attached list of content analysis questions and the content inventory to gather data about the content involved in your choice of an instructional design project. 
  • Identifying Knowledge, Attitudes, Skills & Interpersonal Skills (KASI). Study this detailed example of a KASI map (illustrating additional detail for Table 5.3 in Streamlined ID) and use it as a guide to identify the knowledge, attitudes, skills, and interpersonal skills necessary for your choice of a unit of instruction. To increase your content analysis skills, start with simple, well-structured problems and gradually tackle more complex topics (for example, start with identifying the KASIs involved in changing the air filter in a car prior to identifying those required to troubleshoot a problem with the car’s electrical system).

Analyze

  • Considering Different Methods for Analyzing Content. In this paper by Jennifer Maddrell, the author uses a working example to illustrate the different results produced by using a Cognitive Task Analysis, a Job Analysis, and an Activity Analysis. Using Maddrell’s guidelines on the type of analysis to use for different content scenarios, select and use two methods to analyze a topic of your choice and then compare the results from the two methods.
  • Studying Worked Examples of Content Analysis. Study the different analysis and presentation methods used in these examples of content analysis, and the method descriptions in Table 5.2 of Streamlined ID. Then, select a method and complete a content analysis of your own.
  • Identifying Types of Learning. Use the information in Table 5.4 in Streamlined ID on Gagné’s Taxonomy of Learning and on interpersonal skills to help you identify the different types of content in this list of learning statements. Then, consult this answer key to check your understanding.

Evaluate

  • Which technologies are appropriate to foster thinking skills? Using Andrew Churches’ resources on the Digital Bloom’s Taxonomy (2009), evaluate your choice of a unit of online instruction to determine whether the designers selected appropriate technologies to support the content and foster the thinking skills involved. Did the designer use technology in a way that conveyed the content clearly and engaged the learner? Did the instruction enable any novel learning processes and actions? You can find Churches’ resources at: http://edorigami.wikispaces.com/Bloom%27s+Digital+Taxonomy.

Create

  • Designing Different Learning Experiences by Pedagogical Approach. Use Table 5.1 from Streamlined ID as a guide along with the Quick Sheet resources for Andrew Churches’ Digital Bloom’s Taxonomy, to design a learning unit that follows an Instructivist approach. Then, redo the design to produce the learning unit with a Constructivist approach, followed by a Connectivist approach.
  • Produce a Project Scope or Design Document for Stakeholder Review. There are many different ways of gaining feedback from stakeholders on your analysis work. One common way is to develop a project scope or design document that reports the results from the various project analyses (needs, learners, contexts, content), and your proposal for the basic design of the instructional project. Use this guide providing a template and tips to produce a project scope or design document for your stakeholders. Customize this content review form for the use of your stakeholder reviewers.

All Levels

  • Types of Knowledge and Bloom’s Thinking Skills. You can use what you have learned about Bloom’s Revised Taxonomy of Thinking Skills and Gagné’s types of knowledge to build your capacity to analyze instructional content:
  • Remember – Select a content topic and develop a job aid to help learners recall important declarative knowledge for the instruction.
  • Understand – Develop a unit to explain how to use higher-order skills (analyze, evaluate, or create) to learn content. You can use these strategies to foster Bloom’s thinking levels and the accompanying example (“Analyzing by Organizing”) as a guide for your efforts.
  • Apply – Use Table 5.4 from Streamlined ID to help you identify learning goals and types of knowledge and skills that students must learn for a topic of your choice. Note that Table 5.5 in the book provides some examples of learning tasks for each of Gagné’s types of learning, and Table 5.6 provides sample goals categorized by both Bloom’s and Gagné’s taxonomies.
  • Analyze – For your choice of a topic, develop a concept map to identify and illustrate the content and relationships between concepts for stakeholder review.
  • Evaluate – Compare several strategies for representing the content for a proposed unit of instruction for stakeholder review, including an outline, a concept map, a paper prototype, a software prototype, etc. Select what you think is the most appropriate strategy and justify your choice.
  • Create – Use this Bloom’s Verbs and Strategies job aid to design learning experiences that address all levels of Bloom’s taxonomy

Chapter 6

In addition to the Bloom Stretch ideas in Chapter 6 of Streamlined ID, you can test your understanding with these exercises, examples, and job aids:

Apply

  • Identifying Good Outcomes/Objectives. Well-written or “good” outcomes and objectives are written from the learner’s perspective, are worthwhile and relevant, and they are SMART: Specific, Measurable, Action-oriented, Realistic, and Timely. Apply what you learned in Chapter 6 of Streamlined ID to complete these exercises on identifying good outcomes/objectives. When you are finished, use this answer key to check your work.

Analyze

  • Analyzing Outcomes/Objectives to Identify the Parts. Complete outcomes/objectives are often made up of four parts: specifying the learner Audience, the desired Behavior, the Conditions under which the learner is to exhibit that behavior, and the Degree to which the learner is to exhibit the desired behavior. One of the website exercises for Chapter 5 directed you to categorize behavior statements as to the type of learning involved. We have expanded those behavior statements into full objectives with elements describing the intended Audience, the Conditions, and the Degree. Analyze the objective/outcome statements to identify the ABCDs: Audience, Behavior, Conditions, and Degree, underlining and labeling each part. Then, use this answer key to check your efforts.

Evaluate

  • Evaluating Outcomes/Objectives. Search the web to locate three examples of well-written outcomes/objectives and three examples of poorly written outcomes/objectives. Summarize the criteria you used to evaluate the quality of the examples.

Create

Chapter 7

In addition to the Bloom Stretch ideas in Chapter 7 of Streamlined ID, you can test your understanding with these exercises, examples, and job aids:

Apply

  • Self-Assessing Your Assessment Practices. Complete this self-assessment on your assessment practices and then apply what you’ve learned about assessment to develop your own self-assessment instrument for a learner population on a topic of your choice.
  • Guiding Learners to Improve Their Metacognition. If designed mindfully, self-assessment instruments can be used to prompt self-reflection in learners. You can also prompt self-reflection and metacognition by teaching learners to keep track of their own learning. Consider these tracking and self-assessment forms and search for other examples on the Internet. Then, develop one of your own for a specific learner audience to help them monitor their own learning during a formal course or when they are engaged in an informal learning experience. 

Analyze

  • What type of traditional and non-traditional assessments have you experienced? Take some time to explore the recommended website resources for Chapter 7 of Streamlined ID. Review the information from Chapter 7 on the different types of assessments, and the alignment of outcomes and assessments. Afterwards, reflect on and write down at least five different assessments you’ve experienced throughout your life and the different contexts in which you experienced those assessments. Try to think of at least one assessment that you experienced outside of a formal school setting. Analyze each assessment, answering the following questions:
  • What type of assessment was involved? (Use the definitions from Streamlined ID; e.g., Traditional or Non-Traditional/Alternative, Formal or Informal, etc.).
  • Was the assessment aligned to the stated (or unstated) learning objectives?
  • Did you feel you were successful at the assessment? What did you like or dislike about it?
  • Do you think the assessment was well-designed? Why or why not?

Evaluate

  • What makes a good rubric? Examine these rubric samples and conduct an Internet search to locate additional examples (refer to the weblinks provided for this chapter). Make your own list of criteria for a “good” rubric. Compare and discuss your list with similar lists compiled by your colleagues and/or course peers.
  • Evaluating Alignment. Complete these exercises on evaluating alignment between outcomes/objectives and assessments. When you are finished, consult the answer key to check your understanding.

Create

Chapter 8

In addition to the Bloom Stretch ideas in Chapter 8 of Streamlined ID, you can test your understanding with these exercises, examples, and job aids:

Apply

  • Identifying required resources to support your strategy plan. Apply what you have learned so far about the human and non-human resources required for development and implementation of a plan for instruction and use this example of resources and the accompanying blank template to: (1) Write up a succinct description of the proposed learning context, (2) identify the estimated human and non-human resources required, and (3) have your key stakeholders review and approve the plan to ensure that you will have the time, resources, and support necessary to accomplish it.

Analyze

  • Analyzing learner analysis data to select supportive strategies. If carefully collected and analyzed, learner analysis data can inform your strategy decisions. Study these examples of the impact of learner analysis data on design. Then, use the blank template following the examples and relate the listed design factors to a learning need and audience of your choice. Identify the data you could expect to collect concerning the target audience, and identify design strategies you might select to support those learners. 
  • Analyzing the route from outcomes to instructional strategies. Use this template version of Figure 8.1 from Chapter 8 of Streamlined ID to identify the outcomes and foundational assumptions for your choice of a unit of instruction. Then, analyze the outcomes and assumptions to select an appropriate pedagogical approach and the interactions and instructional strategies that will support that approach.

Evaluate

Create

Chapter 9

In addition to the Bloom Stretch ideas in Chapter 9 of Streamlined ID, you can test your understanding with these exercises, examples, and job aids:

Apply

  • Selecting Technologies. Use Churches’ (2009) Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy Quick Sheets as a job aid to help you select online technologies for your choice of a unit of instruction: http://edorigami.wikispaces.com.

Analyze

Evaluate

  • Evaluating Technologies. If you have access to an online course or instructional module, carefully consider how the delivery technology (or technologies) supports the learning experience. What could be altered about the use of the technology to improve the instructional event? Using the Media Affordances Chart, identify which affordances of the delivery technology may help facilitate the learning experience. Why?

Create

  • Create with Technologies. Try something new! Review the list of tools provided in the weblinks for Chapter 9 and select a tool that you have never used. Create a brief instructional event using that tool in order to consider its usefulness and feasibility. You may find that exploring new tools for learning can offer new insights on technologies for future instructional programs, as well as the technology selection process!

All Levels

  • Technology Use. Use what you’ve learned about technology selection and best practices in Chapter 9 and build your capacity for each Bloom’s level to:
  • Remember – What are some of the important considerations for technology selection? Based on your reading of Chapter 9, generate a list of three factors that influence technological decisions in the design of instruction.
  • Understand – Neidorf (2006) says that learner readiness dictates “the usability of a technology for a given project even more than the functionality of the technology itself” (p. 36). Provide an example of this quote to illustrate your understanding of how learner comfort and familiarity with technology influence learning.
  • Apply – Often using a different technology allows you to create a novel learning experience even though you are teaching the same material over again. Apply this principle by brainstorming at least three different combinations of technology to teach a single unit or topic of instruction.
  • Analyze – Reflect on your most recent technology-enhanced learning experience. What affordances were offered by the technological delivery mode? Did they enhance your learning experience? Did they detract from the instructional event in any way? If so, why?
  • Evaluate – Conduct an Internet search to find at least two different instructional units on the same topic. Compare and contrast the technologies used, highlighting the strengths and weaknesses of each treatment.
  • Create – Develop one technology-enhanced or distance-delivered unit of instruction for a learning need that you have identified. Applying the Guiding Questions worksheet and the Technology Planning Worksheet, write a brief overview of your decision-making process related to your development effort.

Chapter 10

In addition to the Bloom Stretch ideas in Chapter 10 of Streamlined ID, you can test your understanding with these exercises, examples, and job aids:

Apply

  • Gestalt Theories in Action. Chapter 10 highlights message design principles informed by Gestalt psychology, specifically the grouping laws which are examined in terms of proximity, closure, continuity, similarity, and simplicity (p. 206). After reviewing this information and the additional readings and weblink resources related to Gestalt principles, select and apply one of these principles to visualize a single concept or idea. Consider how a different Gestalt principle could be applied to convey the same content. Is one approach more effective than another? Why?
  • Reducing Cognitive Load. Mayer and Moreno (2003) provide nine strategies for helping to reduce cognitive load when engaging in instructional message design. Read their article and related information in Chapter 10 (pp. 206–207). How might these recommendations be applied to redesign an existing instructional module to reduce cognitive load? Identify one unit of instruction and apply any of the appropriate strategies to reduce extrinsic load, increase germane load, and manage intrinsic load. Which strategies did you employ? How effectively did the redesign convey the same content while addressing cognitive load issues?
  • Examining Flow. How learners engage in an instructional event is influenced by the way that the media environment supports the presentation of the learning experience. Read the article, “Method, media, & mode: Clarifying the discussion of distance education effectiveness,” cited in Chapter 10 (Head, Lockee, & Oliver, 2002). Using an existing e-learning course or module, identify the physical and functional attributes of the delivery mode, and describe how these features may impact the flow of the learning experience. How would a different delivery mode either enhance or detract from the instructional flow? Why?

Analyze

Linking Design Principles to Theory. Alessi & Trollip (2001) emphasize that the design of multimedia instruction should be carried out using research-based principles drawn from theories of learning. They list a number of applicable principles taken from Behavioral, Cognitive and Constructivist theories, including “principles of reinforcement, attention, perception, encoding, memory, comprehension, active learning, motivation, locus of control, mental models, metacognition, transfer of learning, individual differences, knowledge construction, situated learning, and collaborative learning” (p. 41). Select and study two or more of these principles. (You can either read chapter 2 of Alessi and Trollip or you can do a web search on these principles.) Then, based on your understanding, search for and analyze web-based instruction for examples of the principles you’ve selected.

Evaluate

Message Design Review. You can gain some great insights related to message design through examining the work of others. Using the Message Design Checklist, select a unit of instruction to conduct your own review of important message design considerations. What message design aspects worked well? Which did not work well? Which message design considerations would seem to take priority over others?

Create

  • Design Your Own Instructional Message. As referenced in Chapter 10, Clark and Lyons (2004) offer concrete, pragmatic strategies for organizing and presenting visual information to facilitate learning. Put your instructional design talents to work to explore the implementation of these strategies. Using the Message Design Planning Aid and Table 10.2 on p. 215, select one type of learning outcome and develop a single unit of instruction to address this outcome, employing two or more of the correlating strategies identified in the table.

Chapter 11

In addition to the Bloom Stretch ideas in Chapter 11 of Streamlined ID, you can test your understanding with these exercises, examples, and job aids:

Apply

  • How will your instructional design team operate? Apply what you have learned about effective project management and teamwork from Chapter 11 of Streamlined ID to identify a collaboration and communication plan for a team working on an instructional design project. Use this example of a project schedule and these instructions to guide the development of your plan.

Analyze

  • Analyzing implementation for face-to-face versus hybrid instruction. Review the information on implementation in Chapter 11 of Streamlined ID and then analyze this example of an implementation guide and template for a face-to-face unit of instruction on a technical topic. Suppose your supervisor has just asked you to analyze the feasibility of offering the training via a hybrid (face-to-face AND online) delivery. Identify the content that could be offered online and the content that must continue to be treated in a face-to-face environment. Then identify which portions of the implementation guide would be retained if the instruction was delivered in a hybrid mode, and which additional elements should be added to the guide to address the online portions of the training.

Evaluate

  • Was it worth it? Evaluating the value of instruction by calculating ROI. Calculating the Return on Investment (ROI) for training and instruction can be done in several ways. Use the following questions and information from Govind Negi’s HR Success Talk site (June, 2013) to calculate the ROI of a real or hypothetical instructional development project. When completing a cost-benefit analysis or ROI for training, answer these questions:
  • What are the direct costs for everyone involved in all phases of the design and delivery of the instructional project?
  • What are the indirect costs (e.g., loss of sales or production, travel and accommodations for the training or instruction, etc.)?
  • What bottom-line benefits have been realized for similar programs in your organization?
  • What are the forecasted benefits of the instructional or training program?
  • Next, access this website on calculating ROI and follow the instructions to calculate ROI for a real or hypothetical instructional design project: http://hrsuccesstalk.blogspot.com/2013/06/how-to-measure-roi-return-on-investment.html.
  • Evaluating usability. Customize the information in this usability testing job aid and use it to evaluate the usability of a unit of instruction. If possible, obtain test subjects who represent the target audience for which the instruction has been designed. 

Create