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Chapter image Chapter 23: Strategy 21: Response to intervention

Self Evaluation

Please rate your school or a school you have closely observed.




20. Employs Response to Intervention (RtI)

RtI involves (1) tracking the progress of all students in a school; (2) identifying those whose levels and rates of performance are significantly below their peers; (3) systematically assessing the impact of evidence-based teaching adaptations on their achievement; and (4) making decisions about the intensity and the likely duration of interventions based on an individual student’s response to instruction across multiple tiers of intervention. The RtI framework provides a system for delivering interventions of increasing intensity. Data-based decision-making is the essence of good RtI practice.


Mitchell, 2014, pp243–251.

The school:

  1. tracks the progress of all students in the school;
  2. identifies learners whose levels and rates of performance are significantly below their peers; 
  3. systematically assesses the impact of evidence-based teaching adaptations on learners’ achievement;
  4. makes decisions about the intensity and the likely duration of interventions based on individual learners’ response to instruction across multiple tiers of intervention.
  1. All four indicators are met.
  2. Three of the indicators are met
  3. One or two of the indicators is met.
  4. None of the indicators are met.

YouTubeYouTube links

Wrightslaw RTI. (17.48 US)

This PowerPoint video by Pete Wright of wrightslaw.com is about Response to Intervention (RtI) for a child with a disability and whether RtI may be used to delay an evaluation of a child with special needs in order to determine if the child is eligible for an Individualized Education Programme. Relevant particularly to the US context.


websitesWeb links

Hale, J.B. (2008)Response to Intervention: Guidelines for parents and practitioners.

Comprehensive guidelines, with a focus on the US context.


RTI Action Network.

The RTI Action Network is dedicated to the effective implementation of Response to Intervention (RtI) in school districts nationwide. Its goal is to guide educators and families in the large-scale implementation of RtI so that each child has access to quality instruction and that struggling students – including those with learning disabilities – are identified early and receive the necessary supports to be successful.


National Association of State Directors of Special Education and the Council of Administrators of Special Education. Response to intervention.

Lists materials available on RtI.


National Center on Response to Intervention (NCRTI).

The mission of the National Center on Response to Intervention is to provide technical assistance to states and districts to build their capacity to implement proven models for RtI. The Center’s work includes expert training and follow-up activities to drive implementation supports for RtI on a broad scale, and information dissemination activities that involve forming partnerships and reaching out to target stakeholders.


RTI (Part 1): An overview.

This module outlines the differences between the IQ-achievement discrepancy model and the Response-to-Intervention (RtI) approach. It also offers a brief overview of each tier in the RtI model and explains its benefits.


journalsJournal links

Ferri, B.A. (2012). ‘Undermining inclusion? A critical reading of response to intervention (RTI)’. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 16(8), 863–880.

This paper critically examines the discourse surrounding response to intervention (RtI), a US-based education reform that has garnered a considerable amount of attention (as well as controversy) in a very short amount of time. It is argued that RtI is not so much a reform but a tactic, aimed at returning to the status quo of segregated special education and reinvigorating many of the foundational assumptions of traditional special education practice.

Gresham, F.M., Hunter, K.K., Corwin E.P. and Fisch, A.J.  (2013). ‘Screening, assessment, treatment, and outcome evaluation of behavioral difficulties in an RTI model’. Exceptionality: A Special Education Journal, 21(1), 19–33.

The authors propose the use of a Response to Intervention (RtI) model for the assessment and treatment of students with Emotional Disturbance (ED). Within an RtI model, students are provided evidence-based interventions implemented with integrity, and their response to these interventions is continuously monitored. This article defines RtI and describes methods of screening, assessment, treatment and outcome evaluation for ED within the model.

Sadler, B. and Asaro-Saddler, K. (2013). ‘Response to Intervention in writing: A suggested framework for screening, intervention, and progress monitoring’. Reading and Writing Quarterly, 29(1), 20–43.

Writing may be the most complex facet of the language arts. Students need to become competent writers to succeed in school and society; therefore, teaching these skills is an important educational goal. To accomplish this goal, schools must identify students who have writing difficulties early in order to enact effectual interventions. Early screening and intervention is even more important in the current educational climate of response to intervention. This article discusses how schools can create a tiered system of screening, intervention and progress monitoring for writing.