Taylor and Francis Group is part of the Academic Publishing Division of Informa PLC

This site is operated by a business or businesses owned by Informa PLC and all copyright resides with them. Informa PLC's registered office is 5 Howick Place, London SW1P 1WG. Registered in England and Wales. Number 3099067.


Chapter image Chapter 26: Strategy 24: Inter-agency cooperation

Strategy 24.1: Wraparound

Self Evaluation

Please rate your children’s agencies you have closely observed.

Criterion Indicators Evaluation

24.1 Wraparound intervention

Wraparound intervention is a system-level approach that quite literally aims to 'wrap' existing services around children and young people and their families to address their problems in an ecologically comprehensive and coordinated way.

It aims to achieve positive outcomes through several mechanisms, such as: (a) employing a structured and individualized team planning process; (b) establishing team goals, team cohesion and team evaluation; (c) developing plans that are designed to meet the identified needs of young people, their caregivers and siblings; (d) emphasizing team-based planning that aims to develop the problem-solving skills, coping skills and self-efficacy of the young people and their families; (e) utilizing skilled facilitators to guide teams; (f) integrating young people into their communities and building their families' natural social support networks, (g) employing culturally competent practices; (h) employing evidence-based interventions; (i) monitoring progress; and (j) being accountable for outcomes.


Mitchell, 2014, pp286–290.


  1. The agencies employ a structured and individualized team planning process.
  2. The agencies establish team goals, team cohesion and team evaluation.
  3. The agencies develop plans that are designed to meet the identified needs of young people, their caregivers and siblings.
  4. The agencies emphasize team-based planning that aims to develop the problem-solving skills, coping skills, and self-efficacy of the young people and their families.
  5. The agencies aim at integrating young people into their communities and building their families’ natural social support networks.
  6. The agencies monitor progress and are accountable for outcomes.
  1. All the indicators are met.
  2. Four or five of the indicators are met.
  3. Two or three of the indicators are met.
  4. One or none of the indicators are met.

YouTubeYouTube links

Principles of wraparound. (3.18 US)

Wraparound Maine is a state-wide initiative that supports an integrated planning approach for youths with complex needs. Each Wraparound Maine site serves various agencies that care for children and youths, ages 5–18, with serious emotional or behavioural disturbance who are living in a facility with intensive supervision and services, a temporary residential treatment, a juvenile correctional facility or at they are at risk of being placed in one of these types of facilities.


Wraparound services. (18.01 US)

Wraparound services are a new and important approach to working with children who have mental health difficulties. This film explains what wraparound services are and how they work with children and families. It is sourced from EMQ Families First of Campbell, California.


websitesWeb links

Mitchell, D. (2012). Joined-up: A comprehensive ecological model for working with children with complex needs and their families/whanau: A review of the literature carried out for the New Zealand Ministry of Education. Wellington, New Zealand: Ministry of Education.

This is a comprehensive review of the international literature, written by the author of What Really Works.


Department for Education (2011). Support and aspiration: A new approach to special educational needs and disability: A consultation. London: Author.

This UK website was prepared in 2012 and outlines how the planned Children and Families Bill would deliver better support for families – legislating to break down barriers, bureaucracy and delays which stop vulnerable children getting the provision and help they need. The bill would introduce a single, simpler assessment process for children with SEN or disabilities, backed up by new education, health and care plans – part of the biggest reforms to SEN provision in thirty years.


Team Around the Child (TAC).

Team Around the Child (TAC) is a multi-disciplinary team of practitioners established on a case-by-case basis to support a child, young person or family. TAC supports particular elements of good professional practice in joined-up working, information sharing and early intervention.


National Wraparound Initiative

This page highlights recent wraparound research.


Strategy 24.2: Full Service Schools

YouTubeYouTube links

Paterson leaders support full service community schools wmv. (2.14 US)

Two school district leaders argue for full-service community schools.


Full service community schools health clinic in Vallejo City. (5.51 US)

Describes health clinics located in schools.


websitesWeb links

Smith, M.K. (2000, 2004). ‘Full-service schooling’, the encyclopaedia of informal education.  Last update: 29 May 2012.

Defines FSSs, approaches, benefits and issues.


journalsJournal links

Dyson, A. (2011). ‘Full service and extended schools, disadvantage, and social justice’. Cambridge Journal of Education, 41(2), 177–193.

Despite successive waves of school reform, the English education system, like many others, continues to be characterized by marked inequalities of outcome. These seem to be related to factors in students’ family, community and wider societal contexts that schools traditionally have been powerless to tackle. This paper argues, however, that schools can intervene in these contexts by offering a wider range of services and activities to children and adults under the aegis of ‘full service and extended’ approaches. The paper outlines how these approaches have evolved in England and elsewhere, and reviews the evidence for their effectiveness. It concludes that their current limited impacts could be enhanced if the work of schools were aligned with wider social strategies. Such a move, it suggests, raises questions about how school systems are governed and about what kind of society schools are expected to help build.