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Chapter image Chapter 27: Strategy 25: Inclusive education

Self Evaluation

Please rate yourself or a teacher you have closely observed and your school or a school you have closely observed.

Criterion

Indicators

Evaluation

25 Inclusive education

At its most basic, inclusive education means educating learners with special educational needs in regular education settings. This process involves the transformation of schools to cater for all children – including boys and girls, students from ethnic and linguistic minorities, rural populations, those affected by HIV and AIDS, and those with disabilities and difficulties in learning.

Inclusive education is summarized in the formula

V+P+5As+S+R+L:

Vision

+ Placement 

+ Adapted Curriculum

+ Adapted Assessment

+ Adapted Teaching

+ Acceptance

+ Access

+ Support

+ Resources

+ Leadership

Reference

Mitchell, 2014, Chapter 27.

1. Vision

Educators at all levels of the system are committed to the underlying philosophy of inclusive education and are willing to implement it.

See below.

2. Placement

Learners with special education needs are educated in age-appropriate classes in their neighbourhood schools.

See below.

3. Adapted Curriculum

The standard curriculum is adapted or modified so that it suits the abilities and interests of all learners in your class.

See below.

4. Adapted Assessment

You design the content of assessment to reflect any adaptations to the curriculum.

See below.

5. Adapted Teaching

You take up the teaching strategies described in this book.

See below.

6. Acceptance

The education system and the school recognize the right of learners with special educational needs to be educated in general education classrooms and to receive equitable resourcing.

See below.

7. Access

Adequate physical access to and within classrooms is provided.

See below.

8. Support

Adequate and appropriate support for teachers is provided by professionals.

See below.

9. Resources

Adequate and appropriate equipment and appropriate levels of staffing is provided.

See below.

10. Leadership

See Chapter 23.1: School Culture

  1. All ten indicators are fully met.
  2. Nine of the indicators are fully met.
  3. Eight of the indicators are fully met.
  4. Fewer than eight indicators are fully met.

Criterion

Indicators

Evaluation

25.1 Vision

Educators at all levels of the system are committed to the underlying philosophy of inclusive education and are willing to implement it.

  1. The principal/head teacher of the school consistently expresses a commitment to inclusive education.
  2. Other senior members of the school leadership are committed to inclusive education.
  3. The school board/governing body is committed to inclusive education.
  4. The national/regional/local bodies responsible for education are committed to inclusive education.
  1. All four indicators are met.
  2. Three of the indicators are met.
  3. Two of the indicators are met.
  4. One or none of the indicators are met.

25.2 Placement

Learners with special education needs are educated in age-appropriate classes in their neighbourhood schools.

All children with special educational needs are full-time members of an age-appropriate class in their neighbourhood school.

  1. The indicator is fully met.
  2. Some children with special needs are from a different neighbourhood than most other children in the school and/or spend up to 20 per cent of their time outside the regular classroom.
  3. Some children spend 20–40 per cent of their time outside their regular classroom.
  4. Some children spend more than 40 per cent of their time outside their regular classroom.

25.3. Adapts the curriculum

You adapt or modify the standard curriculum so that it suits the abilities and interests of all learners in your class. In the case of learners with special educational needs, this means the curriculum content is differentiated so as to be age-appropriate, but pitched at a developmentally appropriate level.

  1. The curriculum is broadly similar for all learners (i.e., there is not a separate curriculum for learners with special needs).
  2. The curriculum is adapted to take account of the abilities and interests of different groups of learners.
  1. Indicators 1 and 2 are both met.
  2. Indicator 1, but not 2, is met.
  3. Indicator 2, but not 1, is met.
  4. Neither indicator is met.

25.4 Adapts assessment methods

You design the content of assessment to reflect any adaptations to the curriculum (see Criterion 25.1). As well, you adapt the means of assessment to take account of the abilities of all learners. Assessment of learners with special educational needs results in individual educational plans.

 

  1. The content of assessment tasks reflects any adaptations made to the curriculum.
  2. Assessment tasks take account of the abilities of all learners. For example, a blind learner is assessed via Braille or orally, a deaf learner via sign language, etc.
  3. Learners with special educational needs have individual educational plans, which form the basis of their assessment.
  1. All three indicators are met.
  2. Two of the indicators are met.
  3. Only one indicator is met.
  4. None of the indicators are met.

25.5 Adapted teaching

As appropriate to the composition of your class and the needs of your learners, you take up the teaching strategies described in this book.

A substantial number of the classroom-focused teaching strategies outlined in this book are utilized, where appropriate.

  1. You implement 80–100 per cent of the strategies, when appropriate.
  2. You implement 70–80 per cent of the strategies, when appropriate.
  3. You implement 60–70 per cent of the strategies, when appropriate.
  4. You implement fewer than 60 per cent of the strategies.

25.6 Acceptance

The education system and the school recognize the right of learners with special educational needs to be educated in general education classrooms and to receive equitable resourcing.

  1. The school board/governing body recognize the rights of learners with special educational needs to inclusive education.
  2. The national/ regional/ local bodies responsible for education recognize the rights of learners with special educational needs to inclusive education.
  3. The principal/head teacher recognizes the rights of learners with special educational needs to inclusive education.
  1. All three indicators are met.
  2. Two of the indicators are met.
  3. One of the indicators is met.
  4. None of the indicators are met.

25.7 Access

Adequate physical access to and within classrooms is provided.

This means the provision of such features as ramps and lifts, adapted toilets, doorways that are sufficiently wide to take wheelchairs, and adequate space for wheelchairs to be manoeuvred in classrooms.

 

The school has adequate physical access features to accommodate people with physical disabilities and visual impairments, e.g., ramps, adapted toilets, doorways sufficiently wide to accommodate wheelchairs, adapted playground equipment, and accessible footpaths/sidewalks.

Note: the school environment should be made fully accessible to adults, as well as learners. The principles of Universal Design should apply (see Chapter 22).

  1. The school is fully accessible to all persons with disabilities.
  2. The school is largely accessible, but there is room for minor improvements.
  3. The school is accessible in some respects, but not in others.
  4. The school is largely inaccessible to persons with disabilities.

25.8 Support

A team of professionals provides adequate and appropriate support for teachers. Ideally, this team consists of (a) a general educator, receiving advice and guidance from (b) a specialist adviser, access to (c) appropriate therapists and other professionals (e.g., psychologists, hearing advisers, social workers, physiotherapists, speech and language therapists, and occupational therapists), and (d) assistant teachers/paraprofessionals, learning support assistants, or teacher aides. The composition of such teams varies according to the needs of the particular learners.

 

You have access to:

  1. specialist adviser(s),
  2. appropriate therapists and other professionals (e.g., psychologists, hearing advisers, social workers, physiotherapists, speech and language therapists, and occupational therapists),
  3. assistant teachers/paraprofessionals/teacher aides.
  1. All three categories of support are available.
  2. Two categories of support are available.
  3. One category of support is available.
  4. No category of support is available.

25.9 Resources

Adequate and appropriate equipment and appropriate levels of staffing is provided.

  1. The national/regional/local education system makes available to the school sufficient resources for it to meet its inclusive education obligations.
  2. The school board/governors ensures that resources are delivered to the school and are utilized for the purposes for which they are intended.
  3. The school managers ensure that sufficient resources (material and personnel) are available at the classroom level.
  1. All three indicators are met.
  2. Two of the indicators are met.
  3. One of the indicators is met
  4. None of the indicators are met.

YouTubeYouTube links

Inclusion project. (4.22 US)

This video was made by the Georgia Department of Education, USA, to highlight a pilot inclusion programme for students with the most significant cognitive disabilities in cooperation with Cobb County Schools.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=4o__NMJuILM

Diversity in Alberta schools: A journey to inclusion. (5.50 Canada)

Administrators, teachers, parents and students contribute to this captioned video.

http://youtube/8c-3YCr7zR0

Support an inclusive classroom. (6.27 US)

Interviews with the director of an after-school programme, a special education student, a general education student and a parent who all support an inclusive classroom.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=90X9f3ifMDM

Why differentiated instructions? (3.04 US)

Differentiation is responsive teaching, rather than one-size-fits-all teaching, according to Carole Tomlinson, the presenter in this video.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=lcQ8shR37yg

A visit to a differentiated classroom. (59.50 US)

Interviews with teachers and observations of a classroom.

www.youtube.com/watch?v=n2i-Uz95SRs

websitesWeb links

Centre for Studies in Inclusive Education.

CSIE is a UK charity that works to promote equality and eliminate discrimination in education. The website refers to a wide range of resources, some of which are free.

www.csie.org.uk

Alliance for Inclusive Education

This is a UK campaigning and information-sharing network led by disabled people.  It campaigns for all disabled learners to have the right to access and be supported in mainstream education. It believes that education should support the development of physical, vocational and academic abilities through mixed-ability tuition in mainstream schools so that all students have the opportunity to build relationships with one another. 

www.allfie.org.uk

Accessing the general education curriculum: Inclusion considerations for students with disabilities.

This module highlights classroom considerations that promote access to the general education curriculum for students with disabilities.

http://iris.peabody.vanderbilt.edu/module/agc/

New Zealand Ministry of Education (2010). Success for all: Every school, every child.

Success for All – Every School, Every Child, is the New Zealand Government’s vision and work programme to achieve a fully inclusive education system. The Government has set a target of 100 per cent of schools demonstrating inclusive practices by 2014 and has a programme of activities to achieve this. These activities look at improving inclusive practices and improving special education systems and support.

www.minedu.govt.nz/NZEducation/EducationPolicies/SpecialEducation/OurWorkProgramme/SuccessForAll.aspx

journalsJournal links

De Boer, A., Pijl, S.J. and Minnaert, A. (2012). ‘Students’ attitudes towards peers with disabilities: A review of the literature’. International Journal of Disability, Development and Education, 59(4), 379–392.

This review presents an overview of studies describing attitudes of students, variables relating to students’ attitudes, and the relationship between students’ attitudes and the social participation of peers with disabilities. Based on a literature search twenty studies were selected that were conducted in seven different countries. Outcomes were described in terms of negative, neutral or positive according to three attitude components (cognitive, affective and behavioural). The results show that students generally hold neutral attitudes towards peers with disabilities. Moreover, the results indicate that attitudes of peers relate to the social participation of students with disabilities. Implications of the findings are discussed in terms of promoting positive attitudes of peers.

Kalambouka, A., Farrell, P., Dyson, A. and Kaplan, I. (2007). ‘The impact of placing pupils with special educational needs in mainstream schools on the achievement of their peers’. Educational Research, 49(4), 365–382.

This paper discusses the key findings from a systematic review of research evidence on whether the placement of pupils with special educational needs (SEN) within mainstream schools has an impact on academic and social outcomes for pupils without SEN. A total of twenty-six studies were selected. Overall, the findings suggest that there are no adverse effects on pupils without SEN of including pupils with special needs in mainstream schools, with 81 per cent of the outcomes reporting positive or neutral effects.

Nakken, H. and Pijl, S.J. (2002). ‘Getting along with classmates in regular schools: A review of the effects of integration on the development of social relationships’. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 6(1), 47–61.

The objective of this review was to find out what knowledge is available regarding the effects of integrating pupils with sensory, motor and/or mental disabilities in regular schools. It is restricted to the effects of integration on the development of social contacts with classmates without disabilities. Analysis of fourteen studies revealed contradictory conclusions: no effects were reported in some studies, while in others researchers found that special needs pupils in regular schools acquired more social contacts and friendships, and that regular and special schools differed in this respect. Only a few studies revealed negative effects of integration.

Engelbrecht, P., Saolainen, H., Nel, M. and Malinen, O.-P. (2013). ‘How cultural histories shape South African and Finnish teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education: A comparative analysis’. European Journal of Special Needs Education, 28(3), 305–318.

The purpose of this study was to analyze teachers’ attitudes towards inclusive education by examining the ways in which cultural-historical factors in South Africa and Finland may impact on teachers’ attitudes. An analysis of the data indicated that each country’s historical commitment to inclusive education and its attendant legacies about diversity in education have clearly mediated teachers’ views in both countries.

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