Part 2 - Contents

1 2.1-2.12 Clinical examination of the reproductive system in sheep

Videos demonstrate examination of the female reproductive tract, showing abortion, vaginal and uterine prolapses, and dystocia.

2 2.13-2.16 Normal parturition in cattle

These videos show the normal birth process in cows, including veterinary assistance.

3 2.17-2.24 Examination of the scrotum in rams

Videos show physical examination of the ram scrotum, including unilateral orchitis and fibrinous exudate, chronic epididymitis, sperm granuloma and inguinal hernia.

4 2.25-2.49 Clinical examination of the digestive system

Videos demonstrate signs of digestive tract disorders in adult cattle (including abdominocentesis, ascites, traumatic reticulitis, with ultrasound, generalised septic peritonitis) and in adult sheep (including dental problems, ultrasounds of the liver, and peritonitis). We are also shown ultrasound examination of the small intestine in sheep and cattle. The faecal worm egg count method is demonstrated in 2.49.

5 2.50-102 Respiratory disease: examination including ultrasound

These videos show ultrasound examination for both species, with instances of various respiratory pathologies. These include fibrinous pleurisy, pleural abscesses, lung consolidation, and bronchiectasis.

6 2.103-116 Respiratory disease: OPA

Videos demonstrate ultrasound examination for OPA lesions in adult sheep.

7 2.117-142 Cardiovascular system

Videos show clinical signs of heart failure in cattle including brisket, submandibular, and ventral abdominal oedema, and jugular distension or pulse. We are shown ultrasound examination of the chest, pleural and pericardial effusions, ultrasound examination of the pericardial sac, and vegetative endocarditis.

8 2.143-154 Neurological disorders in cattle and sheep

Videos demonstrate major presenting signs for meningitis and cerebellar disease in cattle and sheep. We are shown the loss of balance and head tilt caused by otitis media (vestibular syndrome), and the signs of pontomedullary syndrome and hypothalamic syndrome, characterised by cranial nerve deficits.

9 2.155-163 Neurological disorders: spinal lesions

These videos show the signs of cervical spinal lesions and intumescence in sheep, also the paralysis of limbs associated with lesions in the region L4 to S2.

10 2.164-167 CSF collection

Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection is demonstrated.

11 2.168-208 Examination of the musculoskeletal system

Clinical involvement of the musculoskeletal system is manifest as lameness and much less commonly as weakness. Lameness is probably the major welfare concern in sheep and dairy cows, and these videos show varying degrees of lameness in cattle and sheep. We are also shown foot paring in sheep, joint effusion/thickening and arthrocentesis. Radiography is demonstrated, useful in the investigation of long bone fractures where doubts exist over the diagnosis. We are shown joint lavage, undertaken under high extradural block for hind leg joints or general anaesthesia for forelegs joints. Finally, the method for intravenous regional anaesthesia is shown.

12 2.209-222 Examination of the urinary tract

Comparative normal and abnormal videos show how tenesmus can be diagnosed in male sheep. We are shown sheep suffering with urolithiasis and examination of the penis. Ultrasonography is demonstrated, having great practical application in the field investigation of suspected urolithiasis in male sheep.

13 2.223-230 Skin examination in sheep

Diseases of the skin are demonstrated in sheep, including sheep scab and cutaneous myiasis, ectoparasite infestations, ticks and corresponding bacterial, rickettsial, and viral infections, and dermatophilosis.

14 2.231-233 Udder examination

These three videos demonstrate when to examine the udder, rarely undertaken except to confirm clinical mastitis. The first two videos show lambs looking hungry despite adequate grazing and concentrate feeding, and final video an ultrasound examination.