Student Resources

Glossary of Key Terms


The process whereby a culture receives traits from a dominant society.

achieved status

A status that one has because of a factor other than automatic membership due to gender, age, kinship affiliation, and so forth.


A word that is derived from the first letter of a series of words.


A musical instrument in which air is blown across or into some type of passageway, such as a pipe; includes whistles and flutes.

age grade

A series of consecutive statuses defined by age.

age set

A social group that contains members of one sex within a specific age span.


The idea that the existence of a god is unknowable, that it is as impossible to prove the nonexistence of the supernatural as it is to prove its existence.


Divination by use of flour, as in fortune cookies.

altered states of consciousness

Any mental state that differs from a normal mental state.

analytic definition

A definition that focuses on the way religion manifests itself or is expressed in a culture.


A deceased family member who has a continued existence and the potential to impact the lives of his or her living descendants.


In Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, spirit beings who act as mediators between God and human beings.


The belief in an impersonal supernatural power.


A belief in spirit beings.


The study of humanity.


Nonhuman entities that have human characteristics.

antitherapy ritual

A ritual that is performed to bring about illness, accident, or death.


Divination by a chance meeting with an animal.


Ultimate devastation or the end of the world.


A feature of symbols, in which the symbol is not related to the thing it symbolizes.


The study of prehistoric people from the analysis of their physical and cultural remains.


A main character of the collective unconscious.

ascribed status

A status that one automatically has because of gender, age, kinship affiliation, and so forth.


A condition whereby a dominated culture has changed so much because of outside influences that it ceases to have its own distinct identity.


The belief that all of the stars and planets, as well as the sun and moon, influence the destiny of people and that reading the sky can be used as a divination technique.


The ritual knife used in Wiccan rituals.


Disbelief in or denial of the existence of God or gods.


For Christians, the idea that the death of Jesus Christ represented a sacrifice that reconciled humans and God.

attribute god

A god that rules over a defined domain.


The incarnation or embodiment of a god in human form.

Axis Mundi

A central axis that is seen as linking the three different levels of the world, the central world containing humans and the supernatural layers above and below it.

calendrical ritual

A ritual that is performed on a regular basis as part of a religious calendar.

cargo cult

Religious movement occurring among small-scale societies of Melanesia in response to culture contact; the movement focuses on the attainment of trade goods.


When a person becomes a source of communication for a supernatural agent.

choice fatigue

A situation in which individuals in a culture are faced with too many options, such as when a single dominant church is replaced by numerous denominations and sects.


A type of colored printed poster.


Scar formation at the site of a cut or wound.


A surgical procedure during which the foreskin is removed from the penis.


Divination by the casting of lots such as the rolling of a die or the drawing of straws.


A surgical procedure characterized by removal of the clitoris as well as parts or all of the labia minora.


The processes of the human brain, including perception, attention, learning, memory, concept formation, and problem solving.

collective conscious

A set of beliefs shared by members of a social group that functions to limit the natural selfishness of individuals and promote social cooperation.

collective unconscious

Inborn elements of the unconscious that are manifested in dreams and myths.


A state characterized by a sense of equality, community, and camaraderie.

contagious magic

Magic that is based on the Law of Contagion, utilizing things that once were in physical contact with an individual.


A musical instrument with taut strings that can be plucked or strummed, hit, or sawed, such as a harp or violin.

core shamanism

Michael Harner’s concept of the core and nearly universal methods of shamanism without a specific cultural context.


A formal, binding agreement.

creator god

A god that is responsible for the creation of the physical earth and the plants and animals that live upon it.

crisis ritual

A ritual that arises spontaneously, frequently in times of crisis.


An upright pole with a transverse piece in the middle or near the top. Used for execution by the Romans; now a symbol for the Christian religion.


Historically a particular form or system of religious worship. Most commonly used to describe a small, recently created, and spiritually innovative group, often with a single charismatic leader. Connotations of the term include that the leader is evil, is in total control of his followers, and believes that the end of the world is imminent.

cultural anthropology

The anthropological study of contemporary human societies and their cultures.

cultural relativism

Attempting to analyze and understanding cultures other than one’s own without judging them in terms of one’s own culture.

cultural violence

Aspects of culture that are used to justify structural or direct violence and make it seem natural.


Human beliefs and behaviors of a society that are learned, transmitted from one generation to the next, and shared by a group of people.

culture area

A geographical area in which societies share many cultural traits.

cursing ritual

An antitherapy ritual that involves reciting a curse to bring about illness and death.

deliberate divination

Divination that someone sets out to do.


A spirit being, usually evil.


A religious group that differs on just a few points from the mainstream religion.


Movement of a population out of their homeland.


The apparent movement of cultural traits from one society to another.


New awareness of something that exists in the environment.


The ability to use symbols to refer to things and activities that are remote from the user.


Supernatural techniques for obtaining information about things unknown, including events that will occur in the future.

divination ritual

A ritual that is used for the purpose of divination.


A religious specialist who specializes in divination.

doctrine of signatures

Belief that physical structures found in nature, such as the shape of a plant, are indicative (or signatures) of their potential use in healing.


Method of divination whereby water and other underground resources are located by use of a forked stick.

emic perspective

The study of a society through the eyes of the people being studied.


Perceived through our senses.

endocannibalistic anthropophagers

The term endocannibalism refers to the eating of one’s own people, and the term anthropophagers refers to the eating of human bodies.

entoptic phenomena

Visual effects that have their origin in physical changes within the eye.

essentialist definition

A definition that looks at the essential nature of religion.


The anthropological study of the use of plant material, especially in healing.


Using one’s own culture as the basis for interpreting and judging other cultures.


A person who produces an ethnography.

ethnographic present

Speaking or writing about cultures in the present tense although what is described might no longer exist.


The descriptive study of human societies.

etic perspective

The study of a society using concepts that were developed outside of the culture.


A Christian sacrament that commemorates Jesus Christ’s last supper by consecrating bread and wine.

evolutionary approach

An approach that focuses on the questions of when and how religion began and how it developed through time.


The act of abstaining from eating and drinking over a period of time.


A traditional story that is part of the tradition of a society; not considered to be true.

foraging bands

Small communities that subsist by hunting, fishing, and gathering wild plant foods.

fortuitous divination

Divination that simply occurs without any conscious effort.

functional approach

An approach that is based on the function or role that religion plays in a society.

functional definition

A definition that is based on the role that religion plays in a society.


A religious movement characterized by a return to fundamental principles, usually including a resistance to modernization and an emphasis on certainty through a literal interpretation of scriptures.


The soul of an individual after death that remains in the vicinity of the community.


Unintelligible speech that mimics normal speech; known as “speaking in tongues.” In religious practice, it is generally believed to be the voice of the supernatural speaking through the person.


An individual supernatural being, with a distinctive name, personality, and control or influence over a major aspect of nature (such as rain or fertility), that encompasses the life of an entire community or a major segment of the community.


Divination through handwriting analysis.


Divination by the examination of entrails of sacrificed animals.


A religious specialist who concentrates on healing.


Pursuit of or devotion to pleasure as a matter of principle.


A specialist in the use of plant and other material in curing.


Crimes against God.

hero myth

A common theme found in myths worldwide centered around the hero’s journey or monomyth.

high demand religion

A religious group in which much is demanded of members in terms of strict adherence to rules for thought and behavior.


The study of human societies as systematic sums of their parts, as integrated wholes.

homeopathic magic

Magic that is based on the Law of Similarity.


The use of cultivated domesticated plants without the use of fertilizers, plows, irrigation, and other agricultural technologies.

human universals

Characteristics that are found in all human societies.

hunting and gathering rites of intensification

A ritual whose purpose is to influence nature in the quest for food.

ideological ritual

A ritual that delineates codes of proper behavior, promotes community solidarity, articulates the community’s worldview, and assists the community in managing crises.


A musical instrument that is struck, shaken, or rubbed, such as a rattle or bell.

image magic

A form of homeopathic magic in which an image represents a living person or animal, which can be killed or injured through doing things to the image.

imitative magic

Magic that is based on the Law of Similarity.


The final stage of a rite of passage in which the individual is reintroduced to the community in his or her new status.

increase rite

A type of ritual whose purpose is to aid the survival and reproduction of a totemic plant or animal.


Male demons who have sex with human women while they sleep, resulting in the birth of demons, witches, and deformed children.

indirect violence

Not based on the actions of a single actor.

Includes both cultural and structural violence.


Form of female genital cutting including excision of the clitoris, labia minora, and most of the labia majora.


A unit of the Roman Catholic Church that convened to judge cases of heresy.

inspirational divination

A type of divination that involves a spiritual experience, such as a direct contact with a supernatural being through an altered state of consciousness

interpretive approach

Idea that cultural systems are understood by studying meaning; religion is a cluster of symbols that provides a charter for a culture’s ideas, values, and way of life.


Coming up with a solution to a problem using the technology at hand.


In the Islamic religion, a spirit being created of fire.


The effect of a person’s behavior during the series of phases of the person’s existence. Karma is seen as determining the person’s destiny.


A ceremonial chamber, often built underground, that is found among Native American societies in the American Southwest.

Law of Contagion

Things that were once in contact continue to be in contact after the physical connection is severed.

Law of Similarity

Things that are alike are the same.

Law of Sympathy

Magic that depends on the apparent association or agreement between things.


A traditional story about past events that is considered to be true; usually contains an element of reality—a known character, event, or place.


The state of ambiguous marginality that characterizes the transition phase of a rite of passage.

linguistic anthropology

The anthropological study of language.


Ways in which a person can compel the supernatural to behave in certain ways.


An impersonal supernatural force.

Marxist approach

Idea that religion is a construction of those in power, designed to divert people’s attention from the miseries of their lives; a way of getting people to go along with capitalist culture.


A practitioner who intentionally communicates with the supernatural to find information.


A musical instrument that incorporates a taut membrane or skin such as a drum.


A young woman’s first menstruation.

messianic movement

A type of revitalization movement that is based on the appearance of a divine savior in human form who will bring about the solution to the problems that exist within the society.

millenarian movements

A type of revitalization movement that envisions a change through an apocalyptic transformation.


A philosophical movement based on ideas of rationality, objectivity, reason, and science as the means of gaining knowledge, truth, and progress.


A theme common to many myths that tells of the adventures of a culture hero.


A belief in one god.


A technique of preserving a dead body involving drying and preservatives.

mystery religion

A religion whose beliefs, practices, and true nature are known only to those who have been initiated into the religion.


A sacred story that provides the basis for religious beliefs and practices.


A sense of identification with and loyalty to one nation above all others.

nativistic movement

A type of revitalization movement that develops in traditional societies that are threatened by the activities of more technologically advanced societies.


Divination through contact with ancestors or the dead.

negative peace

The absence of war.


A revival of pre-Christian religious practices.


A modern spiritual practice that draws on some concepts and practices of traditional shamanism, but is usually used as a method for improving an individual’s life.

new religious movement

A historically recent religious movement, often involving new leaders and new scriptures or new interpretations of older religious traditions.

noninspirational divination

Forms of divination that are performed without the direct involvement of supernatural beings.


Economic exchanges designed to influence the supernatural.


A fortuitous happening or condition that provides information.


State of being all-knowing.


Divination by the interpretation of dreams.


A feature of symbols; the ability to create new symbols.

operant definition

A definition in which we define our terms so that they are observable and measurable and therefore can be studied.


A specific device that is used for divination.


A trial by divination that is performed on the body of the accused person to determine guilt or innocence.

orientation association structure

The part of the brain that enables us to distinguish ourselves from the world around us and to orient ourselves in space.


Divination from reading the path and form of a flight of birds.

otiose god

A god who is too remote and too uninterested in human activities to participate in the activities and fate of humans.


Divination through the reading of the lines of the palm of the hand.


Refers to activities that draw from many different Native American traditions.


All gods and goddesses in a polytheistic system.

participant observation

A research method whereby the anthropologist lives in a community and participates in the lives of the people under study while at the same time making objective observations.

pastoral nomads

Societies that subsist primarily by herding domesticated animals.


A five-pointed star.


A five-sided figure.

periodic ritual

A ritual that is performed on a regular basis as part of a religious calendar.


The ritual use of peyote, a hallucinogenic cactus.

Pharaonic infibulation

A surgical procedure performed on women that involves the complete removal of the clitoris and the labia minora and majora, the two sides of the wound then being stitched together, leaving a small opening.


Divination through the study of the shape and structure of the head.

physical anthropology

The study of human biology and evolution.

pidgin language

A simplified language that forms from the fusion of two languages.


A journey to a sacred place or a sequence of sacred spaces at which rituals are performed.


A belief in many gods.

positive peace

Structural violence is not present.


An altered state of consciousness that is interpreted as a deity taking control of a person’s body.


An emphasis on subjectivity over objectivity and a tendency toward reflexivity, or self-consciousness; all knowledge is seen as being a human construction that scholars must seek to deconstruct.

prescriptive ritual

A ritual that a deity or religious authority requires to be performed.


A feeling in a person that something is about to occur.


A full-time religious specialist who is associated with formalized religious institutions.


Divination through the communication of a prophet.


Someone who communicates the words and will of the gods to his or her community, acting as an intermediary between the people and the gods.

protective ritual

A ritual that is performed at the start of, or during, a dangerous activity to protect the participants or to protect the community against disaster.


A pipe or tube that connects a tomb to a temple through which the spirit of the deceased may travel into the temple.

psychosocial approach

An approach to the study of religion that is concerned with the relationship between culture and psychology and between society and individual.


A place for souls who die with lesser faults for which there has been no repentance or for which the penalty is not wholly paid during the lifetime.


The relative placement of a status in the society.


A belief in an immortal, eternal soul that is born again and again in different bodies.


An object of religious veneration, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of a religiously important person, such as an ancestor or saint.


The realm of culture that concerns the sacred supernatural.

religious ritual

A ritual that involves the manipulation of religious symbols.


Dead people being brought back to life.

revitalization movement

A movement that forms in an attempt to deliberately bring about change in a society.

revitalization ritual

A ritual that is associated with a revitalization movement.

revivalistic movement

A type of revitalization movement that attempts to revive what is often perceived as a past golden age.

rites of passage

A ritual that occurs when an individual changes status, serving to legitimize the new status and to imprint it on the community’s collective memory.


A patterned, recurring sequence of behaviors.


An attitude wherein the subject or object is set apart from the normal, everyday world and is entitled to reverence and respect.


A gift designed to influence the supernatural in which an animal is killed.


A divination technique in which a dried scapula, or shoulder blade, is placed in a fire and the pattern of cracks and burns are interpreted.


The practice of justifying beliefs and actions by reference to the religious text.

secondary burial

Some time after the initial burial the bones are removed and reburied.


A new branch of a mainstream religion, usually involving new revelations, new scriptures, and a new leader.


The first phase of a rite of passage in which an individual is removed from his or her former status.


A part-time religious specialist who receives his or her power directly from the spirit world and acquires status and the ability to do things through personal communication with the supernatural.


An object or building that contains sacred objects or is associated with a venerated person or deity.

situational ritual

A ritual that arises as needed, frequently in times of crisis.


Describes relatively small communities that practice foraging, herding, or technologically simple horticulture.

social charter

A story that establishes the proper organization and rules of behavior of a society.

social rite of intensification

A type of ideological ritual that functions to reinforce the belief system and the values of the society.


A magician who specializes in antisocial, evil magic.


Compelling the supernatural to behave in certain ways, usually with evil intent.


The noncorporeal, spiritual component of an individual.


The words that are spoken in a magic ritual.


A supernatural being that is less powerful than a god and is usually more localized; often one of a collection of nonindividualized supernatural beings that are not given specific names and identities.

spirit possession

An altered state of consciousness that is interpreted as a spirit taking over control of a human body and is either deliberately induced by a ritual performance or the consequence of an illness caused by a spirit taking control.


A social position that is defined in terms of appropriate behavior, rights and obligations, and its relationship to other statuses.


Bodily wounds or pain considered by Christians to be visible signs of participation in the sufferings of Christ.

stimulus diffusion

What occurs when an idea moves from one culture to another and stimulates the invention of a new trait.

Structural violence

A form of violence where people’s basic needs are not being adequately met due to some social structure or social institution.


Form of genital cutting where the underside of the penis is cut and the urethra slit open.


Female demons who have sex with human men while they sleep, resulting in damnation of the men’s souls.


Entities and actions that transcend the natural world of cause and effect.


Simple behaviors based on magical thinking that are thought to bring about simple results.

supreme god

A god who resides at the top of a pantheon.


A symbol formed by two lines crossing at right angles with their ends bent at right angles in a clockwise or counterclockwise position.


A shared understanding about the meaning of certain words, attributes, or objects; something that stands for something else.

sympathetic system

The arousal system of the brain.


A fusing of traits from two cultures to form something new and yet permitting the retention of the old by subsuming the old into a new form.


Objects and persons that are supernaturally prohibited. May also refer to certain behaviors that would bring about negative consequences through supernatural means.


Divination through the reading of tea leaves.

technological ritual

A ritual that attempts to influence or control nature, especially in those situations that affect human activities and well-being.


A technique of body movements that aims to increase awareness of the body’s energy fields; developed by Carlos Castaneda.


Public acts of destruction committed by those in a weaker position against non-military targets with the intent of causing fear.

theory of mind

The idea that people know, or think they know, what is going on in other people’s minds.

therapy ritual

A ritual whose function is to cure.


Creatures that are part human and part animal.


The giving or taking of a tithe, a tenth of one’s income or agricultural produce, usually in support of a religious institution.


The belief that religion is relevant to, and should be a part of, all parts of a society.


A symbol or emblem that stands for a social unit.


A religious system that assigns different plant and animal species to specific social groups and postulates a relationship between the group and the species formed during the period of creation.


The idea that religious texts are relevant to life today.


The second phase of a rite of passage during which a person is in a liminal state and is moved from one status to another.


A situation in which a soul passes from one body to another—human, animal, or even an inanimate object.


A god who gave humans important things or skills, often by accident or through trickery.

unitary state

An altered state of consciousness in which an individual experiences a feeling of becoming one with the supernatural.

urban legend

Contemporary story about people and events that never occurred, but are presented as real.


A person who has died before his or her time and who brings about the death of friends and relatives until his or her corpse is “killed.”


The ability of a person to cause harm by means of a personal power that resides within the body of the witch.


The way in which a society perceives and interprets its reality.


A corpse that has been raised from the grave and animated.


Student Quiz

Questions for Review

Chapter 1

  1. What is an ethnography? How does an anthropologist go about producing an ethnography?
  2. How does the study of kuru among the Fore of New Guinea illustrate the concept of holism?
  3. What is the main distinction between an etic and an emic perspective? Do you think that it is possible for an anthropologist to do a truly emic analysis of a tribal society?
  4. How does ethnocentrism contrast with cultural relativism?
  5. The concept of cultureis central to the study of anthropology. Without producing a short, memorized definition, can you explain what culture is?
  6. What is meant by the termsanimismandanimatism?How do these terms differ from one another?
  7. What is the functional approach to the study of religion? How is functionalism related to holism?
  8. Explain and critique the definition of religion as the realm of the sacred supernatural.
  9. Explain the idea that the evolution of religion is related to development of large human societies.
  10. What are the consequences of the “existence” of anthropomorphic causal agents in the human environment?

Chapter 2

  1. What is a worldview? How does the Navaho worldview differ from the Judeo-Christian worldview? What difficulties do you think a traditional Navaho would encounter living in a large urban center?
  2. What do we mean by the term supernatural? Can the supernatural exist outside of the realm of religion? Give some examples and explain why.
  3. Carefully distinguish between a folktale, a legend, and a myth. Give examples of all three from television and movies.
  4. How do religious narratives that are transmitted orally differ from those that are transmitted in written form?
  5. Distinguish between the major approaches to the analysis of myth: evolutionary, functional, structural, and psychological.
  6. What are some of the most commonly encountered themes found in myths worldwide?
  7. In what ways do the Navaho and the Judeo-Christian origins stories different from one another? In what ways are they similar? How are humans created in the different stories?
  8. How important is the hero’s journey in story telling as seen in television and movies?

Chapter 3

  1. What is a symbol? How do symbols create reality?
  2. What do the terms openness, arbitrariness,and displacement mean with respect to symbols?
  3. Discuss the characteristics of symbols using as examples the swastika, pentagram, and cross?
  4. What does the sarcophagus lid at the Mayan site of Palenque tell us about the Mayan universe?
  5. Compare and contrast color terminology in English and Yoruba.
  6. Explain the Australian aborigine ideas of that we label totemism. Do you have anything in your culture that is similar to this?
  7. What aspects of time are apt to be universal in that they correspond to natural units of time? How does culture color our perceptions of time?
  8. Why has the development of calendars been closely related to religious practices?
  9. How does the Mayan concept of time differ from our concept of time?
  10. What role does music play in religious practice?

Chapter 4

  1. Define the term ritual as it is used in everyday life. What makes a ritual specifically a religious ritual?
  2. Discuss a ritual from an analytic, functional, and essentialist point of view.
  3. There are a great many kinds of rituals. How can rituals be classified?
  4. How are religious rituals used in healing? Give some examples of supernatural causes of illness and how these illnesses are treated.
  5. Religious obligations include simple rituals that are usually performed by individuals in the course of the day. Describe some of these.
  6. Describe why some objects, places and behavior are tabu.
  7. What are rites of passage and what roles do they play in a society? List and briefly describe some examples of rites of passage that you have participated in.
  8. What are the three stages of a rite of passage? Briefly describe each stage.
  9. What are meant by the terms liminality and communitas? Give some examples.
  10. What is a pilgrimage? Use the Huichol pilgrimage and the Hajj as examples.

Chapter 5

  1. What is an altered state of consciousness? Give some examples.
  2. What are some of the characteristics of an altered state of consciousness?
  3. How are the characteristics of altered states of consciousness interpreted in a religious context? What role does culture play in the interpretation of altered states of consciousness?
  4. What external factors may produce an altered state of consciousness?
  5. What are some practices commonly associated with religious rituals that produce altered states of consciousness?
  6. How are drugs used in religious practices?
  7. How does drug use in the context of religious ritual differ from use in a recreational context?
  8. Describe the role of altered states of consciousness in the Holiness Church, San healing rituals, and Huichol rituals?

Chapter 6

  1. Describe a shaman in terms of a type of religious specialist.
  2. What types of rituals and other activities are most often engaged in by shamans?
  3. Are there any kinds of religious specialists in urban, industrial societies that remind us of shamans? Why?
  4. What is meant by the terms neoshamanism and core shamanism?
  5. Describe a priest in terms of a type of religious specialist.
  6. What are the key distinctions between a shaman and a priest?
  7. What is the nature of a priest’s relationship with the supernatural and with the community in which he or she lives?
  8. What are healers, diviners, herbalists, and prophets?

Chapter 7

  1. Distinguish between magic and illusion, magic and sorcery.
  2. Define and differentiate between the Law of Similarity and the Law of Contagion.
  3. What are the differences between homeopathic and contagious magic? Give examples of each.
  4. What is the doctrine of signatures? How does this principal operate in folk medicine?
  5. What is meant by divination? How does divination function as a part of religious practices?
  6. Distinguish between inspirational and noninspirational and between fortuitous and deliberate forms of divination.
  7. Distinguish between possession and prophecy and between mediums and prophets?
  8. How does the Greek oracle at Delphi differ from the oracles of the Azande?
  9. What are the important functions of magic and divination?
  10. Why does magic work? Why does magic appear to never fail?

Chapter 8

  1. Why do all societies have a concept of a soul? What is meant by the term soul?
  2. How does the concept of the soul differ among different cultures? Give some examples.
  3. What are some of the different views of the afterlife found in various societies?
  4. In religions where ancestors are venerated, what is an ancestor? How does a person become an ancestor?
  5. What is a ghost? What is the relationship of ghosts to the living? How do the living interact with ghosts?
  6. Are vampires real? Why do you think vampire beliefs develop?
  7. Are zombies supernatural beings? Are they religious entities?
  8. How is death defined in different cultures? Are there any differences between biological and social death?
  9. Differentiate between the concepts of ghost, vampire, and zombie.
  10. Describe some of the many ways in which a body is treated after death.

Chapter 9

  1. How do spirits and gods differ from ghosts, ancestors, and vampires that we studied in the last chapter?
  2. What are the essential differences between spirits and gods? Is this a clear-cut distinction?
  3. What are the essential features of spirits found among the Dani? Describe the zar of Hofriyati.
  4. What are some of the different types of gods? Give some examples.
  5. What is a pantheon?
  6. In what ways are the worlds of the gods a reflection of human societies?
  7. Briefly describe the orisha of the Yoruba and the Ifugao gods.
  8. Describe the goddesses including the special roles that they play.
  9. Define and give examples of polytheism, monotheism, atheism, and agnosticism.

Chapter 10

  1. How does witchcraft differ from sorcery?
  2. How does witchcraft explain “unfortunate events” in Zande society? How does witchcraft belief provide the Azande with a plan of action for handling such problems?
  3. If Zande divination techniques can only give a yes/no answer, how are they used to identify witches? How does this influence the behavioral traits that are associated with witches?
  4. How do witchcraft beliefs of the Navaho differ from those of the Azande?
  5. How do witchcraft beliefs in Soweto, South Africa, differ from those found among the Azande?
  6. How do witchcraft beliefs in small-scale societies differ from those in Euro-American societies?
  7. What were the bases of witchcraft accusations during the Witchcraze in Europe?
  8. Why were women the primary targets for witchcraft accusations during the Witchcraze?

Chapter 11

  1. Describe the roles of inventions, discoveries, and diffusion in bringing about culture change.
  2. What is meant by the label acculturated and assimilated referring to a society or community?
  3. What is syncretism? How does syncretism permit the survival of traditional culture traits?
  4. What are the essential characteristics of Afro-Caribbean Religious Movements such as Vodou and Santeria?
  5. What is a revitalization movement? What are the different kinds of revitalization movements?
  6. What are cargo cults? Describe the John Frum Cult.
  7. What are the essential features of the Wiccan movement? How is the Wiccan movement an example of a revitalization movement?
  8. What is meant by Neo-Paganism? What are some of the important features of the Neo-Pagan Movement?
  9. What are the problems with the definitions of denomination, sect, and cult? Why is new religious movement a better term to use?
  10. What is a high demand religion? What are some of their characteristics? Give some examples.

Chapter 12

  1. What is the difference between direct and indirect violence? What are the two forms of indirect violence, structural violence, and cultural violence?
  2. What are the arguments that suggest that conflict and violence are inherent to religion (the substantive view)? How does this differ from the functional view?
  3. What does the term fundamentalism mean?
  4. Richard Antoun describes fundamentalism in terms of totalism, scripturalism, and traditioning.
  5. What do these terms mean?
  6. What core features of religion are related to conflict and violence?
  7. Discuss the Iranian Revolution and Arab Spring from an anthropological point of view. What roles did religious beliefs and practices play in these political upheavals?
  8. How does the Hobby Lobby case in the United States illustrate the difficulties in maintaining a balance between the freedom of religion and the health and well-being of society as a whole?
  9. What is meant by the term terrorism?
  10. What is the difference between negative and positive peace?