Religious Oppression


The video, History of Religious Freedom in America, comes from the National Museum of American Religion,, is 3 minutes long.  A more expansive account of the brief historical glimpses on this video can be found on and students could select historical events or moments in American religious history to expand upon using the longer video, as an out-of-class or in-class assignment. You will find more on recent history and current legal challenges in

 Participants will select one historical episode to prepare for presentation.  The presentation then follows the timeline, with different participants providing (1) detail that they have discovered when reading the slide. (2) see if they can find additional information online or in books, and (3) saying what that achievement means for current-day and future religious freedom.

The activity for this could be either a stand-up time line or it could be handled as small-group jigsaw puzzle activity where students share their information to fill out the puzzle pieces of a specific time period.

A second assignment and activity is for participants to extend the video timeline into the present and describe the advances or regressions in the landscape of American religion. In order to do this activity, have students read several good news sources (the New York Times, the Washington Post, other national newspapers or magazines with solid information and reliable websites) that cover current events including religion in the United States.  Ask participants to notice what issues of religious difference and oppression are especially prominent in the news today. Participants will select an issue that they believe is paramount today and will be seen as having lasting effects into the future. Suggestions might include current debates around immigration and religion; the enactment of “religious freedom” laws across the United States; access to birth control and religious liberty; the battle between religious freedom and civil rights.  They might choose to look at some of the legal cases coming up concerning people with religious or moral convictions against same-sex marriage who refuse to bake wedding cakes or provide marriage floral arrangements.  

Discussion Questions

#46: Pew, America’s Changing Religious Landscape

  1. The Pew Research Center, conducted a study that shows changes in the US religious landscape.  Were you aware of these changes?  What similarities and what differences have emerged according to Pew’s study? 
  2. Have you noticed these (or other?) changes among the adults and young people you know, over the years?
  3. What changes do you notice in your own family, neighborhood, state, school community, the country as a whole?
  4. Several of the websites noted among the online resources will supplement the information in this reading, such as,, and (especially their US Religious Landscape study which is online).

46:  Killerman, Examples of Christian Privilege

  1. Killerman names over 30 examples of unearned benefits that Christians experience and that people of other religions and secular people do not.  How do you and your classmates or friends or neighbors experience Christian privilege or its absence – even noting whether or not the people you talk with are aware of this factor in everyday life. 
  2. You may want to focus on your own personal reaction to this list and compare it with others in your class or among your friends.
  3. Some prompts for to help you in this discussion are: What is your initial reaction this list?  How does the idea that Christians receive privilege differ from various media stories about “the war on Christmas?
  4. Given what you read in the introduction to this Section about how to think critically about religious oppression, why do you think that some Christians might perceive that there is a “war” against their religion?
  5. The video by Mehta, 33 reasons why it is GREAT to be Christian in the US  is closely related to this reading Selection and provides additional perspective.  The video is listed under Additional Video Resources.
  6. There are a number of Illustrated Online Resources that you can use in relation to this reading, especially those listed under section 6 of Online Resources.

47: Blumenfeld, Christian Privilege and the Promotion of “Secular” and No-so “Secular” Mainline Christianity

  1. Blumenfeld uses Young’s five faces of oppression — exploitation, marginalization, powerlessness, cultural imperialism, violence — to highlight the ways that religious oppression operates in schools and in societies.  With other classmates, talk about marginalized or devalued religious groups in this society who would fit into the criteria of being oppressed using thee five conditions.  
  2. Give some examples of each.                                                                
  3. Section 6 of Online Resources has several information on current day antisemitism and you can use other websites related to the AntiDefamation League (ADL), Hillel,  and the Pluralism project.

48: Bayoumi, Racing Religion

  1. A number of the selections in this Section focus specifically on the way that religion impacts race. In fact, Bayoumi states in selection #48 that religion is an important factor in shaping how people perceive race – racializing members of minority religious groups, but ignoring the racial identities of majority religious groups. What evidence does he give to make this assertion?
  2. Do you agree with him? 
  3. How do the readings in selections # 47, 51, 52, and 54 illustrate intersections between religious oppression and racism? 
  4. Based on these readings, what are some of the intersections between racism and religious oppression experienced by Buddhists, Muslims, and Native Americans?
  5. Several On Line Resources look explicitly at Islamophobia (sections 1, 3, 6-8) with further resources at the website for CAIR (Council on American-Islamic Relations, ) or other websites for Sikhs, Muslims, or the Pluralism project.

49: Hilberg, Precedents

  1. Hilberg points out that the Holocaust was rooted in centuries of religious, economic, historical precedents that need to be understood of you are to understand the Holocaust itself.  Which of these precedents were new to you?
  2. Were you surprised to see the parallels between medieval century Church edicts on Jews and those used by the Nazis in the Holocaust?
  3. What linkages can you make between Hilberg’s long historical perspective on antisemitism and the maps presented by Gilbert in Selection #50 which also reach historically from the 12th century to the modern era. 

50: Gilbert, “Maps”

  1. Gilbert presents maps of early Jewish settlements in Europe, their expulsions, and current day “diasporas.” What stereotypes have you heard about Jews that show up in the history depicted by these maps?
  2. What connections can you make between the religious and ethnic differences between Jews and white Christian in Europe, the current  religious/racial/ethnic immigration backlash and struggles today in the and in Europe.

51: Eck: See you in Court, Working it out

  1. It would be useful for you to read these selections by (Eck) in connection with the video and slideshow that is presented by the National Museum of American Religion featured as the main Video.  Does the video and sideshow help you better understand the examples Eck uses?
  2. What role did the courts play in enlarging the concept of religious freedom and who was included?  Who was excluded?  And Why? 
  3. What is your explanation of these legal strategies to exclude peoples who are considered different on the basis of religion or race and ethnicity when the Constitution guarantees Freedom of Religion (speech and observance)?
  4. How do you compare Eck’s examples with the examples in Echo-Hawk (52).
  5. Other Online Resources appear in sections 1, 3, 4, especially “encounters-in-the-courts” in

52: Echo-Hawk, Native American Religious Liberty

  1. Echo-Hawk highlights the way that Native Americans have experienced religious at the time of Christopher Columbus and in the centuries since. While many students have learned about the mistreatment of indigenous people in the Western Hemisphere, it is often not considered through a religious oppression lens.  Was this perspective on their history new to you? 
  2. How is the religious oppression of Native people in the Americas connected to the justification for land dispossession and US westward expansion?
  3. Hilberg (49) says of the three major historical stages of Jewish oppression in Europe, “You can’t live among us as Jews [separate communities], you can’t live us among us [relocation out of the area], you can’t live [genocide].  Can you apply these stages to Echo-Hawk’s account of native American oppression, or from other information you have about native Americans?   
  4. In the section of Online Resources from there are several pieces dealing with “first encounters” from the indigeneous and other points of view.  The PBS online series “God in America” also has a section on native American Indian religions.

53: Dallas, Religious Freedom Advocates

  1. Kelsey Dallas describes the different approaches used by religious freedom advocates to address LGBT rights when many of them might have strong religious attitudes that support or reject LGBT civil rights.  How do you yourself balance Constitutional support for freedom of religious belief and action, and civil rights based on gender and sexuality. How does a society that claims not to be governed by a single national religion balance these rights?
  2. Whose religious liberties are privileged, if they happen to contradict each other?
  3. What answer would you give to someone who claimed that 1st Amendment religious rights were more important to the Constitution than 14th Amendment Civil Rights?
  4. What would you do if someone said that their religious beliefs stated that women should be treated as second-class citizens or that slavery should be reinstituted because of their interpretation of selected Biblical texts?
  5. Look at the Not in Our Town listing for community actions against discrimination and hate crimes against gay, lesbian and transgender people --- and link those community acts of resistance with others in the same Not in our Town listing which show community resistance against religious hate crimes. (Listed among Additional Video Resources.)
  6. The Online Resources notes PBS series “God in America” where the discussion of religious freedom will help develop the context for religious freedom v. civil rights in Dallas.

54. Williams, From Pearl Harbor to 9/11

  1. Williams asks his readers whether the discrimination and prejudice against Muslims and Sikhs after 9/11 parallels the experience of Japanese Buddhists during World War II. Do you see parallels between them?
  2. Does the fact that Japanese WWII relocation and native American relocations to what were, in effect, concentration camps, seem to you to constitute a US pattern, when the “religious other” is considered the enemy?  Is Bayoumi’s (48) point re the incarceration of Muslims a similar example?
  3. And if so, can you think about the notion of the “religious or enemy other” might distinguish them from religious others who are loyal Americans?
  4. Do you see further parallels that linke these US examples to the concentration camps for Jews, Roma and other unwanted peoples, that are described by Hilberg (49) and mapped by Gilbert (50)? 
  5. What parallels and what differences do you see between religious oppression towards all unwanted or demonized “minority” religious groups in the context of (religious) nationalism defined by the religious “majority”? 
  6. The Pluralism Project online text resources dealing with “Historical Perspectives” on “xenophobia” and “Asians and Asian Exclusion” provide historical context for Williams’ discussion of prejudice against Asians and Asian religions.

55: Semple, A Somali Influx Unsettles Latino Meatpackers

  1. The immigration debate in this country is often framed as one between native-born whites and foreign-born people of color. How does the conflict between Latino Catholics and Somali Muslims complicate this narrative? 
  2. What role do different and competing religious requirements (time for worship, days off for Christian holidays) play into that? 
  3. There are many factors in this conflict: religious, economic, which immigrant group got to the US first, the Christian context for Latino religious claims.  How do you see the intersection of these different elements in the conflict itself and in the resolution to the conflict?
  4. How does religious ignorance of another group unify communities who themselves might be antagonistic toward each other?


56: Kaye/Kantrowitz, Jews in the US: The Rising Costs of Whiteness

  1. What is your reaction to the title of this selection? Have you ever considered that there might be a cost to whiteness, especially for immigrant peoples not previously racialized as “white”?
  2. Kaye/Kantrowitz quotes James Baldwin when she asks what price Jews paid to become white.  Baldwin had written that Jews had paid the highest price because they came from countries where they were not considered white (“Aryan”).  How do selections by Hilberg (49) and by Gilbert (50) help you understand this concept of different “racial/religious identities” in different national or historical contexts? 
  3. What does it mean for a group to be seen as non-white in one context but white in another? How might they make sense of this?
  4. Kaye/Kantrowitz questions the “identity” of marginalized peoples who suffer multiple oppressions.  Are Jews a religious group, a racial and ethnic group, a cultural group, or a people with a shared history?  Are native Americans “infidels” and “nonbelievers,” non-white, members of tribal cultures, shared a common history in the Americas?  Is one form oppression prioritized over another or do they shift in different contexts?
  5. Can you describe other groups that are similarly “othered” by religion, race and ethnicity, cultural differences, common histories?  Do they have similar experiences of oppression in the US?
  6. The Not In Our Town videos listed among Additional Video Resources single out the community resistance against religious hate acts in Oak Creek.  Can you consider how this community resistance effort against religious hatred might play out against religious hate acts (especially “racialized” religions) in your community?

57: Ahmad, Oral Histories of Adam Fattah and Hagar Omram

  1. In what ways do these youthful personal accounts of experiences Islamophobia help you to better understand the complex ways in which racism intersects with religious stereotypes, with negative consequences for those who carry such stigma?
  2. Try to use the core concept of “levels” of oppression (6) to link the “microaggressions” (4) described by these young people, to the larger systemic Islamopohia described by Bayoumi in selection 48.

58: Nowicki, Modesto-Area Atheists Speak Up, Seek Tolerance

  1. What was your reaction to reading this selection as well as the next (59), both of which express the stereotypes, misunderstanding, marginalization and resulting anger and resistance, described in their own words by these atheists? 
  2. Have you ever heard or read the voices of those who publicly identify as atheists?  If not, why do you think that might have remained silent? 
  3. Do you think that your school is a safe place in which atheist and secular voices can share public space with Christians? With people of other faiths? 
  4. Ask the same question about your family, your place of worship, and your neighborhood of origin?
  5. View the Will Gervais: Anti-atheist prejudice video (listed under Additional Video Resources for a longer account of the basis for prejudice against atheists).
  6. There are four valuable online illustrated resources in section 7 of Online Resources.

59: Christina, Excerpts

  1. The four questions in selection 58 can be asked here.  What are your responses and answers?
  2. b) People often say that members of marginalized groups have “chips on their shoulder” if they express anger?  Do you feel that way when reading the excerpts written by Christina?
  3. Try to apply the concept of “micoaggressions” (4) to the examples Christina describes as making her angry.  How do you feel about those examples?  What would be the cumulative effect for an atheist of experiencing those “microaggressions” on a daily basis?
  4. View the Will Gervais: Anti-atheist prejudice video (listed under Additional Video Resources for a longer account of the basis for prejudice against atheists).
  5. There are four valuable online illustrated resources in section 7 of Online Resources.

Next Steps

60: Nasir and Al-Amin, Creating Identity-Safe Spaces

  1. Why do you think members of marginalized religious, who have differences of worship, culture, dress, diet, might need a “safe space” in a Christian-dominant school or culture?
  2. Does Tatum’s account (1) of the needs of disadvantaged identity groups help you understand the need for safe spaces?
  3. Do you have safe spaces in your school for Muslim students that resemble those described in this selection?  Safe spaces for other non-Christian religious groups or secular groups? 
  4. The next selection (61) talks about actions that can be taken by people who want to support those marginalized by religion.  Considering the presence of Muslims or others marginalized by religion in your schools or workplaces, what “safe spaces” could you help the organization to create?
  5. The Not In Our Town videos listed among Additional Video Resources single out the community resistance against religious hate acts in Oak Creek, in order to create a “safe” community, free of religious intolerance.  Can you consider how your community might create “safe space” within the entire community?

61: Kivel, Guidelines for Christian Allies

  1. Kivel suggests guidelines for Christians who want to disrupt Christian hegemony.  Why might a Christian want to do this?  What challenges might they face and what supports and networks might the draw upon?
  2. Have you ever seen a Christian engage in ally behavior? Have you ever done so?  Have you wished to do so but felt anxiety or fear of disapproval? Depending on your answer, why do you think that being a Christian ally to people who are marginalized by their religions might be difficult?
  3. Can you think of examples of ally behavior in addition to what Kivel names, that might prove helpful in the social contexts you move in (schools, neighborhoods, families, religious organizaitons)?
  4. If so, what kinds of networks and resources would you need?  What challenges would you need to overcome?  What supports would you need to overcome them?
  5. The Not In Our Town videos listed among Additional Video Resources single out the community resistance of inter-religious groups and individuals against religious hate acts in Oak Creek.  Can you consider how this community resistance effort against religious hatred might play out against religious hate acts (especially “racialized” religions) in your community?
  6. Kivel’s website is listed among Online Resources.

62: Edwards, Critical Reflections on the Interfaith Movement

  1. Interfaith groups and dialogues have become visible in recent years, in schools, colleges, and in local communities. Do you know of any in your communities?  Who belongs to them and how do they function?
  2. If there is no such Interfaith dialogue group in your community, do you think there should be?  What would be the challenges to establishing such a group and what networks or resources would support such efforts
  3. Edwards describes the conditions necessary if one wants to root such interfaith dialogue in social justice practice. Do you know if these dialogues are framed with a social justice orientation? If not, what steps do you think could be taken to carry the effort further?
  4. Why would a social justice perspective be valuable in an interfaith dialogue group?  How would it change dialogue and interactions within that group?  What issues might it raise that might be ignored otherwise?
  5. Online Resources in provide examples to compare with Edwards discussion.  Also refer to the Interfaith Youth core (Online Resources) for interfaith case studies and examples.

Further Resources

Additional Video Resources

  1. Mehta, H. (2014, June 21). 33 reasons why it is GREAT to be Christian in the US [Video file]. Retrieved from

    This short video lists 33 Christian privileges. The material is presented in a conversational manner and provides examples for Killerman’s list (Selection #46).

  2. Gervais, W. (2015, May 27). Will Gervais: Anti-atheist prejudice (AHA Conference 2015) [Video file]. Retrieved from

    A video of a lecture presentation on atheism that provides a sociocultural overview of discrimination against atheism, discusses specific biases that atheists face, and provides concrete recommendations on reducing prejudice against atheists. It helps explain some of the anti-atheist prejudices discussed by Nowicki and Christina (selections 58 and 59).

  3. Not in Our Town (n.d.). Videos [Collection of video files]. Retrieved from 

At this site, eight videos are available on different communities that stood up against hate. Many of the videos relate to hate crimes and interfaith movements when specific houses of worship were targeted. Videos addressing other forms of hate are also available.  Examples include: 

Trailer: Waking in Oak Creek

As the Sikh community in Oak Creek, Wisconsin prepares for Sunday prayers, a deadly hate attack shatters their lives, but not their resilience. After six worshipers are killed by a white supremacist, the local community finds inspiration in the Sikh tradition of forgiveness and faith. Lieutenant Murphy, shot 15 times in the attack, joins the mayor and police chief as they forge new bonds with the Sikh community. Young temple members, still grieving, emerge as leaders in the quest to end the violence. In the year following the tragedy, thousands gather for vigils and community events to honor the victims and seek connection. Together, a community rocked by hate is awakened and transformed by the Sikh spirit of relentless 

Full Film: Waking In Oak Creek

As the Sikh community in Oak Creek, Wisconsin prepares for Sunday prayers, a deadly hate attack shatters their lives, but not their resilience. After six worshipers are killed by a white supremacist, the local community finds inspiration in the Sikh tradition of forgiveness and faith. Lieutenant Murphy, shot 15 times in the attack, joins the mayor and police chief as they forge new bonds with the Sikh community.

Oak Creek Gathers After Hate Crime Killings at the Sikh Temple of Wisconsin

Thousands gather in the center of town to support the Sikh community in the aftermath of the Aug. 5, 2012 hate crime killing at the Sikh Temple of Wisconsin in Oak Creek, a suburb of Milwaukee. Mayor Steve Scaffidi, Police Chief John Edwards, and Amardeep Kaleka, son of the slain temple president, share prayers and hopes for peace and unity. Days later, the community comes together again for a memorial service for the six victims of the attack.

Charleston: The Days After

Not In Our Town traveled to Charleston, SC to document stories from the community in the days after the horrific hate crime attack that took the lives of nine members of the Emanuel African Methodist Episcopal Church on June 17, 2015. This short video is designed to prompt reflection and discussion for community and faith groups about how we can take local action in response to hate.

Shajee's Story: Middle School Students Learn About Islam (NIOS)

Seventh graders at Orinda Intermediate School are taking a personal approach to the study of Islam by inviting Shajee Syed-Quadri to be a guest speaker in their world history class. As president of the Muslim Student Association at Irvington High School, Shajee shares stories about what it's like to be a typical American teenager and a practicing Muslim. This peer-to-peer program breaks down religious and cultural stereotypes, and provides the space for students to connect and learn from each other. This film is part of a series featuring Facing History and Ourselves.

Overland Park Candlelight Vigil and Walk

Kansas City teens joined together to organize a walk in honor of those killed at the Jewish Community Center and Village Shalom on April 18.

Not In Our Town: Billings, Montana

An excerpt of the critically acclaimed PBS special that sparked a national movement against hate and intolerance tells the uplifting story of how the residents of Billings, Montana, joined together when their neighbors were threatened by white supremacists. Townspeople of all races and religions swiftly moved into action. Religious and community leaders, labor union volunteers, law enforcement, the local newspapers and concerned individuals stood united and spoke loudly for a hate-free community, proclaiming in no uncertain terms "Not In Our Town!"

Gunn High School Sings Away Hate Group

When the Kansas hate group known as the Westboro Baptist Church (Fred Phelps' family) announced they would picket Bay Area schools and Jewish institutions, students at Gunn High School decided they could not sit quietly. (3 min 34 sec)  Check out our Local Lesson, Helping High Schoolers Take the Lead, which features an interview with Gunn High School Principal Noreen Likins.  

Not In Our Town: Northern California

Not In Our Town Northern California: When Hate Happens Here takes a regional look at five Northern California communities dealing with deadly hate violence over a five-year period. Together, the stories reveal that whether the motivation is racism, anti-Semitism, or crimes motivated by gender or sexual orientation, hate is the same. But Californians are finding innovative ways to respond when hate happens here. A co-production with KQED-TV.

A City Unites After Synagogue Arsons

An excerpt from Not In Our Town Northern California, a city unites in action after three synagogues are burned.  

Make our Mosque Safe from Hate

After a mosque and community center for Somali immigrants was vandalized, Maine's Lewiston-Auburn community rallied in support of their Muslim neighbors. (2:18)

After Attack on Unitarians, Film Helps Mobilize

After a fatal gun shooting at Tennessee Valley Unitarian Universalist Church, members of the Knoxville, TN, community get together and use Not In Our Town films to mobilize community discussion and action.  (3:56)

Wear a Hijab Day

When Alia Ansari, a resident of Fremont, California, was shot to death as she walked her daughter to school, community members feared she was targeted because she was wearing a hijab. To honor her memory, people of all faiths participated in Wear a Hijab Day.    

Religious Oppression Website:  Illustrated Online Text Resources

  1. Pluralism Project:

    The Pluralism Project was created by Professor Diana Eck of Harvard Divinity School in 1994 to document the religious diversity in the United States. This site provides a number of resources within it for students to learn about different religions and worldview orientations in the United States with links to essays and further resources The Project also has a number of pages within it that connect to various selections within the chapter including:  : pilot study that examines interfaith efforts in 20 cities across the U.S. The website provides case studies, multimedia presentations, and fact sheets on the communities examined. This study can be useful with Edward’s discussion of incorporating a social justice lens in interfaith work in selection #62. : more important court cases around religion, which connect to Eck’s selection #51. Native American religious rights feature prominently in this section and connect nicely to Echo-Hawk’s selection #52. : The section titled “First Encounters: Native Americans and Christians” can serve as an interesting discussion point with Echo-Hawk’s selection #52. They are framed differently, one from an unapologetically indigenous perspective and one that is probably attempting at “objectivity.” This could be a very interesting class discussion in and of itself. and : Both of these sections discuss the experience of Japanese American Buddhists in the United States and would elaborate on Williams’ selection #54.

  2. Interfaith Youth Core:

    IFYC is a national non-profit organization that works to bring people of different faiths, worldviews, and traditions together to build a shared life together. They partner with American colleges and universities, because, as they believe, campus is where educators and students engage the complex ideas that will shape the future.  Their resources page found at:

    has interfaith case studies and examples of work on campus that could serve as a useful elaboration of Edward’s critical reflection on the interfaith movement in selection #62.

  3. Religious Freedom Center:

    The Religious Freedom Center is a nonpartisan national initiative that is focused on educating the American public about the religious liberty principles of the First Amendment. At the website, it contains a history of religious liberty issues in public schools at  as well as guidelines for how to teach about religion in public schools (found at  The issues that the Center highlights can cover many of the selections but in particular, they can be useful for Eck’s discussion of the Court in selection #51,  Dallas and religious freedom in selection #53, Nowicki’s discussion of the Modesto community atheists plea for tolerance in #58, and Nasir and Al-Amin’s description of the need for Muslim students to create spaces where they feel space in selection , Creating Identity-Safe Spaces in selection #60.

  4. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS). God in America .

    A six-part series that interweaves documentary footage, historical dramatization, and interviews with religious historians discussing pre-colonial times to the present. This series brings up how the Court has been involved as does Eck in selection #51 and issues of religious freedom discussed by Dallas in selection # 53. In addition, there are stories within the series that are useful for selections such as  which discusses the experience of the Pueblo people, highlighting what Echo-Hawk writes about in selection #52.

  5. The Pew Research Center’s Forum on Religion and Public Life:

    A non-partisan think tank which conducts research to promote a deeper understanding of issues surrounding religion and public affairs. On their website, one can find the complete “America’s Changing Religious Landscape” study as well as the  "U.S. Religious Landscape Study," which surveys more than 35,000 Americans about their religious beliefs. This resource is useful for selection 45, as well as providing demographic data around religious diversity in the United States.

  6. The following online articles can be used with selections in the Religious Oppression chapter. After the link, you will find the selection number to which the article connects:

    With Christian Privilege, You Already Have Religious Freedom      Can be used to supplement reading selections by Killerman (#46), Blumenfeld (#47), and Kivel (#61.)

    How social media is helping Muslim women fight Islamophobic harassment    Can be used to supplement readings selections by  Bayoumi (#48), the youth oral histories (#57), and Nasir and Al-Amin (#60).

    Twitter’s Anti-Semitism Problem  A new perspective on the antisemitism described by Hilberg (#49), Gilbert (#50), and Kaye/Kantrowitz (#56).

    Jewish-Muslim alliance formed against anti-Semitism, Islamophobia These alliances provide options to the activism proposed by Kaye/Kantrowitz (#56), Nasir and Al-Amin (#60), and Edwards (62.)

    FBI: Hate crimes spike, most sharply against Muslims This recent information supplements the anecdotal incidents described by Bayoumi (#48), the youth oral histories (#57), and Nasir and Al-Amin (#60.)

  7. The next few articles are all related to the discussion of the stereotypes and pervasive misinformation concerning atheists, as described by  Nowicki (selection #58) and Christina (selection #59).

    Secularism as a Humanistic and Atheistic Philosophy

    5 Microaggressions Secular People Often Hear – And Why They’re Wrong

    Atheist, On a Religious Campus

    Non-believers taking college campuses by storm   This article mentions the work of the national organization, Secular Student Alliance (

  8. The next two links are for an article and the online repository of Paul Kivel’s work on disrupting Christian hegemony. Both of these can be used and are connected with Kivel’s guideline for Christian allies (selection #61.)  : Paul Kivel’s website

    The Professor Wore a Hijab in Solidarity--Then Lost Her Job