Routes and outcomes

Introduction

Introduction and general construction of the routes.


Although the books in this series are complete in themselves, they are interconnected because they are dealing with dyslexic/ SpLD people’s lives, and no person’s life divides very neatly into separate components.

People will be using these books for different reasons.

The routes on this webpage are effectively annotated reading lists, with each list focusing on a different purpose for working with the books.  They are suggestions about different approaches to the complete series.

  • It is assumed that you have access to all the books. 
  • The routes take you to the fullest discussion of any idea. 
  • If you don’t have access to all four books, use Appendix 3: Key Concepts to find very brief summaries of the ideas in the books you don’t have.
  • You may find the ideas are listed in the Index or Contents of the book(s) you have.
  • If you are wondering which book to buy, see which one is listed most in the route that you want to follow.

The different routes have:

  • an identifying comment
  • a flow diagram, or mind map, of the route
  • a verbal version of the route
  • an annotated reading list
  • the outcomes in terms of a) skills and knowledge; b) benefits; and c) potential possibilities
  • a print friendly version.

Elsewhere on this website

With the Checklists, Section H, we hope we have drawn up lists to help you assess what would be most useful to you and how far you have got with understanding and using ideas.  The routes do not cover all the topics raised in the checklists.


On this webpage

Page and Section Details gives the details about the references to the books.


Routes for Reader Groups: shows the way we have divided different interests and who might be in any of the groups.


Collating Information: suggests Templates and parts of the Appendix 1: Resources that can help you gather information so that you can build on it and use it.


Names of Templates are given in the different routes or in Collating Information.

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A few explanations.

The page numbers for Book 1  refer to the Revised Edition 2021.

The Useful Preface, Appendices 1, 2 and 3 are very similar in all four books but with different page numbers.  The references are to the section using the all books symbol  and the section symbol, §.

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This section explains the purpose and construction of the routes.


Many readers will want to focus on the material that is most relevant to their situation, e.g.

  • subject teachers will want to find the ideas that will help them in the classroom
  • dyslexic/ SPLD people are unlikely to want to read too much
  • policy-makers want to find the cost effective ways of making a difference.

Skills Development deals with the skills that dyslexic/ SpLD people need to acquire deliberately in order to function at their full potential.  These are skills which most people will benefit from using.  They can be taught to dyslexic/ SpLD and non-dyslexic/ SpLD students.  They can be used by everyone in employment and everyday life.


Working with dyslexic/ SpLD people showed three distinct perspectives that motivated them to engage with managing their dyslexia/ SpLD more effectively, leading to 3 groups of dyslexic/ SpLD readers, those who want:

  1. to understand what happens to them
  2. to solve problems
  3. to find out how they think best.

The best routes through the books will be different for each group and even within these groups, there are different ways of engaging with the material. 


The rest of the routes focus on levels of engagement with dyslexic/ SpLD people.  The important factors being the depth of knowledge needed and the impact on dyslexic/ SpLD people’s lives from people in different roles.


Choose the route best suited to your purpose in the tables below. Use any suggestions that don’t work for you to learn more about the way you process information and incorporate that into the way you use the books.


Skills Development click  

Checklist and templates to use

 

Not role specific; for everyone, whether dyslexic/ SpLD or not, wanting to improve their own processing skills or those of someone else.

H3

Collating Information  click - useful with all routes

A1, A4, A5, B5-B8

Routes for dyslexic/ SpLD people with different initial motivation


Dyslexic/ SpLD People Wanting:  

Checklists and templates to use

            to Understand What Happens to Them click

B3, B10, C1 or C3, D3 or D4, H3

            to Solve Problems click

A1, B3, F4 or F5 or F6, F7 or F8 or F9, H3

            to Find Out How They Think Best click

B2, E, C and D sections, H3

Collating Information  click  - useful with all routes

A1, A4, A5, B5-B8

Routes for different levels of engagement


Route

Typical roles people might have

Checklists and templates to use

Collating Information  click  - useful with all routes

A1, A4, A5, B5-B8

General Interest click

 

shop keepers, retailers
people providing a service, electricians, plumbers, etc.
receptionists, bus drivers, etc.

H2
see also Route: Indirect Communication 

Indirect Communication click

 

people dealing with indirect communication
writers of public communications, document writers
exam writers
 producers of audio materials 

H8

Policy Makers, Disability Campaigners, Media Personnel click

 

policy makers
politicians
media personnel
campaigners for disability issues

H7
see also Route: General Interest

Personal Relationships click

 

family members
friends
people living with, working with, taking-action with dyslexic/ SpLD people
team members

H2

Professional People click

 

people in authority, having responsibility
employers, human resource managers
head teachers with or without a teaching role
disability evaluators
group leaders, accountants
social workers, medical and legal professionals
counsellors
police officers, prison officers

H6
see also Route: Indirect Communication

Specialist Support Providers and Related Roles click

 

specialist support tutors
parents actively teaching their dyslexic/ SpLD children
SENCOs (Special Educational needs Co-ordinators)
assessors and researchers

E7, H4, H3
see also Route: Indirect Communication

H1

Subject Teachers click

 

subject teachers: school, university and evening class
sports coaches, fitness coaches, etc.

E1, H5
see also Route: Indirect Communication

Teachers of Young Children click

 

primary school teachers
nursery teachers
parents of young children
assessors and researchers

H2, H4, H5
see also Route: Indirect Communication

H1

Names of Templates are given in the different routes or in Collating Information.


Names of checklists in the tables:
H1       Check-list for researchers and assessors
H2       Check-list about the general background
H3       Audit of understanding and skills – for an individual dyslexic/ SpLD person
H4       Check-list for direct support
H5       Check-list for general teaching
H6       Check-list for professional people exercising responsibility or authority
H7       Check-list for policy-makers, campaigners and media personnel
H8       Check-list for indirect communication

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This section contains some useful techniques.


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Nothing is worse as a dyslexic/ SpLD reader than to know you have come across a really good idea and then not be able to find it again.  There are several templates that can help you keep track of ideas:

  • A1        Jotting Down as You Scan
  • A4        Jotting Down as You Read, with a Few Guiding Questions
  • A5        Collecting Ideas that Interest You
  • B5-B8  Recording Templates.  The column headings could be A: date; B: book title, place in the book; C: notes from the book; D: my reactions; E: priority (B7 & B8)

The Template Sections on this website have instructions for using the templates.


Appendix 1: Resources,

suggestions about using these templates and making the most of information you are collecting; in particular:

  • Collecting Information Together
  • Generating Useful Questions
  • Surveying
  • Prioritising

Having an interest in mind is often a good tactic for processing information:

Exercise: Initial Purpose for Reading, §5.1 in Useful Preface

an exercise designed to help you find places of interest in the books

Know the Goal of Any Task, Book 3  p181-200

can help you define what you want to achieve by using the books

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This route covers various thinking and processing skills, without dealing with any issues due to dyslexia/ SpLD. 

The route can be used by anyone, dyslexic/ SpLD or not, wanting to develop the way they think and process information; or by any teacher to develop the skills of their students.


Print friendly version


Mind map of the route

Mind map showing the elements in the skills development route

Verbal version of the route

This route takes you through:

  • techniques for using the mind
  • some information about the mind
  • abilities of the mind
  • a model for learning
  • keeping clear thinking.

The order for exploring the different elements is not important. 


Annotated reading list

In Book 1  and Book 2  the reader, ‘you’, is a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  For anyone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person, these books include ideas you can explore with the person you are alongside.

In Book 3  and Book 4  the reader, ‘you’ is someone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  The reader may or may not be also dyslexic/ SpLD.


Summary: Check-list of Skills, Processes, Mind Techniques, etc., Book 3  p220

this is a good list of the processes involved; this route covers everything except the Individual , Personal Profile of Dyslexia/ SpLD, the Regime for Managing Dyslexia/ SpLD and Thinking Preferences

Template H3: Audit of Understanding and Skills – for an Individual Dyslexic/ SpLD Person (on Template webpage)

another list of skills; use most of page 2 and the second group of questions on page 1


Templates suggested for this route can be found here (table 1)

Use the ideas in Collating Information to keep track of what you read and do.


Techniques for using the mind

Techniques to Assist Using Your Mind, Book 1  p151-171

discusses several techniques that can enhance the way you use your mind

  • mind set
  • chunking
  • using thinking preferences
  • recall
  • memory consolidation

Key words, Book 3  p176-177, 216-219

an exercise to develop the skill of using key words to enhance comprehension

Planning, Book 3  p200-215

done well and early can help with many tasks and learning

Know the Goal of Any Task, Book 3  p181-189

helps with staying on track with the task


Some information about the mind

Episodic Buffer, Book 1  p112, p128, and Figures 2.3 and 2.4 Book 4  p105

it is useful to know why the capacity of working memory can be limited and what you can do to increase it

Emotional Hi-jacking, Book 1  p260262, and Cardiac Coherence, Book 1  p266

show the importance of Thinking Clearly


Abilities of the mind

Cognition, Awareness, Book 1  p172-177

states of mind that are useful

Observing with an Open Mind, Book 1  p45-64

to pay attention to situations and problems

Comprehension, Book 3  p162-181

looks at organising information so that it can be understood

A Model for Learning, Book 1  178-187

a model for considering all the stages of learning

Elements of Thinking, Book 3  p 169-174 (part of Comprehension)

different components used in successful thinking

Thinking Clearly, Book 1  p257-298

describes many ways to keep your thinking the way you want it to be


Use Template H3: Audit of Understanding and Skills – for an Individual Dyslexic/ SpLD Person: most of page 2 and the second group of questions on page 1 are relevant to this route; use the template as a to-do list.


Outcomes:

  • Skills and knowledge:
    • you have a range of skills for processing information and ideas
    • you can use the skills in a deliberate way
    • you have a framework for processing information effectively
    • you know the importance of keeping your thinking clear and you have skills to do so.
  • Benefits:
    • learners have agency over their learning processes
    • teachers can impart the necessary skills and knowledge to their students.
  • Potential possibilities:
    • the needs of dyslexic/ SpLD students are catered for in a way that suits all students
    • in a whole school approach, these skills and processes could be taught in their own right and then used overtly in all subjects throughout the school
    • learning new skills and knowledge becomes more accessible for adults
    • changing jobs is easier
    • the approach is cost effective in terms of resources, finances and mental well-being.
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This route explores the impacts of dyslexia/ SpLD on dyslexic/ SpLD people’s lives.


Print friendly version


Flow diagram of the route

Flow chart of three different ways to understand the impacts of dyslexia/ SpLD

Verbal version of the route

(a) You may best understand what happens to you by reading the story and insight boxes and comparing the experiences described with your own. 

(b) You may want to understand the way your dyslexia/ SpLD impacts on your life.

(c) You may want to start by knowing more about the brain and mind.


Annotated reading list, with suggestions for using the route

If the suggestions don’t work for you, try to reflect why that is:

  • What is it telling you about the way you process information?
  • How do you want to do anything differently?
  • What do you want to change to make it easier for you to process ideas?

Templates suggested for this route can be found here (table 2).

B3: Compare Expectations and Reality can help you assess what is happening.

B10: Questions to Ask Oneself to Help Observation can guide your observations.


In Book 1  and Book 2  the reader, ‘you’, is a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  For anyone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person, these books include ideas you can explore with the person you are alongside.

In Book 3  and Book 4  the reader, ‘you’ is someone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  The reader may or may not be also dyslexic/ SpLD.


(a) Insights, stories and examples

Scan or read the insight, story and example boxes in Books 1 or 4, ,

note the boxes which particularly draw your attention; decide whether it is helpful to read the text around the boxes later or when you first look at them


(b) Impact of dyslexia/ SpLD

Read Chapters 1 and 2 in Book 4

which describe why the impacts continue throughout life and what the impacts can be like; note what you have experienced


(c) About the mind

Read Chapter 2 in Book 1  

which covers some ideas in physiology and psychology and their relevance to dyslexia/ SpLD; note what has parallels in your life


(a, b, c)

Read Insight: Park Paths and Pruning Neurons, in Context of Useful Preface ; read the two paragraphs before the insight box, which may mean turning back a page

an analogy for the lived experience of dyslexia/ SpLD

Read Addendum: A Role for Neurons, Book 1  p365-377  

a hypothesis showing how neurons firing or not firing together explains many of the outstanding questions about dyslexia/ SpLD


  • You can record the ideas you note by using the suggestions in Collating Information on this webpage or by using Appendix 1: Resources .
  • The purpose of this route is to find out how your dyslexia/ SpLD causes problems, or pitfalls, for you, but as you search, you may realise how you deal with the pitfalls and you may notice what strengths you bring to any situation.
  • If you notice any particular patterns in what happens to you, find key words or phrases that hold the essence of the pattern, e.g. ‘directions go wrong’; ‘I get people to check my understanding’.
  • Include the most important pitfalls in the pitfall section of  Templates: C1 or C3: Individual, Personal Profile of Dyslexia/ SpLD (spatial or linear).   Include other insights that you find in the same templates.  Do the same on Templates: D3 or D4: Regime for Managing Dyslexia/ SpLD (spatial or linear).

Template H3: Audit of Understanding and Skills – for an Individual Dyslexic/ SpLD Person:

this route should help you answer the questions about your pitfalls, on page 1, and about unhelpful learning processes at the end of page 2

use the checklist to see what else you have found out and what you would like to explore next.


Make sure you understand:

  • Individual, Personal Profile of Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p64-71
  • Regime for Managing Your Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p71-84

You may want to explore:

  • The Route for Dyslexic People Wanting to Solve Problems
  • The Route for Dyslexic/ SpLD People Wanting to Find Out How They Think Best

Outcomes:

  • Skills and knowledge:
    • understanding the pitfalls that come from your dyslexia/ SpLD, and understanding other elements of the way you deal with you dyslexia/ SpLD.
  • Benefits:
    • learning how to minimise the impacts on your learning and general approach to life
    • seeing clearly what can be changed and how it can be changed
    • learning how to negotiate your needs with others.
  • Potential possibilities:
    • using Template: H3 to decide what you want to investigate next
      • how you think best
      • how you solve problems
      • what thinking and processing skills you would like to develop
    • continuing to develop your Individual, Personal Profile of Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1 p64-71
    • continuing to develop your Regime for Managing Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1 p71-84 or in Appendix 2: Individual, Personal Profile of Dyslexia/ SpLD and Regime for Managing Dyslexia/ SpLD
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The route focuses on looking at problems, tasks or difficulties; identifying actions needed for tasks or the cause of any difficulty and working out how to solve them.  The problems can be educational or in everyday life.


Print friendly version


Flow diagram of the route

Flow chart showing options to develop problem-solving skills before or during solving an everyday problem, or an academic one.

Verbal version of the route

There is a choice:

   Do you want to develop problem-solving skills before using them?

   Do you want to develop the skills while solving a problem?

   Either way you develop the skills and processes that suit you best for solving problems.


Annotated reading list, with suggestions for using the route

Problem solving applies to tasks that are to be accomplished (including learning) or difficulties that need resolving.  For either, you gather information about the problem and consider the best way forward.

If you want to develop problem-solving skills before using them, start with Skills to Develop and then use Tackle a Problem

if you want to develop the skills during solving a problem, start with Tackle a Problem, which will incorporate Skills to Develop.


In Book 1  and Book 2  the reader, ‘you’, is a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  For anyone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person, these books include ideas you can explore with the person you are alongside.

In Book 3  and Book 4  the reader, ‘you’ is someone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  The reader may or may not be also dyslexic/ SpLD.


Templates suggested for this route can be found here (table 2)


Use the ideas in Collating Information to keep track of what you read and do.

As you work, observe how your dyslexia/ SpLD impacts on the problems.  Add any new sight to your Profile of Dyslexia/ SpLD or to your Regime for Managing Dyslexia/ SpLD.


Use Template H3: Audit of Understanding and Skills – for an Individual Dyslexic/ SpLD Person to decide what progress you making with managing your dyslexia/ SpLD and what progress you want to make next.


Skills to develop

Read the following sections; practice the skills involved:

Working on a General Problem, Book 2  p80-81

extends Model for Developing Organisation, Book 2  p57-66; read them both and understand the steps set out

Materials and Methods, Book 2  p56

find what suits you for doing various tasks

Key Words, Book 3  p176-177

an exercise in selecting key words and understanding their value

Mind set: Mental Preparation, Book 1  p152-154

preparing the mind for the next task or subject is an effective skill worth using; in particular, see the box Tip: Using Mind Set.

Chunking, Book 1  p154-155, see also Figures 2.3 and 2.4, in Dyslexia, Book 4  p105

the process for increasing working-memory capacity; the figures show why chunking increases the capacity; look at how you already link information together and experiment with different ways of doing it

Generating Useful Questions, §4 in Appendix 1 Resources

it is very useful to be able to find the best questions for your purpose

Know the Goal of Any Task, Book 3  p181-200

knowing goals helps tackle problems; this section discusses finding goals for many different situations; do the Exercise for Student: What is Your Goal? p199

Observe with an Open Mind, Book 1  p45-47

an important approach when dealing with problems


When you are confident you know what these skills are for and how to use them, practice them on a problem.


Tackle a problem:

To start with, it’s best to find a problem that is inconvenient, neither too important that it must be solved in the best possible way, nor too insignificant that it is not worth much effort.


If no problem comes to mind:

Template B3: Compare Expectations and Reality

use the template to record problematic situations in your life that could be improved by some resolutions

Template A1: Jotting Down as You Scan

use the template to note possibilities as you scan

        the Contents of Book 2  pxv-xix

        the Contents of Book 3  pxix-xxv, xviii-xix, looking at chapters 4 - 14, then 2


Working on a General Problem, Book 2  p80-81

explore what you can do to resolve the problem you have chosen; use one of the Templates: F4, F5, F6: Problem Solving – mind map, spatial, linear


The skills used in Working on a General Problem are:

step 1          assembling best materials

step 2          using key words

step 4          mind set and clustering, which is similar to chunking

step 5          generating useful questions

step 7          being aware of goals

all steps      being objective.


Finding the Root Cause of a Problem, Book 2 p82-83

be aware that something else might emerge as being at the root of a problem and that you will need to uncover what it is before you will make sustainable progress with the problem you started on.  The relevant Templates are:

                              F7, F8, F9: Root Cause of a Problem


Make sure you understand:

  • Individual, Personal Profile of Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p64-71
  • Regime for Managing Your Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p71-84

If you are a kinaesthetic learner, i.e. you learn by doing, build your profile and regime as you learn to solve problems.

  • The Route for Dyslexic/ SpLD People Wanting to Understand What Happens to Them
  • The Route for Dyslexic/ SpLD People Wanting to Find Out How They Think Best

Outcomes:

  • Skills and knowledge:
    • you have skills for dealing with problems
    • you have practised some of the mind techniques
    • you know how to assess problems and look for solutions
    • you know to be aware that something completely different may be preventing progress.
  • Benefits:
    • you can work your way through problems
    • you own your best ways of dealing with them
    • you feel much more confident about the ways you approach situations and problems
    • you manage the problems of your dyslexia/ SpLD well.
  • Potential possibilities:
    • the impact of many problems can be reduced by looking at them clearly
    • you can apply these skills to managing your dyslexia/ SpLD.
Close

The route deals with finding out how you think well and testing your observations.


Print friendly version


Flow diagram of the route

Flow chart showing the way to explore thinking preferences and to test them.

Verbal version of the route

To find your best way of thinking you

  • first objectively observe your thoughts
  • interpret the patterns in terms of the various ways of thinking
  • test your interpretations by trying them out in various situations, using different thinking techniques and keeping your thinking clear.

Annotated reading list, with suggestions for using the route

In Book 1  and Book 2  the reader, ‘you’, is a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  For anyone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person, these books include ideas you can explore with the person you are alongside.

In Book 3  and Book 4  the reader, ‘you’ is someone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  The reader may or may not be also dyslexic/ SpLD.

Templates suggested for this route can be found here (table 2)


Use the ideas in Collating Information to keep track of what you read and do.


Explore the way you think

Observe with an Open Mind, Book 1  p45-54

observation with an open mind is key to making progress;

suggestion for those who learn by doing: read p45-47; come back to ; come back to p48-53 when you have followed the following four suggestions

Know Your Own Mind, Book 1  p56-61

a good way to find out how you think; a recording of the exercise is on Recordings/ State of Mind  click
use Template B2: Know Your Own Mind when you do the exercise

Context of Thinking Preferences, Book 1  p192-197

examples of the kind of links that show your thinking preferences; in Recordings/ State of Mind  click  Know Your Own Mind - Example is a recording demonstrating how the exercise shows thinking preferences

Thinking Preferences, Book 1  p192-291

scan the whole chapter to help you decide what your thinking preferences are; also use the Template E1: List of Options for Thinking Preferences

Template E6: Visual, Aural, Kinaesthetic Questionnaire

will help you to explore the way you use the senses


Record and interpret your observations

The templates suggested in Collating Information can be used to record your observations

Template E4 or E 5: Thinking Preferences – spatial or linear, respectively

use either to capture the insights you gain by reflecting on your observations

Templates E2 and 3: Table of Thinking Preferences and an Example Table

use the tables to reflect how and when you use the different thinking preferences that you have identified

Template E7: The Box ‘Other’

capture any insights that are significant but which don’t fit with any of the suggested thinking preferences


Test your interpretations

Recall, Book 1  p157-160, and Memory Consolidation, Book 1  p160-169

it is important to test your interpretations; kinaesthetic learners will probably prefer to work with Memory Consolidation before reading Recall

Thinking Clearly, Book 1  p257-298

it is really helpful to keep your thinking on target for your present purpose and to minimise any impacts from dyslexia/ SpLD, i.e. to think clearly; use the ideas in this chapter over a period of time


Build your Profile and Regime

An Individual, Personal Profile of Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p64-71

this section sets out the ideas about your profile of dyslexia/ SpLD

Regime for Managing Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p71-81

this section sets out the ideas about your regime for managing dyslexia/ SpLD

Appendix 2: Individual, Personal Profile of Dyslexia/ SpLD and Regime for Managing Dyslexia/ SpLD, with the templates in Sections C and D

the practical process of building your profile and regime; updating them and using them


Use Template H3: Audit of Understanding and Skills – for an Individual Dyslexic/ SpLD Person to decide what progress you are making with managing your dyslexia/ SpLD and what progress you want to make next.


Make sure you understand:

  • Individual, Personal Profile of Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p64-71
  • Regime for Managing Your Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p71-84

You may want to explore:

  • The Route for Dyslexic/ SpLD People Wanting to Understand What Happens to Them
  • The Route for Dyslexic People Wanting to Solve Problems

Outcomes:

  • Skills and knowledge:
    • you know what the best ways of thinking are for you now
    • you know how to switch to using these ways of thinking when you need to
    • you realise you may need to explore different options in the future.
  • Benefits:
    • you can use your full potential when you want or need to
    • you can minimise the effects of your dyslexia/ SpLD.
  • Potential possibilities:
    • you gain confidence and self esteem
    • your dyslexia/ SpLD is not a major issue in your life.
Close

This route covers some basic issues about dyslexia/ SpLD and the impact these syndromes have on the everyday lives of dyslexic/ SpLD people.


Print friendly version


Flow diagram of the route

Flow chart showing the issues important for general knowledge about dyslexia/ SpLD.

Verbal version of the route

The route for general interest covers:

  • why knowing about dyslexia/ SpLD is important
  • what goes wrong
  • what can go right
  • understanding that generally helps.

Annotated reading list

In Book 1  and Book 2  the reader, ‘you’, is a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  For anyone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person, these books include ideas you can explore with the person you are alongside.

In Book 3  and Book 4  the reader, ‘you’ is someone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  The reader may or may not be also dyslexic/ SpLD.


Use the ideas in Collating Information click to keep track of what you read. 


Why it is important to know about dyslexia/ SpLD:

B1: Non-dyslexic/ SpLD People, Book 1  p16-17

outlines the wider context of dyslexia/ SpLD in everyone’s lives.

Misunderstandings in Dialogue, Book 3  p113-118

examples of how misunderstandings come about.

Insight: Park Paths and Pruning Neurons, in Context of Useful Preface ; read the two paragraphs before the insight box, which may mean turning back a page

an analogy for the lived experience of dyslexia/ SpLD

Addendum: A Role for Neurons, Book 1  p365-377

a hypothesis showing how neurons firing or not firing together explains many of the outstanding questions about dyslexia

Philosophy of the Series, information box near the beginning of Useful Preface

a general willingness to recognise ‘at risk’ children will minimise the problems of dyslexia/ SpLD and enhance their chances of fulfilling their potential


What goes wrong:

No Cure, Please Start Early, Book 4  p42-79

discusses the ongoing effects of dyslexia/ SpLD in adult life.

Examples of What Can Go Wrong, Book 2  p42-49

shows ways in which everyday life is impacted by dyslexia/ SpLD.

Time and Time Management, Book 2  p87-103

shows ways in which time can impact everyday life for dyslexia/ SpLD.

Space, Place and Direction, Book 2  p108-120

shows ways in which space, place and direction can impact everyday life for dyslexia/ SpLD.

What Goes Wrong, Book 4  p86-138

looks at the effects of the four different specific learning difficulties covered in this series.  It ends with a table, p133-138, which lists the various stories and indicates the issues for which they are examples

Driving, Book 3  p480-490

discusses some dyslexic/ SpLD experiences when driving.

Relevance of Ideas [from Psychology and Physiology] to Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p120-136;

you may need to read first A Little Psychology, Book 1  p103-120    

worth reading to appreciate a wider context for dyslexia/ SpLD and the workings of the mind


What can go right:

Story: Others Using a System Essential to a Dyslexic, Book 2  p51

an example of ways in which dyslexic/ SpLD people bring solutions to other people

Thinking Preferences, Book 1  p192-251, and Thinking Clearly, Book1  p257-298

a range of thinking processes that dyslexic/ SpLD use to good effect and skills for them to maintain good thinking; you can use the information boxes (dark blue) to see what options exist and delve into the text when you want more detail

Techniques to Assist Using Your Mind, Book 1  p151-172 p172-

once learnt, these skills can be used by dyslexic/ SpLD people

Individual, Personal Profile of Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p64-71

and Regime for Managing Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p71-84

when dyslexic/ SpLD people know how the syndrome affects them and what strategies they can use well, they can manage the dyslexia/ SpLD and live confidently


Understanding that generally helps:

Accommodation in Everyday Life, Book 3  p130

a brief summary of attitudes that allow dyslexic/ SpLD people to be understood and given the opportunity to contribute to their best ability.

General Public (in Dialogue), Book 3  p111

contains a list of dyslexic-/ SpLD-friendly approaches

Methods for Observing, Book 1  p55-63

having an open, objective mind when sorting out differences caused by dyslexia/ SpLD is a fast way to ease any difficulties.

Major Precaution, §3 Useful Preface

acceptance of this precaution can help dyslexic/ SpLD people when dealing with new situations and new learning.

Model of Learning, Book 1  p178-187

this model is useful if you are in a position to impart knowledge or skills to dyslexic/ SpLD or give them feedback.


The route about Indirect Communication may also be relevant to you.


Template H2: Check-list about the General Background can help you reflect on your general understanding of the issues involved, where you still have questions and what else you would like to know.


Outcomes:

  • Skills and knowledge:
    • A greater knowledge of the wide-range of impacts of dyslexia/ SpLD.
    • An ability to observe objectively, without expecting everyone to be the same.
  • Benefits:
    • Dyslexic/ SpLD people are more understood; their ways of doing things are acceptable.
    • Relations and communication between dyslexic/ SpLD people and non-dyslexic/ SpLD people have fewer misunderstandings caused by the impact of the syndromes.
  • Potential possibilities:
    • The cost effectiveness of dealing with dyslexia/ SpLD early is recognised and has public support.
    • Dyslexia/ SpLD are accepted as just part of life and aren’t anything that needs to be hidden.
    • Dyslexia/ SpLD are syndromes that can be catered for without fuss.
Close

The route considers how indirect communication can be produced in dyslexic/ SpLD friendly ways, often to the benefit of all.


Print friendly version


Flow diagram of the route

Flow chart relating to effective indirect communication.

Verbal version of the route

The route covers the difficulties dyslexic/ SpLD people have gaining information by reading and listening. It covers:

  • finding the difficulties
  • finding solutions
  • testing solutions with dyslexic/ SpLD people.

Annotated reading list

In Book 1  and Book 2  the reader, ‘you’, is a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  For anyone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person, these books include ideas you can explore with the person you are alongside.

In Book 3  and Book 4  the reader, ‘you’ is someone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  The reader may or may not be also dyslexic/ SpLD.


Use the ideas in Collating Information click to keep track of what you read. 


Indirect Communication, Book 3  p119-128

a succinct appraisal of problems and solutions

Insight: Park Paths and Pruning Neurons, in Context of Useful Preface ; read the two paragraphs before the insight box, which may mean turning back a page

to understand the persistence of dyslexia/ SpLD

Addendum: A Role for Neurons, Book 1  p365-377

an hypothesis that answers outstanding questions about dyslexia/ SpLD; attending to dyslexic/ SpLD people’s needs is valuable


To find out the difficulties:

Reading Problems, Book 3  p252-259 and Mechanics of Reading, Book 3  p234-240 and Reading from a Computer, E-reading, Book 3  p240-242

three sections that detail the problems faced by dyslexic/ SpLD readers

Exams contains 8 sections on different types of exams, Book 3  p432-445

the sections outline the problems faced by dyslexic/ SpLD students

Listening, Book 3  p264-270

these pages have several examples of difficulties with listening, particularly in the story and insight boxes.

What Goes Wrong, Book 4  p86-138   

describes the four different syndromes and the problems encountered

No Cure, Please Start Early Book 4 p42-79

shows the persistence of dyslexic/ SpLD difficulties; having dyslexia/ SpLD is not just about childhood learning.


To find solutions:

Comprehension, Book 3  p162 -181

you need to design your materials to enable dyslexic/ SpLD people

Thinking Preferences, Book 1  p192-251

catering for different thinking preferences helps people engage with your materials

A Model of Learning, Book 1  p178-184

the input and feedback stages of learning particularly need to cater for the 3 different sense thinking preferences, visual, verbal and kinaesthetic, and for the need for a rational or framework


To test solutions:

  • Make a list of the difficulties you are trying to avoid.
  • Summarise the goal of your system.
  • Find a group of dyslexic/ SpLD people with a wide range of experience and management skills for dyslexia/ SpLD.

Ask them to test your system and give you feedback (in a variety of ways that they can choose).


Use Template H8: Check-list for Indirect Communication to help you reflect on your general understanding of the issues involved, where you still have questions and what else you would like to know.


Outcomes:

  • Knowledge:
    • knowledge of factors that make materials dyslexic/ SpLD friendly
    • recognition that many others are helped too.
  • Benefits:
    • Dyslexic/ SpLD people can get the information they need from your materials easily
    • misunderstandings are significantly reduced.
  • Potential possibilities:
    • clarity of communication.
Close

The route seeks to inform policy-makers, disability campaigners and media personnel of the sense in catering naturally for the educational needs of dyslexic/ SpLD students within mainstream education, which can be done to the benefit of all students in ways that are cost effective financially, for resources and emotionally.


Print friendly version


Flow diagram of the route

Mind map of the route for policy-makers, disability campaigners and media personnel.

Verbal version of the route

The route covers:

  • the importance of early recognition
  • what goes wrong and the wide range of impacts of dyslexia/ SpLD
  • a cost effective New Paradigm for education.

Annotated reading list

In Book 1  and Book 2  the reader, ‘you’, is a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  For anyone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person, these books include ideas you can explore with the person you are alongside.

In Book 3  and Book 4  the reader, ‘you’ is someone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  The reader may or may not be also dyslexic/ SpLD.


Use the ideas in Collating Information click to keep track of what you read. 


Early recognition of dyslexia/ SpLD

The Philosophy of This Series, in §2 Context Useful Preface

that early recognition of differences in learning and thinking processes for dyslexic/ SpLD children and subsequent appropriate teaching methods diminish the problems caused by dyslexia/ SpLD, to the benefit of the people and society

No Cure, Please Start Early, Book 4  p42-79

discussion about the persistence of dyslexia/ SpLD into adulthood; part of the reason why early recognition is so important

Individual, Personal Profile of Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p64-71 and

Regime for Managing Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p71-84

by building a tool kit for dealing with dyslexia/ SpLD, people can live confidently, operating from their full potential and minimising the effects of their dyslexia/ SpLD


Recognising the wide range of problems

Insight: Park Paths and Pruning Neurons, in Context of Useful Preface; read the two paragraphs before the insight box, which may mean turning back a page

to understand the persistence of dyslexia/ SpLD

Addendum: A Role for Neurons, Book 1  p365-377

an hypothesis that answers outstanding questions about dyslexia/ SpLD

What Goes Wrong, Book 4  p86-138

descriptions of dyslexia, dyspraxia. AD(H)D and dyscalculia, the problems that came with them and how they are experienced

Examples of What Can Happen, Book 2  p45-49

a collection of stories showing how dyslexia/ SpLD affect everyday life

Time and Time Management, Book 2  p87-103

many dyslexic/ SpLD people find time and time management a perpetual challenge

Space, place and Direction, Book 2  p108-120

dyslexia/ SpLD can make difficulties with space, place and direction very much harder to resolve

What Can Go Wrong, What Can Go Right, Book 3  p54

a table contrasting problems caused by lack of understanding to situations when there is understanding of issues

Working with the Chapter: for Policies and Public Discussion, Book 3  p138

a list of themes about the foundations for teaching knowledge and skills

Key Points for Policy-makers and General Readers, Book 3  p233, 264, 282, 302, 338, 364, 390, 408, 448, 480, 495

key point boxes listing the main issues in chapters 4-14, Reading, Listening, Doing, Taking and Making Notes, Writing, Speaking, Taking-Action, Exams, Group Work, Driving and Social Examples


New paradigm for education

Example: Mind Exercise from a Workshop, Book 1  p194-195

discussion from a workshop showing how several people think quite differently

Story: Feynman on Testing Thinking, Book 4  p202

evidence from Nobel prize winner that exploring internal thinking is possible

New Paradigm, Book 4  p232-245

a shift in approach in mainstream education so that dyslexic/ SpLD students are catered for to the benefit of all students

Summary: Check-list of Skills, Processes, Mind Techniques etc, Book 3  p220

contains a list of skills and techniques that are VITAL for dyslexic/ SpLDs and good practice for all and that can be taught within the New Paradigm; these skills and techniques are the subject of the Skills Development route

Episodic Buffer (Capacity and Chunking), Book 1  p112 and p128

Figures 2.3 and 2.4, in Dyslexia, Book 4  p105

Chunking, Book 1  p154

working-memory capacity is a problem for dyslexic/ SpLDs; these sections show why it is a problem and how the skill of chunking can be used to significantly improve it; this is an example of the skills that can be taught to all to the benefit of all


The Way Forward, §7.4 Useful Preface 

an overview of the potential benefits from adopting the approaches put forward in this series of books


Template H7:Check-list for Policy-makers, Campaigners and Media Personnel can  be used to reflect on your understanding of the issues and any further questions that you have.


You may also find Route: General Interest useful.


Outcomes:

  • Skills and knowledge:
    • you know more about dyslexia/ SpLD impacting people’s lives
    • you understand the value of acting early to reduce the hindrance caused by dyslexia/ SpLD.
  • Benefits:
    • dyslexic/ SpLD people are understood
    • they are enabled to use their full potential
    • the difficulties of dyslexia/ SpLD are minimised.
  • Potential possibilities:
    • successful campaigning opens the way for policies and protocols that cater for the learning needs of dyslexic/ SpLD students within mainstream education
    • the cost effectiveness of the New Paradigm is welcomed by society and policy-makers.
Close

This route is for those who live with, work with or spend time with dyslexic/ SpLD people.  Understanding the issues of dyslexia/ SpLD can make relationships more harmonious.


Print friendly version


Flow diagram of the route

Flow chart of life enhancing acceptance of differences.

Verbal version of the route

The covers:

  • understanding dyslexia/ SpLD
  • recognising the different experiences of dyslexic/ SpLD people
  • being aware of how they can operate from their full potential
  • aware of mismatches in communication and how to defuse any problems.

Annotated reading list

In Book 1  and Book 2  the reader, ‘you’, is a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  For anyone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person, these books include ideas you can explore with the person you are alongside.

In Book 3  and Book 4  the reader, ‘you’ is someone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  The reader may or may not be also dyslexic/ SpLD.


Use the ideas in Collating Information click to keep track of what you read. 


Understanding dyslexia/ SpLD

Insight: Park Paths and Pruning Neurons, in §2 Context Useful Preface; read the two paragraphs before the insight box, which may mean turning back a page

analogy to explain dyslexia/ SpLD

Addendum: A Role for Neurons, Book 1  p 365-377

an hypothesis that answers many of the unresolved questions about the existence of dyslexia and helps explain how dyslexia/ SpLD develop

No Cure, Please Start Early, Book 4  p42-79

once dyslexia/ SpLD develop, they don’t go away; it is important to understand the long term impact of the syndromes

Emotional Hi-jacking, Book 1  p260-262 and Cardiac Coherence, Book 1  p266

stress reduces the ability of people to think; dyslexic/ SpLD people are vulnerable to stress when they are misunderstood

What Goes Wrong, Book 4  p86-138

looks at the descriptions, characteristics and experiences of dyslexia, dyspraxia, AD(H)D and dyscalculia

About the Mind, Book 1  p89-136 especially:   Relevance of Ideas [from Psychology and Physiology] to Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p120-136

worth reading to appreciate a wider context for dyslexia/ SpLD and the workings of the mind


Different experiences

Examples of What Can Happen, Book 2  p45-49

a collection of stories showing how dyslexia/ SpLD affect everyday life beyond the core problems of each SpLD

Time and Time Management, Book 2  p87-103

many dyslexic/ SpLD people find time and time management a perpetual challenge

Space, place and Direction, Book 2  p108-120

dyslexia/ SpLD can make difficulties with space, place and direction very much harder to resolve

What Could Happen and Relevant Sections in Group Work, Meetings, Seminars and Debates, Book 3  p464-470

a table listing several problems that dyslexic/ SpLD people face in meetings

New Can Be Problematic, Book 2  p52

dealing with anything new can disrupt a person’s way of dealing with their dyslexia/ SpLD; learning new skills and knowledge can be vulnerable to long term disturbance from dyslexia/ SpLD

What Can Go Wrong, What Can Go Right, Book 3  p54

a table contrasting a) problems caused by lack of understanding with b) situations when there is understanding of issues

What Example: the Same Behavioural Difficulty from Three SpLDs’ Perspective, Book 4  p225

the observed behaviour doesn’t tell you how a person is dealing with a situation, you have to explore how they think

Handling People Relationships Well, Book 2  p223-230

a look at some dynamics in the workplace

Summary: Dyslexic/ SpLD Issues and Driving, Book 3  p490

Travel, Book 3  p498-503; Job Application, Book 3  p504-514

Eating Out Book 3  p514-518; Finances, Book 3  p518-521

all situations when dyslexia/ SpLD can impact on the smooth running of life


Full potential

Example: Mind Exercise from a Workshop, Book 1  p194-195

discussion from a workshop showing how several people think quite differently; individual dyslexic/ SpLD people need to be allowed to think the best way for them; a similar discussion is available on the video Know Your Own Mind - Example from this website under Recordings/ State of Mind  click  

Story: Feynman on Testing Thinking, Book 4  p202

evidence from a Nobel prize winner that exploring internal thinking is possible

Thinking Preferences, Book 1  p192-251

a range of different thinking preferences that can be used effectively and deliberately by dyslexic/ SpLD people

Differences in Thought Processing, Book 3  p114-116

examples of thinking preferences influencing the way words are internalised

Individual, Personal Profile of Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p64-71 and Regime for Managing Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p71-84

by building a tool kit for dealing with dyslexia/ SpLD, people can live confidently, operating from their full potential and minimising the effects of their dyslexia/ SpLD

Methods for Observing, Book 1  p55-63

how to observe objectively to find out how people think and how to check the interpretations; the Exercise: Know Your Own Mind is part of this section; there is a recording of the exercise on Recordings/ State of Mind click

Thinking Clearly, Book 1  p257-298, including Emotional Hi-jacking, Book 1  p260-262

once people know how they think well, it is important to be able to maintain their best thinking


Communication

Episodic Buffer (Capacity and Chunking), Book 1  p112 and p128

Figures 2.3 and 2.4, in Dyslexia, Book 4  p105

Chunking, Book 1  p154

working-memory capacity is a problem for dyslexic/ SpLDs; find out how you can help them link information together so that their working-memory is more effective and communication is easier

A Model of Learning, Book 1  p178-187

take note of the importance of the input stage and the feedback loop; how you give information can facilitate communication

Dialogue, Book 3  p107-118

covers many ways dyslexia/ SpLD affect communication

Static Material and Constant Content, Book 3  p91-92

communication is facilitated when information and material are kept in view and changes are not made unnecessarily

Chapters 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 10, Book 3

these chapters deal with reading, listening, doing, writing, speaking, taking-action; scan them for sections relevant to any dyslexic/ SpLD issues you want to understand better


Use Template H2: Check-list about General Understanding to reflect on your understanding of the issues and to identify other questions you have.


Outcomes:

  • Skills and knowledge:
    • you understand what dyslexic/ SpLD people are telling you about their experiences
    • you know to ask how people think best
    • you can modify the way to present information.
  • Benefits:
    • dyslexic/ SpLD people feel that are being heard
    • they can make progress with having agency in respect to their dyslexia/ SpLD
    • you don’t waste your energy being disoriented by the behaviour of dyslexic/ SpLD people
    • relationships can flourish without hindrance from people’s dyslexia/ SpLD.
  • Potential possibilities:
    • it is recognised that courtesy, acceptance and tolerance are qualities that enhance communication between dyslexic/ SpLD people and non-dyslexic people
    • these qualities are generally accepted by society to the benefit of all.
Close

People with authority or responsibility can have lasting impact on the lives of others.  It is very important to make sure that misunderstandings are avoided by taking into account the internal processing of dyslexic/ SpLDs.


Print friendly version


Flow diagram of the route

Four rectangular symbols, with emojis, showing important issues for the professional route.

Verbal version of the route

People in professional roles need to understand

  • the significance of what can go wrong in communication
  • dyslexic/ SpLD people information processing
  • the effects of dyslexia/ SpLD.

As a result, there will be:

  • clearer communication
  • accurate listening to dyslexic/ SpLD people
  • appropriate decisions.

Annotated reading list

In Book 1  and Book 2  the reader, ‘you’, is a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  For anyone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person, these books include ideas you can explore with the person you are alongside.

In Book 3  and Book 4  the reader, ‘you’ is someone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  The reader may or may not be also dyslexic/ SpLD.


Templates suggested for this route can be found here (table 3)

Use the ideas in Collating Information click to keep track of what you read. 


Understanding information processing

Differences in thought processing, Book 3  p114-116

you need to be aware how easy it is for there to be different interpretations of anything you say

Episodic Buffer (Capacity and Chunking), Book 1  p112 and p128

Figures 2.3 and 2.4, in Dyslexia, Book 4  p105

Chunking, Book 1  p154

working-memory capacity is a problem for dyslexic/ SpLDs; find out how you can help them link information together so that their working-memory is more effective

A Model of Learning, Book 1  p178-187

receiving information from professional people involves the stages of A Model of Learning; take note of the importance of the input stage and the feedback loop; errors can have long lasting effects

Thinking Preferences, Book 1  p192-251

if you are aware of the way a dyslexic/ SpLD person thinks, you can help them use their working memory well and function at their best

Individual, Personal Profile of Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p64-71 and Regime for Managing Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p71-84

with the right support, dyslexic/ SpLD people can fulfil their potential and function very well, with minimum interference from their dyslexia/ SpLD; find out what your client knows about their thinking strengths and the pitfalls of their dyslexia/ SpLD


Understanding dyslexia/ SpLD

Insight: Park Paths and Pruning Neurons, in Context of Useful Preface; read the two paragraphs before the insight box, which may mean turning back a page

to understand the persistence of dyslexia/ SpLD

Addendum: A Role for Neurons, Book 1  p365-377

an hypothesis that answers outstanding questions about dyslexia/ SpLD

No Cure, Please Start Early, Book 4  p42-79

discussion about the persistence of dyslexia/ SpLD into adulthood

What Goes Wrong, Book 4  p86-138

descriptions of dyslexia, dyspraxia. AD(H)D and dyscalculia, the problems that come with them and how they are experienced

Examples of What Can Happen, Book 2  p45-49

a collection of stories showing how dyslexia/ SpLD affect everyday life beyond the core problems of each SpLD

Time and Time Management, Book 2  p87-103

many dyslexic/ SpLD people find time and time management a perpetual challenge

Space, place and Direction, Book 2  p108-120

dyslexia/ SpLD can make difficulties with space, place and direction very much harder to resolve

What Could Happen and Relevant Sections in Group Work, Meetings, Seminars and Debates, Book 3  p464-470

a table listing several problems that dyslexic/ SpLD people face in dealing with meetings, including one to one meetings

Emotional Hi-jacking, Book 1  p260-262 and Cardiac Coherence, Book 1  p266

Good Breathing, Book 1  p267-270 and Relaxation, Book 1  p270-274

dyslexia/ SpLD often make people vulnerable to the effects of stress, knowing what happens and how to deal with the impact can help deal with many situations of stress


Communication

Dialogue continuing into Professional People, Book 3  p107-110

two stories and an insight highlighting issues in dialogue; there is a bullet point list of issues to be aware of

Agreed Checking of Details, Book 2  p52

find a comfortable way to make sure a dyslexic/ SpLD person is understanding you correctly

Major Precaution, §3 in Useful Preface

you need to be aware that care should be taken with new tasks, information or subjects to avoid them becoming permanently disrupted by dyslexia/ SpLD

Reading, Book 3  p234-242, 252-259

gives you some ideas about reading problems

Listening, Book 3  p264-270

shows some problems with listening

Writing, Book 3  p339-359

discusses problems and solutions in relation to writing

Talking, Book 3  p364-378

discusses dyslexic/ SpLD people’s experiences with talking in different environments


Specific roles - head teachers, staff in tertiary education institutes and employers

Head teachers

Whole School Approach, Book 4  p176-178

Dyslexic/ SpLD Friendly Classroom Teaching, Book 4  p178-190

discuss using dyslexic/ SpLD friendly approaches in a whole school to the benefit of all students

New Paradigm, Book 4 p232-245

proposes a shift to the focus in education so that the teaching and approaches that are vital for dyslexic/ SpLD students are recognised as being good practice for all and worth adopting in mainstream education

the route for Skills Development covers the teaching and approaches that could be used in a whole school regime


Staff in tertiary education institutes

Study Peripheries, Book 2  p172-205

covers many of the situations that affect dyslexic/ SpLD in tertiary education beyond learning the subject they are studying; the chapter builds on the experiences in general everyday life


Employers

Employment, Book 2  p210-230

covers issues in employment, building on the discussions dealing with everyday life and study peripherals


The route about Indirect Communication may also be relevant to you.


The Template H6: Check-list for Professional People Who Exercise Responsibility or Authority can help you reflect on your understanding and whether you have further questions to be answered.


Outcomes:

  • Skills and knowledge:
    • you have more understanding of the issues for dyslexic/ SpLD people
    • you know how to explore what they are understanding in an empathetic way.
  • Benefits:
    • dyslexic/ SpLD people know they have been heard and understood
    • communication is more effective
    • decisions are free of any confusions from dyslexia/ SpLD.
  • Potential possibilities:
    • time, energy and resources are conserved by being effectively used in the first place.
Close

This route is about understanding the general-learning needs of dyslexic/ SpLD students.  It includes some of the techniques that can be incorporated into general teaching.


Print friendly version


Mind map of the route

A mind map of suggestions for subject teachers.

Verbal version of the route

The route covers:

  • understanding students’ learning needs
  • reflecting on your own style of presentation 
  • techniques and skills to teach deliberately and overtly
  • helping an individual student with a problem
  • further understanding of dyslexia/ SpLD

Annotated reading list

In Book 1  and Book 2  the reader, ‘you’, is a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  For anyone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person, these books include ideas you can explore with the person you are alongside.

In Book 3  and Book 4  the reader, ‘you’ is someone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  The reader may or may not be also dyslexic/ SpLD.

Templates suggested for this route can be found here (table 3)

Use the ideas in Collating Information click to keep track of what you read. 


Understanding learners’ needs

Major Precaution, §3 in Useful Preface

Example: Learning to Spell ‘Schizophrenia’, Book 1  p183

the initial stage of learning anything new can determine whether the subject is learnt correctly or gets learnt with persistent dyslexic/ SpLD problems; the example box contains persistent dyslexic/ SpLD problem

A Model of Learning, Book 1  p178-187

take note of the importance of the input stage and the feedback loop and the strong possibility that rote learning is counterproductive and that subliminal learning will not happen

Episodic Buffer (capacity and chunking, Book 1  p112 and p128

Figures 2.3 and 2.4, in Dyslexia, Book 4  p105

Chunking, Book 1  p154

working-memory capacity is a problem for dyslexic/ SpLDs, but it can be increased significantly and relatively easily

Thinking Preferences, Book 1  p192-251

use the dark blue boxes of techniques to find styles of thinking that are useful for learners; make sure you cater for a variety of thinking preferences in your teaching methods; enabling students to use their best thinking preferences will produce more chunking and increase working-memory capacity

Misunderstandings in Dialogue, Book 3  p113-118

being aware of possible disconnections helps to keep communication free of them

Emotional Hi-jacking, Book 1  p260-262 and Cardiac Coherence, Book 1  p266

mind and brain function can be impaired by emotional states and knowing how to limit the effects is important

General Issues about Teaching, Book 3  p87-94

a variety of issues that can affect dyslexic/ SpLD students’ ability to learn; Summary: Influences on Dyslexic/ SpLD People’s Learning p93


Techniques and skills to teach and include:

Techniques to Assist Using Your Mind, Book 1  p151-171

Cognition, Awareness, Book 1  p172-177

Elements of Skilled Thinking, Book 3  p169 -174

these skills and techniques need to be taught deliberately and overtly to dyslexic/ SpLD students; it is unlikely that they will be acquired subliminally while learning other subjects

Summary: Check-list of Skills, Processes, Mind Techniques etc, Book 3  p220

a useful list of skills and techniques, most of which are good practice for all students


To help an individual student with a specific problem in learning

Chapters 4–12, Book 3

these chapters deal with specific stages of learning; scan them to find the section that deals with the problem any particular student needs help with

Individual, Personal Profile of Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p64

Regime for Managing Your Dyslexia/ SpLD, Book 1  p71-73

does your student have either and have you been given them?


Further understanding of dyslexia/ SpLD

Insight: Park Paths and Pruning Neurons, in Context of Useful Preface ; read the two paragraphs before the insight box, which may mean turning back a page

it is very important to understand the persistence of dyslexia/ SpLD

Addendum: A Role for Neurons, Book 1  p365-377

an hypothesis that answers outstanding questions about dyslexia/ SpLD

No Cure, Please Start Early, Book 4  p42-79

a discussion of the persistence of dyslexia/ SpLD beyond the early stages of learning

What Goes Wrong, Book 4  p86-138

descriptions of dyslexia, dyspraxia, AD(H)D and dyscalculia and the characteristic problems

Good Performance but No Learning, Book 4  p174-175

good looking work can be handed-in but the intended learning hasn’t happened


Reflect on your style and preferences

Different ways to Read, §4 in Useful Preface

the reading style are indicative of different styles of processing; which styles do you use and how easily

Thinking Preferences, Book 1  p192-251

use the dark blue boxes of techniques to reflect on the ways that you like to learn and process information and consider how you accommodate any differences with your students

Options for Thinking Preferences, in Book 1  p197-251

Template E1: List of Options for Thinking Preferences on the website

which options do you use easily? are there any you ignore for yourself and forget to value when others use them?


The Indirect Communication route will also be helpful for preparing materials.


Template H5: Check-list for General Teaching is worth using to reflect on your understanding and any further questions you may have.


Outcomes:

  • Skills and knowledge:
    • you understand the needs of dyslexic/ SpLD students
    • you teach learning and processing skills deliberately and overtly
    • you can cater for dyslexic/ SpLD students in the way you teach
    • you are more aware of your style of teaching.
  • Benefits:
    • other students benefit from the teaching that suits the dyslexic/ SpLD ones
  • Potential possibilities:
    • a whole school approach is adopted to the benefit of students and staff.
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This route covers attitudes and approaches for working with young children.  It is relevant to assessment and research.


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Flow diagram of the route

A flow chart for the route dealing with teaching younger children.

Verbal version of the route

The route about teaching younger children covers:

  • consideration of the child(ren)
  • skills and techniques to teach
  • dyslexia/ SpLD issues
  • everyday life issues that children may gradually face.

Annotated reading list

In Book 1  and Book 2  the reader, ‘you’, is a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  For anyone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person, these books include ideas you can explore with the person you are alongside.

In Book 3  and Book 4  the reader, ‘you’ is someone alongside a dyslexic/ SpLD person.  The reader may or may not be also dyslexic/ SpLD.

Templates suggested for this route can be found here (table 3)


Use the ideas in Collating Information click to keep track of what you read. 


Teaching approaches

Finding Out How Your Pupil Thinks Well and What Motivates Him, Book 4  p165-168

Objective Observation, §2.7 in Appendix 3: Key concepts

objective observation is key to seeing and listening to what a child is telling you through how they respond to your teaching

Where to Start, Book 3  p144

you have to find out what will catch the interest of the child and so enable them to learn

Misunderstandings in Dialogue, Book 3  p113-118

be aware of the many different ways ideas can be internalised; ask how the child is thinking

Major Precaution, §3 in Useful Preface

it is so important to avoid the beginnings of learning being confused by the effects of dyslexia/ SpLD

Adaptations for Children, Book 4  p145-153, 158-174, 179-189

sections of the chapter relevant to supporting an individual child

Adaptations for Children, Book 4  p176-190

sections of the chapter relevant to a whole school approach


Skills beyond basic literacy

Techniques to Assist Using Your Mind, Book 1  p151-171

Cognition, Awareness, Book 1  p172- 177

Comprehension, Book 3  p162-166,

comprehension can be aided by knowing the structure of the ideas and by active processing

Elements of Skilled Thinking, Book 3  p169-174

the earlier these skills are taught, the more skilled children will be with their thinking


Dyslexic/ SpLD issues

Insight: Park Paths and Pruning Neurons, in Context of Useful Preface ; read the two paragraphs before the insight box, which may mean turning back a page

an analogy for the development of dyslexia/ SpLD showing the importance of the early stages of learning

Addendum: A Role for Neurons, Book 1  p365-377

a hypothesis that answers outstanding questions about dyslexia/ SpLD

What Goes Wrong, Book 4  p86-138

this chapter looks at description, behaviours and experiences of dyslexia. dyspraxia, AD(H)D and dyscalculia

No Cure, Please Start Early, Book 4  p42-79

the impact of dyslexia/ SpLD in adult life when the problems have not been recognised and addressed in childhood

Organisation and Everyday Life with Dyslexia and other SpLDs, Book 2

it is worth scanning this book for ideas about areas that children might encounter as they become more in charge of their own lives


The Indirect Communication route will also be helpful for preparing materials.


The most useful check-lists for anyone using this route are Template H2: Check-list about the General Background, Template H4: Check-list for Direct Support and Template H5: Check-list for General Teaching.

Researchers and assessors can also use Template H1: Check-list for Researchers and Assessors.


Outcomes:

  • Skills and knowledge:
    • objective observation: why it is important and how to use it
    • understanding and addressing he individual needs of dyslexic/ SpLD learners
    • readiness to teach thinking skills
    • recognition that dyslexia/ SpLD have a wide impact beyond learning.
  • Benefits:
    • children learn well
    • less class disruption from dissatisfied learners.
  • Potential possibilities:
    • the behaviours associated with dyslexia/ SpLD do not have a limiting affect on children’s learning and everyday life
    • ‘at risk’ children avoid developing most dyslexic/ SpLD difficulties in their learning
    • confident children who know how they learn best and can deliberately switch to their best learning whenever they need to.
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