The History of Africa

The Quest for Eternal Harmony

Second Edition

Student Resources: Part VII

Click on the tabs below to view a Further Reading list for Part VII, and additional resources for each of the chapters in this section of the book.

Further Reading

The time for consolidation African Union Anthem. Retrieved 26 November 2012.

African Union. Accra Declaration, Assembly of the Union at its 9th Ordinary session in Accra, Ghana, 1–3 July 2007. Retrieved 30 January 2014.

African Union. African Union Member States. Retrieved 30 January 2014.

African Union. "Decision on the Report of the Executive Council on the Audit of the Union and the Report of the Ministerial Committee on the Union Government, Doc. Assembly/Au/8(X)" (PDF). Retrieved 26 November 2012.

African Union Summit (2012). Inauguration of the new African Union Conference Center. Directorate of Information and Communication. African Union Commission (28 January 2012). Press release No 13 / 18th AU Summit : Study on an African Union Government: Towards a United States of Africa, 2006. See also, Decision on the Union Government, Doc. Assembly/AU/2(VII). Retrieved 30 January 2014.

el-Dakhakhni, F. (2013). AU grants Palestine observer status. Egypt Independent. Retrieved 30 January 2014.

Embassy of Serbia in Ethiopia. Bilateral Relations. Retrieved 30 January 2014. Haiti–Diplomacy: Haiti becomes a member of the African Union. Haiti News, The haitian people's voice. Retrieved 26 November 2012.

International Relations and Cooperation. Republic of South Africa. The Role of the Regional Economic Communities (RECs) as the Building Blocks of the African Union prepared by the South African Department of Foreign Affairs.Retrieved 26 November 2012. Kazakhstan was granted an observer status in the African Union. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Kazakstan. Retrieved 30 January 2014.

Mazama, A. (2012). Africa in the 21st Century: Towards a New Future. New York, NY: Routledge.

Mbeki, T. (9 July 2002). "Launch of the African Union, Address by the Chairperson of the AU, President Thabo Mbeki". ABSA Stadium, Durban, South Africa: Retrieved 8February 2009.

Minister of Foreign Affairs of Latvia. Latvia becomes observer to African Union. Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Latvia. 14 November 2013. Retrieved 30 January 2014.

Republic of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Press Release Regarding The Participation Of H.e. Mr. Bekir Bozdağ, Deputy Prime Minister Of The Republic Of Turkey, In The 18th Ordinary Session Of The Assembly Of The African Union". Retrieved 30 January 2014.

Sudan Tribune. African Union demands end to military strikes on Libya, skips Paris meeting. 19 March 2011. Archived from the original on 21 March 2011. Retrieved 21 March 2011

Chapter 14


  1. Gamal Abdel Nasser Website
  2. Sir Dawda Kairaba Jawara. Encyclopaedia Britannica
  3. Leopold Senghor Dies at 95; Senegal’s Poet of Negritude. New York Times
  4. Patricia Lumumba: The Most Important Assassination of the 20th Century. The Guardian
  5. Nigerian Civil War (1967-1970).
  6. Biafra: Thirty Years On. BBC News Africa
  7. Who Said Gaddafi Had to Go? London Review of Books
  8. Genocide in Rwanda. United Human Rights Council
  9. Africana Age: Negritude. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
  10. Negritude. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy
  11. Zimbabwe African People’s Unions Website
  12. Zimbabwe African National Union Patriotic Front Website
  13. Sudan Peoples’ Liberation Movement Website
  14. Sudan Peoples’ Liberation Movement. Sudan Tribune


  1. Dafur and the Crisis of Governance in Sudan. Cornell University Africana Library.
  2. Patrice Lumumba, 50 Years Later: Remembering the U.S.-Backed Assassination of Congo’s First Democratically-Elected Leader (Clip). Democracy Now
  3. Fela Anikulapo-Kuti and Egypt 80: Live at the Zenith, Paris in 1984 (Clip). Fela Kuti.
  4. John Garang: A Conversation on Sudan (Excerpt). NPR.
  5. Arab Racism in the Sudan: The Untold Story. W4W Productions


  1. President of Rwanda, Paul Kagame at 2009 World Economic Forum on Africa © World Economic Forum/ CC-BY-SA-2.0


  1. Patrice Lumumba’s Last Letter, 1960
  2. “40+ Years Later…The War Hasn’t Ended.” Philip U. Effiong

Chapter 15


  1. Cheikh Anta Diop Public Lecture. Council for the Development of Social Science Research in Africa
  2. The Mourid Brotherhood.
  3. Senegal’s Mourides: Islam’s Mystical Entrepreneurs. BBC News Africa
  4. African Union Official Website
  5. Africa and the Arab Spring: Raising Citizens’ Democratic Expectations.
  6. What the Arab Spring Can Learn from Sub-saharan Africa. Open Democracy
  7. A Technical Body of the African Union. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD)
  8. Special Summit of the African Union on HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria. African Union
  9. AIDS: How South Africa is Beating the Epidemic. The Christian Science Monitor
  10. Senegalese President Abdoulaye Wade’s Rise and Rule. BBC News Africa
  11. Profile: Abdoulaye Wade. Aljazeera
  12. Kony 2012: What’s the Real Story? The Guardian


  1. Touba: Documentary Film Trailer
  2. 50 Years of African Unity: The State of the Union and the Prospects for a United Africa. W4W Productions
  3. The Arab Spring: A Year of Revolution. NPR (Excerpt)
  4. Nelson Mandela Death: A Look at South Africa’s First Black President. New York Times
  5. Nelson Mandela’s Obituary Read By His Grandson. CBS News
  6. Wole Soyinka’s Tribute Poem to Mandela, “No! He Said.” SaharaTV


  1. Celebrating Success: Africa’s Voice Over 50 Years. United Nations Economic Commission for Africa
  2. African Union Handbook 2014
  3. Africa and the Arab Spring: A New Era of Democratic Expectations. Africa Center for Strategic Studies
  4. Michael Sidibe, Executive Director of UNAIDS: New York Forum for Africa Speech
  5. OMEGA Plan for Africa, H.E. Mr. Abdoulaye Wade, President of the Republic of Senegal. Southern Africa Region Poverty Network
  6. Nelson Mandela is an Ancestor: Personal Statement by Dr. Molefi Kete Asante
    Document 15.6