Image Gallery

Below you will find a gallery of over 300 images from the book, with corresponding captions for reference.

Figure 1.1 The Griffin family sings and dances in the overblown title sequence of Family Guy.
Figure 1.2 The Simpsons share a moment of family togetherness after Marge is released from prison for the “crime” of letting her children play unsupervised.
Table 1.1 Prime - Time Schedule
Figure 2.1 Internet-­distributed television services such as Netflix display viewing options very differently from the linear schedule listings (as seen in Table 1.1). This image from Netflix features information about the show Unbreakable Kimmie Schmidt as well as other personalized suggestions from its library of shows.
Figure 3.1 The opening shot of Raiders of the Lost Ark begins the film in the middle of the action.
Figure 3.2 Raiders of the Lost Ark: Belloq serves as the antagonist to Indy’s protagonist.
Figure 3.3 The cause–­effect narrative chain.
Figure 3.4 The climax of Raiders of the Lost Ark brings the narrative conflict to a peak.
Figure 3.5 Raiders of the Lost Ark: Storing the Ark in a huge warehouse is part of the film’s narrative closure.
Figure 3.6 The rise and fall of the narrative action is highly conventionalized in classical film.
Figure 3.7 In the exposition of a Friends episode, Rachel asks Joey for key narrative information, which he cannot provide.
Figure 3.8 More Friends exposition: A secondary storyline develops between Monica and Chandler.
Figure 3.9 Friends: Ross looks guilty during the instant before a commercial break . . .
Figure 3.10 . . . and everyone stares at him during the instant right after it.
Figure 3.11 Friends: The final shot before the end credits opens the possibility of a union between Joey and Janice.
Figure 3.12 In the linear-­TV series, narrative structure must accommodate commercial interruptions and allow for a repeatable narrative problematic.
Figure 3.13 The opening shot of an All My Children episode begins the program in the middle of the action; J.R. eavesdrops on two characters.
Figure 3.14 All My Children: Kendall is framed in a tight close-­up just before a commercial break. She has been asked what she will do about her controversial pregnancy . . .
Figure 3.15 . . . and after the break she avoids providing a full answer.
Figure 3.16 All My Children: The last shot of this episode provides no narrative resolution as Babe plots further schemes.
Figure 3.17 In the linear-­TV serial, narrative structure is based on a continuing story with no foreseeable resolution and an exposition lost in the past.
Figure 3.18 In the augmented reality game, Pokémon Go, game characters appear over real-­life settings.
Figure 4.1 In the opening shots of Mad Men, the audience is introduced to Don Draper.
Figure 4.2 Don’s appearance and costuming set the time period and hint at his character.
Figure 4.3 Props also help to set up Don’s character.
Figure 4.4 The title sequence of Gilmore Girls reacquaints us with Lorelei . . .
Figure 4.5 . . . and her daughter Rory.
Figure 4.6 At the heart of the show is the mother–­daughter relationship, which is emphasized in this shot . . .
Figure 4.7 . . . and is continued in a shot that shows them in one of the program’s most familiar settings, Luke’s Diner.
Figure 4.8 Farrah Fawcett’s hair (and implications of “blondness” and “sexuality”) was a major feature of Charlie’s Angels.
Figure 4.9 50 Cent’s appearance conveys masculine sexuality in the Candy Shop music video.
Figure 4.10 In U.S. culture, Roseanne’s physique connotes a woman who excels at mothering but is sexually neutral.
Figure 4.11 The setting of Sanford and Son contributes to building its characters.
Figure 4.12 Bart Simpson’s skateboard is an objective correlative of his reckless character.
Figure 4.13 Heavy shadows contribute to the mood of an ER scene . . .
Figure 4.14 . . . and can also signify the mood of the characters in the scene.
Figure 4.15 The Delsarte system claims there is a strict vocabulary of gesture.
Figure 4.16 Loretta Devine gestures broadly, forcing the camera operators of The Carmichael Show to struggle to keep her hands in frame.
Figure 4.17 Jim Parsons’s body posture and gesturing help construct the constrained, rigid character of Sheldon Cooper in The Big Bang Theory.
Figure 4.18 The postures of Kunal Nayyar (Rajesh) and Simon Helberg (Howard) suggest more relaxed personas.
Figure 4.19 Differences among characters are also seen in their movements.
Figure 4.20 A Streetcar Named Desire, the play and then the film, introduced the Method acting of Marlon Brando and others to the American public.
Figure 4.21 Rod Steiger brought Method acting to television in a production of Marty that was broadcast live in 1953.
Figure 4.22 Vaudeville performers often spoke directly to the audience, as illustrated by this silent film of the Gonzalez Brothers.
Figure 4.23 George Burns simultaneously addresses a studio audience and the viewer of The George Burns and Gracie Allen Show. He comments on the episode’s story . . .
Figure 4.24 . . . sometimes breaking character in the middle of the show to acknowledge the audience.
Figure 4.25 Malcolm speaks directly to the Malcolm in the Middle viewer, while his brother sleeps behind him.
Figure 4.26 A music video by The Replacements defeats viewer expectations by refusing to show the faces of band members.
Figure 4.27 The promotion of film actors as stars begins with Florence Lawrence and deceptive rumors of her death.
Figure 4.28 Tina Fey appears in a 1995 Mutual Savings Bank commercial.
Figure 4.29 Fey’s work on Saturday Night Live’s “Weekend Update” helped to establish her television credentials.
Figure 4.30 Sarah Palin and Tina Fey have an uncanny resemblance to one another.
Figure 4.31 Fey’s impersonation of Palin on SNL brought her national attention during the 2008 election.
Figure 4.32 Fey shows a more glamorous image on Late Show With David Letterman.
Figure 5.1 Abdominal muscles offer “evidence” of the effectiveness of the Bowflex Max Trainer exercise device.
Figure 5.2 A TelePrompTer displays news copy directly in front of the lens.
Figure 5.3 What newscasters see when they look into a TelePrompTer.
Figure 5.4 An audience member enters the world of television in The Price Is Right.
Figure 5.5 A social actor competes on The Price Is Right.
Figure 5.6 Drew Carey indirectly addresses the television viewer when he speaks to a contestant on The Price Is Right.
Figure 5.7 Captain Keith Colburn speaks in a pseudomonologue in The Deadliest Catch.
Figure 5.8 A police officer drives and narrates events in Cops.
Figure 5.9 Behind the scenes in The Real World, a camera operator “observes” his “subjects.”
Figure 5.10 A scene from American Chopper is recorded . . .
Figure 5.11 . . . resulting in this shot when the episode is broadcast.
Figure 5.12 Tiny cameras record a conversation in Taxicab Confessions. The driver knows they’re there, but the passenger does not.
Figure 5.13 The Daily Show pokes fun at the conventions of news reporting, with Stephen Colbert standing in front of a video image of himself.
Figure 5.14 The Colbert Report satirizes news reporting.
Figure 5.15 CBS’s coverage of a Balkan War incident includes decaying corpses that are not shown in NBC’s reporting of the same incident.
Figure 5.16 CBS’s story ends with Muslim fighters on the literal high ground . . .
Figure 5.17 . . . while NBC’s coverage concludes with birds on a nonfunctional runway.
Figure 5.18 Opening credits for an evening newscast on WVTM, an NBC affiliate in Birmingham, Alabama, which leads to . . .
Figure 5.19 . . . a shot of the anchors, Brittany Decker and Lisa Crane, in a split screen with meteorologist Harmony Mendoza.
Figure 5.20 A telecast of a World Series game features an ad for Sprint behind home plate . . .
Figure 5.21 . . . that does not appear in the replay of the same pitch. It was added using green-­screen technology.
Figure 5.22 World Series statistics sponsored by State Farm Insurance.
Figure 5.23 A computer-­generated graphic visualizes the territory needed for a first down.
Figure 5.24 A Who Wants to Be a Millionaire contestant calls her husband for help with a question. The graphic shows they have 24 seconds remaining.
Figure 5.25 A sound man is injured on Cops.
Figure 5.26 The Office mimics a documentary style by “interviewing” actor Steve Carell . . .
Figure 5.27 . . . and shooting as if they were spying on the actors.
Figure 6.1 Depeche Mode’s “Just Can’t Get Enough” accompanies a Gap commercial: “Everybody in leather.”
Figure 6.2 Dancers dressed in khaki pants gleefully connect with one another in a Gap commercial.
Figure 6.3 David Rufkaur (right) and Dick Maugg perform as Frank Bartles and Ed Jaymes, respectively, the fictional creators of Bartles & Jaymes wine coolers.
Figure 6.4 Victoria’s Secret addresses its female viewers, claiming this is a bra “you’ll want to live in every day, all season long.”
Figure 6.5 Noxzema Medicated Shave relies on metaphoric sex for its impact.
Figure 6.6 “Take it off. Take it all off.”
Figure 6.7 Kim Kardashian sensually eats a Carl’s Jr. salad.
Figure 6.8 Neil Patrick Harris offers to “flip the meat” of the Grill Master, toying with a gay subtext without making it explicit.
Figure 6.9 Apple Computer’s introduction of the Mac in 1984 relied on imagery drawn from the novel 1984: enslaved workers . . .
Figure 6.10 . . . and a Big Brother figure on a video screen (meant to represent Apple’s rival, IBM) . . .
Figure 6.11 . . . which is smashed by a young woman wielding a sledgehammer.
Figure 6.12 Strike: Sergei Eisenstein intercuts a bull being slaughtered with . . .
Figure 6.13 . . . workers being attacked by police—­generating a visual metaphor of workers = cattle.
Figure 6.14 An Audi S5 Sportback accelerates down a horse racetrack, intercut with shots of . . .
Figure 6.15 . . . a horse on the same track as the narrator talks about the strengths of the famous racehorse Secretariat.
Figure 6.16 X-ray technicians examine film of a horse with a large heart, illustrating what Secretariat’s might have looked like.
Figure 6.17 A Carvana customer enters a utopia of song and dance.
Figure 6.18 Ad man Rosser Reeves invented the “tension headache” . . .
Figure 6.19 . . . which his client Anacin—­and only Anacin—­could remedy.
Figure 6.20 A Rogaine user looks directly at the camera as he presents his testimonial.
Figure 6.21 Nonhuman figures such as the Pillsbury Doughboy . . .
Figure 6.22 . . . and Speedy Alka-­Seltzer often pitch products.
Figure 6.23 An Acura commercial breaks up the composition with frames within the television frame.
Figure 6.24 A Marshall’s/T.J. Maxx commercial uses imbalanced composition to snare the viewer.
Figure 6.25 Lyrica’s logo and warning statement are the only parts of the image in focus.
Figure 6.26 A predominantly black-­and-­white Reebok commercial presents the shoes in color
Figure 6.27 Smirnoff vodka: An excessively low-­angle shot of a guitar player.
Figure 6.28 A wide-­angle lens distorts the hood of a Chevrolet car, making it appear wider than in reality.
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Figure 6.37 Aleve: The fine print disclaims what the image proclaims. What appears to be the testimonial of a real person is actually an “actor portrayal.”
Figure 6.38 An animated pixie appears on top of a photograph of a Philco refrigerator.
Figure 6.39 Shading creates a primitive three-­dimensional effect . . .
Figure 6.40 . . . which became much more elaborate in the era of computer-­generated graphics. Even soap operas such as As the World Turns feature text virtually flying through space . . .
Figure 6.41 . . . nearly colliding with this world of images . . .
Figure 6.42 . . . and seeming to careen toward the viewer, as if the camera could move into the letters.
Figure 6.43 A CGI rabbit is almost indistinguishable from a photograph of one in this Travelers commercial.
Figure 6.44 Schick Tracer razor: A man shaving his face morphs into . . .
Figure 6.45 . . . a man of a different race shaving his face.
Figure 6.46 Ikea: Digitally generated T-shirts behave like birds and fly home to a boy’s bedroom.
Figure 6.47 In reflexive fashion, the Energizer Bunny spoofs a commercial for a nonexistent nose-­spray product.
Figure 6.48 A Dior J’adore perfume commercial features a digitally re-­animated celebrity, Marilyn Monroe, who died over 50 years ago.
Figure 7.1 Mark Cherry’s script for the Desperate Housewives pilot indicates setting and dialogue in a strict format.
Figure 7.2 During the planning of a television program, a storyboard may indicate the framing and composition of individual shots.
Figure 7.3 Northern Exposure: A match cut starts with Maggie beginning to sit down . . .
Figure 7.4 . . . and then continuing to sit (due to a continuity error, she has lost the dishrag that was on her shoulder) . . .
Figure 7.5 . . . settling into a medium close-­up. The change in camera angle helps to make the continuity error less noticeable to the viewer.
Figure 8.1 The setting of Bada Bing! signifies the unsavory, hyper-­masculine nature of characters in The Sopranos.
Figure 8.2 A scene from Citizen Kane reveals the set’s ceiling, which was quite unusual in 1941. . .
Figure 8.3 . . . and in 2007 Mad Men used the same technique to highlight its fluorescent light grid.
Figure 8.4 A diagram of the Frasier living room, as illustrated by . . .
Figure 8.5 . . . a view toward the front door . . .
Figure 8.6 . . . and a view toward Daphne’s bedroom.
Figure 8.7 Studio setup for programs with studio audiences.
Figure 8.8 Studio setup for live-­on-­tape programs without an audience.
Figure 8.9 Bob Eubanks at the podium of The New Newlywed Game.
Figure 8.10 Stephen Colbert, behind a conventional desk, interviews Kumail Nanjiani on The Late Show.
Figure 8.11 On the set of the CBS Evening News, anchor Anthony Mason is dwarfed by enormous video displays, one of which purports to show a newsroom.
Figure 8.12 Contestants and the host stand behind the iconic wheel on the set of Wheel of Fortune.
Figure 8.13 Letters are revealed as part of the game play on Wheel of Fortune.
Figure 8.14 The lighting grid above the set is revealed in The Price Is Right . . .
Figure 8.15 . . . and Who Wants to Be a Millionaire.
Figure 8.16 Stephen Colbert emerges from behind the desk to perform the monologue on The Late Show.
Figure 8.17 Noticeably sweaty reporter Kris van Cleave’s position at the site of a news event lends credibility to his report about a heat wave in Phoenix. His attire is notably less formal than the anchor’s.
Figure 8.18 The imagery of Miami Vice’s opening credits draws on the city’s reputation for exoticism . . .
Figure 8.19 . . . sexuality . . .
Figure 8.20 . . . and wealth.
Figure 8.21 The nature of a character can be conveyed through an Armani suit (Sonny Crockett on Miami Vice) . . .
Figure 8.22 . . . a trench coat (Columbo on Columbo: Ashes to Ashes) . . .
Figure 8.23 . . . jewelry (Mr. T on The A-Team) . . .
Figure 8.24 . . . or a snow parka (Kenny on South Park).
Figure 8.25 Eerie underlighting of Darla in Buffy the Vampire Slayer.
Figure 8.26 Backlighting silhouettes the actors and adds to the mystery of CSI: Miami.
Figure 8.27 Three-­point lighting: key light, fill light, and back light.
Figure 8.28 Steven DiCasa, co-­founder of Rethink Films, is illuminated with a key light only—­no fill or back lights. (Used with permission.)
Figure 8.29 A second light fills in most, but not all, of the shadows cast by the key light. (Used with permission.)
Figure 8.30 DiCasa is illuminated with all three lights. (Used with permission.)
Figure 8.31 High-­key lighting in a nighttime scene in The Dick Van Dyke Show. Note the shadow cast by the lamp shade.
Figure 8.32 Low-­key lighting in the music video Only You.
Figure 8.33 The lighting in Rembrandt van Rijn’s The Nightwatch is a prime example of chiaroscuro.
Figure 8.34 Buffy the Vampire Slayer: Buffy’s face is half in darkness, and shadows from Venetian blinds cross her chest as she talks to Angel . . .
Figure 8.35 . . . who is similarly lit.
Figure 8.36 Hard light may illuminate scenes in both non-­narrative (Cops) . . .
Figure 8.37 . . . and narrative (Buffy the Vampire Slayer) programs.
Figure 8.38 A scene from Young Sheldon is blocked in deep space, but shallow focus. Tam (foreground) tries to convince Sheldon to come to a party while behind him, out of focus, his sister, Missy, eagerly agrees.
Figure 8.39 When Sheldon exits the frame, the focus shifts, or pulls, from him back to her.
Figure 9.1 The physics of focal length.
Figure 9.2 A wide-­angle focal length emphasizes the distance between the bench’s armrests . . .
Figure 9.3 . . . as can be seen when contrasted with a telephoto shot of the same scene. Now the armrests appear closer together.
Figure 9.4 Linear perspective in Renaissance paintings such as Christ Handing the Keys to St. Peter became the basis for the modern norm of camera lenses.
Figure 9.5 To achieve multiple focal lengths, early television cameras were equipped with several nonzooming lenses on a turret.
Figure 9.6 A wide-­angle shot of a sculpture of a dove stands outside a blacksmith’s shop.
Figure 9.7 The difference between zooming in . . .
Figure 9.8 . . . and tracking in can be seen by looking for the thermometer behind the sculpture. In the tracking shot, the bird’s head conceals more of the thermometer, but we see more above and below it than in the zoom-­in shot.
Figure 9.9 Depth of field is the range in front of and behind the distance at which the lens is focused. In this diagram, the focus is set at 10 feet, and the depth of field extends from 8 to 14 feet.
Figure 9.10 CSI: Crime Scene Investigation: A reassembled vase is sharply in focus and a book and lab technician (Wendy) behind it are out of focus until . . .
Figure 9.11 . . . director Nathan Hope pulls focus past the book to Wendy, leaving the vase out of focus in the foreground.
Figure 9.12 In deep focus and deep space, Peggy spies on Don in Mad Men.
Figure 9.13 The Blair Witch Project uses low-­quality images to suggest that this fiction film is a documentary—­as is indicated by the washed-­out facial features.
Figure 9.14 The viewer can see many details in this high-­definition image from Bones . . .
Figure 9.15 . . . that are lost in this (simulated) standard-­definition version of the same image.
Figure 9.16 A Netflix-­delivered image from Stranger Things is heavily compressed, which causes it to degrade into small blocks (simulated).
Figure 9.16 CSI shifts from an image recorded on high-­quality 35mm film to . . .
Figure 9.16 . . . low-­quality video, suggesting that we are seeing what a character is recording.
Figure 9.17 The abstract appearance of the low-­definition image from AFV authenticates it as a home video.
Figure 9.18 Weeds contains examples of extreme long shots (XLS) . . .
Figure 9.19 . . . long shots (LS) . . .
Figure 9.20 . . . medium long shots (MLS) . . .
Figure 9.21 . . . medium shots (MS)—as in this two shot . . .
Figure 9.22 . . . medium close-­ups (MCU) . . .
Figure 9.23 . . . close-­ups (CU) . . .
Figure 9.24 . . . and extreme close-­ups (XCU).
Figure 9.25 Extreme close-­ups from The Sopranos . . .
Figure 9.26 . . . and Malcolm in the Middle.
Figure 9.27 A low-­angle shot of IRS Agent Dollard in Fargo positions him as a strong figure. (Note slight letterboxing—­discussed later—­here and in figure 9.30.)
Figure 9.28 Fargo: An extreme high-­angle, overhead shot of a man makes him look small and obscures his identity from the viewer.
Figure 9.29 Low angles do not always make characters look large and powerful. Walter and Todd are seen from the inside of a car trunk, staring down at a corpse, in a low-angle shot from Breaking Bad.
Figure 9.30 Desi Arnaz talks to the audience on the original set of I Love Lucy.
Figure 9.31 The AFV camera begins craning up from the floor . . .
Figure 9.32 . . . coming to rest on host Tom Bergeron.
Figure 9.33 A drone shot begins on a shopping center sign . . .
Figure 9.34 . . . and then pedestals straight into the sky, hovering 50 feet above the ground.
Figure 9.35 An operator readies his Steadicam.
Figure 9.36 The most common aspect ratios in television and theatrical film.
Figure 9.37 During the process of shooting He Said, She Said, an anamorphic lens squeezed Kevin Bacon and Elizabeth Perkins . . .
Figure 9.38 . . . but when the film was projected in a theater they were expanded to their normal widths.
Figure 9.39 Masked widescreen (1.85:1) achieves a wider frame by embedding itself within the older ratio of 1.33:1.
Figure 9.40 Using letterboxing, all of the wide, anamorphic image of He Said, She Said is preserved but shrunk to fit a narrower frame—­resulting in black masking at the top and bottom.
Figure 9.41 Letterboxing is used to alter the shape of the frame in the music video Lean On by Major Lazer and DJ Snake, featuring MØ.
Figure 9.42 The original, SD composition of a Simpsons’ gag based on Dalí’s painting The Persistence of Memory retains many of the visual elements of the original.
Figure 9.43 The HD composition of the same shot zooms in to the center of the image and chops off parts of the top and bottom.
Figure 9.44 Showrunner David Simon deman­ded that The Wire be shown on HBO in the SD, 1.33 aspect ratio.
Figure 9.45 When The Wire was remastered, it was widened to the HD, 1.78 aspect ratio by adding visual elements to the sides—­such as the face of the man talking to Wallace.
Figure 9.46 Viewing Dawson’s Creek on an incorrectly set widescreen television monitor can lead to distortion—­making actor James Van Der Beek appear too wide.
Figure 9.47 A pillar-­boxed view of Dawson’s Creek inserts black bars on the sides and returns the actor to his normal size, even on a widescreen monitor.
Figure 9.48 Home video that was shot in vertical orientation by a cell phone is inserted into a wider, high-­definition frame via a pillar box with blurred images on each side.
Figure 9.49 Via blue-­screen chroma key technology, the Weather Channel inserts a forecaster (rear) into a weather map (foreground monitor).
Figure 9.50
Figure 9.51
Figure 10.1 A nonlinear editing suite at the Center for Public Television and Radio, the University of Alabama.
Figure 10.2 A cooking show is edited in Adobe Premiere, a widely used nonlinear editor. The screen is divided into four “panels”: the source monitor (upper left), the program monitor (upper right), the bin (lower left), and the timeline (lower right).
Figure 10.3 A listing of a film’s resources—­principally, video and audio clips—­is displayed in Premiere’s bin.
Figure 10.4 The order of shots and audio segments, their lengths, and the transitions among them are set in Premiere’s timeline.
Figure 10.5 In a conversation scene, cameras A and B remain on one side of the axis of action in order to preserve the 180° rule. Camera X breaks the rule.
Figure 10.6 A long shot establishes a scene’s axis of action for the 180° rule. The man looks right and the woman looks left.
Figure 10.7 The camera observes the 180° rule when closing in on the man.
Figure 10.8 The 180° rule is broken in the woman’s close-­up and thus confuses screen direction (she looks to the right when she previously looked left).
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Figure 10.24 In a two-­person scene from Grey’s Anatomy, the cameras are placed in positions A, B, C, and D—using shot-­reverse shot to acquire close-­ups and medium close-­ups. Camera positions E and F are not used.
Figure 10.25 Black-­ish: An objective, eyeline, match cut uses Jack and Diane’s glance as a cue to cut to the person they are looking at . . .
Figure 10.26 . . . which is Rainbow. The camera is not placed where the kids are sitting, which would have created a subjective shot.
Figure 10.27 Black-­ish: Dre angrily looks toward . . .
Figure 10.28 . . . a woman who has stolen a parking space from him. The camera “looks” from Dre’s perspective as she returns his gaze and makes an obscene gesture.
Figure 10.29 Breathless: A jump cut is created by cutting from Patricia riding in a car with her hands in her lap to . . .
Figure 10.30 . . . her looking in a mirror, from the same camera position. There is a noticeable gap in the action as we do not see her raise the mirror.
Figure 10.31 Homicide: Detective Frank Pembleton chews out a rookie. His tirade is interrupted with a jump cut to . . .
Figure 10.32 . . . a similarly framed shot, which emphasizes the gap in action.
Figure 10.33 A continuity error in the multiple-­camera production That 70’s Show. The actor on the left’s hand is at his side . . .
Figure 10.34 . . . and is suddenly in his pocket in the next shot.
Figure 10.35 Days of Our Lives: Will hides his face in disbelief, having just learned that Susan is not his real mother. She continues to deny the deception and is clearly delusional.
Figure 10.36 Susan’s boyfriend, Roger, confirms the deception to Will and tries unsuccessfully to reason with her.
Figure 10.37 While Roger was speaking, Susan has covered her ears and Will has removed his hand from his face.
Figure 10.38 As the World Turns: A shot begins with a tight framing of a fork cutting into a piece of cheesecake.
Figure 10.39 The camera operator loses the fork as Katie raises it to her lips . . .
Figure 10.40 . . . and catches up with her as she eats.
Figure 10.41 A long shot establishes the characters of How I Met Your Mother in their favorite bar and sets up an axis of action.
Figure 10.42 A close-­up of Lily preserves the 180° rule.
Figure 10.43 A later close-­up breaks the 180° rule by crossing the axis of action established in the long shot.
Figure 11.1 A digital audio workstation (Pro Tools) separates sound into separate tracks.
Figure 11.2 An enlarged waveform shows the changing volume of human speech.
Figure 11.3 An ad card promotes music used in an episode of One Tree Hill.
Figure 11.4 Workers in a Dodge commercial from the 1950s are urged by a narrator to “Turn her out, Henry! . . . ”
Figure 11.5 “. . . Turn her out, Joe! We’ll put her together and watch her go!”
Figure 11.6 A mismatch of sound and image perspective in Ugly Betty: We hear Ignacio as if he were close to us, but the camera views him from far away.
Figure 11.7 A waveform is broken into individual samples (shown as dots here) in the digitizing process.
Figure 11.8 A microphone’s pickup pattern indicates where it is most sensitive to sound.
Figure 11.9 A lavaliere mike is barely noticeable on Jimmy Fallon’s tie.
Figure 11.10 Kevin Hart is close-­miked on The Breakfast Club, a radio show originating on WWPR-FM—as can be seen when the show appears on its YouTube channel.
Figure 11.11 Damages: We see Katie in the present day, but we hear dialogue from five years prior.
Figure 11.12 We see Katie in a flashback to the past, but we hear dialogue from the present day.
Figure 13.1 The openness of the CSI crime lab is suggested via its mise-­en-­scene.
Figure 13.2 A high-­angle, handheld shot from House is more “artistic” than necessary to convey basic narrative information.
Figure 13.3 A stop sign, with dimensions marked on it that indicate Federal Highway Administration requirements.
Figure 13.4 The Nike company’s trademarked “swoosh.”
Figure 13.5 A boy stands on the grass in a suburban backyard.
Figure 13.6 The Bernie Mac Show: Bernie addresses “America” from his easy chair.
Figure 13.7 The opening shot of a 1959 Chevrolet car commercial tracks back from a close-­up of a license plate . . .
Figure 13.8 . . . to reveal a girl looking out the rear window.
Figure 13.9 The order of shots in a sequence greatly affects their meaning. In this commercial a shot of a salesman praising the car cuts to . . .
Figure 13.10 . . . a couple considering a car purchase, with the husband looking off to the left at the car and the wife looking at the husband . . .
Figure 13.11 . . . followed by their son rubbing his nose impishly.
Figure 13.12 Rearranging the order of the shots alters their meaning. If we start with the same shot of the salesman, but follow it with . . .
Figure 13.13 . . . the nose-­rubbing boy and then . . .
Figure 13.14 . . . the couple, it suggests that the father is looking at the boy instead of the car.
Figure 14.1 The author as seen through the Game of Thrones Snapchat lens. HBO invited fans to create White Walker versions of themselves in anticipation of the eighth season premiere.
Figure 14.2 Variety has covered show-­business news since 1905, when the only entertainment industries were vaudeville, circuses, the stage, and a barely existing movie business.
Figure 14.3 Ally McBeal’s short skirts led Time magazine to ask, “Is Feminism Dead?”
Figure 14.4 Anita Hill testifies against Clarence Thomas in his Supreme Court confirmation hearings.
Figure 14.5 A woman in men’s suspenders and cap . . .
Figure 14.6 . . . and women with drawn-­on mustaches in male attire transgress the boundaries between genders in Madonna’s video for “Justify My Love.”’