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Dub and Ragga-Dancehall

Many of the prominent producer/engineers of the Jamaican reggae recordings were also DJs. Some began to record alternate versions of the songs, referring to them as "doubles," or "dubs." These so-called dub recordings were instrumental versions of the same song, excluding the lead vocals, which allowed DJs the freedom to add their own toasts (i.e., lyrics). The dub versions usually appeared as the B-side of a reggae record. With digital technology more readily available by the mid-1980s, DJs and producers began creating music that was largely void of melodic instruments, emphasizing instead the creative use of drum machines and digital samplers. They labeled their riddims with marketable names, such as sleng teng, and promoted the image of a raggamuffin, a term used to suggest a street-smart attitude (similar to rude in the 1960s). Ragga became the new label for the music of the dancehall DJs.